How to expand your vineyard without spending too much? The oldest method - the propagation of grapes by layering will allow the vines to root without separating them from the mother bush, but this way you can grow a relatively small number of rooted shoots from one mother plant.
One of the time-tested ways to propagate a culture is to cover the vine with soil. If it is still green, then the procedure is carried out at the end of June, if it is already lignified - in the spring. Sprinkle in such a way that the top remains above the ground. In the fall, each of the sprouts is separated from the neighbors, placed in the markets and stored in a special room until spring. For the northern regions, this option is practically not suitable, since the roots will form at the point of shoot growth, and such roots often die from frost.
Dusting the vine with soil has an original modified version, in which at the end of June a bag with a special soil mixture of soil and peat is attached to the base of the shoot. By the fall, roots are formed in this place and you can use a full-fledged grape seedling for its intended purpose. However, this option also has the same drawback - young roots will be sensitive to negative temperatures.
To obtain high-quality material in significant quantities, you can use the layering method:
In the cold northern regions, the most widespread method of propagation of grapes by cuttings. The material is harvested in the fall and stored in a box with wet sand to protect it from drying out. In March, they begin to germinate in glass jars, and after the appearance of the first roots, they are planted in bags with soil. May is the time to plant young seedlings in a permanent place.
Grafting of branches is usually used to replace some varieties with others. Sowing with seeds does not justify itself, since out of a thousand seedlings only one or two are of high quality, the rest grow worse than the original.
The most popular and effective method is the propagation of grapes with winter or summer cuttings. It is based on the natural ability of the culture to fully recover from just one shoot, preserving all the properties of the mother vine. This method is used in the industrial cultivation of these plants, they know how to propagate grapes and amateur gardeners. Since, grown from a cuttings, it has its own, and not a grafted root system, it is often called self-rooted.
If you decide to learn from your own experience how to grow grapes from a cuttings, you will have to take care of the preparation of the material in advance, even during the autumn pruning of grape bushes. When pruning unnecessary branches, pay attention to the shoots bearing fruit in the summer, the diameter of which is 7-10 mm. As a cutting, a shoot is suitable, which is cut into a replacement knot, or the middle part of the fruit arrow.
The most popular and effective way is the propagation of grapes by cuttings in winter or summer.
How the cutting is prepared:
Cuttings lying in storage should be inspected 1-2 times during the winter and turned over to the other side.
Video about grape propagation by cuttings
A couple of weeks before planting in the ground for germination, at the beginning of February, the cuttings must be taken out, their freshness must be checked by pressing on the transverse cut with a pruner. If a few drops of water come out, it means that the stalk is well preserved, no drops have appeared - the twig is dry, moisture oozes from the branch without pressure - the stalk is rotten. Make a fresh cross-section and pay attention to its color: it should be light green, there should be no black blotches.
In order for the propagation of grapes to be successful, you need to soak those cuttings in warm water that are best preserved over the winter. Soaking lasts two days with a daily water change, after which it is recommended to place the branches in a root formation stimulator for a day.
Before propagating grapes with cuttings, you need to germinate them at home in plastic cups or bottles.
In order for the propagation of grapes to be successful, you need to soak those cuttings in warm water that are best preserved over the winter.
Option 1. Germination in glasses:
Every day or every two days, you will need to water the seedlings with warm water. And when the roots are visible at the walls of the glass, and 4 leaves grow on the branch, the bottle can be removed.
Option 2. Germination in a bottle:
The glass can be removed when the shoot ceases to fit in it
Place the bottle with the handle with a peephole from the window. The glass can be removed when the shoot ceases to fit in it. Watering should be done from below through a tray, pouring a little water into it and placing a bottle with a seedling there for 15 minutes.
You can germinate and green cuttingscut at the very beginning of flowering. To do this, you need shoots that are obtained by pinching and spring breaking of branches. Place the cut shoots immediately in a bucket filled with clean water. Take out each shoot, cut into cuttings with two buds and place them back in the water.
You can also germinate green cuttings cut at the very beginning of flowering.
For cuttings, make the lower cut oblique under the lower node. Cutting off the top above the knot, leave a stump of 2-3 cm. Ready green cuttings are planted in a box or in separate plastic cups. It is necessary to create a slight darkening for them, which is removed after the cuttings have noticeably moved into growth.
Video about the propagation of grapes with green cuttings
All summer cuttings will grow, and in the fall they will need to be placed in the cellar for storage. In the spring, transplant the seedlings into the ground and grow in a bucket during the summer. Saplings obtained from cuttings are planted in the vineyard in mid-September.
Layers are rooted lower shoots, which are placed in a special way in the ground without disconnecting from the parent bush until the seedling ripens. Depending on the age of the shoot and the nuances of laying the layering grooves, the following methods are distinguished:
The chronology of actions during the propagation of grapes by layering obeys the following algorithm:
Did you know that no more than two layers are formed from one bush, and the layer can be done in the middle of summer, if you remove the leaves from the shoot before laying it in the trench.
The maiden (wild) view is a liana, widely used in decorating country buildings: a gazebo, a fence, a wall of a house, etc. Several methods are used to reproduce it:
Fun fact: it can take two seasons for good rooting.
Regardless of the chosen breeding method for girlish grapes, you should take care of the preparation of the soil in advance:
When planting seedlings, a distance of one meter is observed between two adjacent specimens.
To begin with, choose the location of the future vineyard, taking into account the following recommendations:
The order of planting depends on the properties of the soil in which the grapes will grow. So, for black soil and clay, they adhere to the following technology:
If the soil is sandy, then the pit is deepened to 1 meter, forming the first layer of 20 cm from the clay soil. You will also have to water more often and more abundantly - 4 buckets of water once a week.If the seedlings have a lignified trunk, then they begin to plant them, taking into account the weather conditions, at the end of April. Green vegetative specimens are best planted in June. When choosing the autumn period (from October to frost), young plants should be carefully covered with peat, needles or sawdust.
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Most often, garden strawberries are propagated by rooting a mustache or with the help of purchased seedlings. But sometimes it happens that you buy bushes of one variety on the market, but in fact a completely different one grows. How to protect yourself from such a misunderstanding and grow the strawberry variety that you really want to see on your site? The answer is simple - buy strawberry seeds, then the result will be guaranteed.
We will begin to consider the methods of grafting with green spring-summer grafting carried out in cleavage, and this is the type I recommend to everyone, and especially to beginners.
If a few simple rules are followed, the survival rate of this type of vaccination will exceed 90%. The term "green grafting" means that at least one of the grafted components, usually the rootstock, is a green shoot. Thus, you can graft rootstock seedlings in a school, re-graft a whole bush or one of its sleeves.
Green grafting can be done by copulation, budding, in the shoot incision, etc., but if one of the types of grafting can be called "a way for beginners", then it is precisely the green cleavage grafting.
We are talking about re-grafting the entire bush, that is, about the complete replacement of its above-ground part. This operation is carried out in cases where the bush is severely damaged by frost, perennial stems and sleeves have died, or you just want to replace the variety with another. For a green grafting, we definitely need to get green shoots, into which we will graft, therefore, cutting down an old bush "on a black head", it is worthwhile to carefully look whether there are nodes with dormant buds on the trunk, from which shoots can break through in the spring. As a rule, all the bushes give out a lot of overgrown shoots in the spring when cut on a black head, but if you have doubts, perhaps the stock was deliberately "blinded" when planting (the buds were cut out), in which case it is worth cutting off the old aerial part by 20 30cm above the soil level, so that living dormant buds are guaranteed on the stem. Additionally, it is worth digging a bole around to a depth of twenty centimeters, so that it would be easier for shoots from the underground part to germinate to the surface. If you plan to replace the variety, then it is better to cut the bush in the fall. If a bush damaged by frost is re-grafted, then the aboveground part is removed in the spring.
A powerful root system in spring will quickly "push" shoots from dormant buds into growth, there can be a lot of them, our task is to choose 2-4 conveniently located. Consider how the sleeves will subsequently hide, in which direction it is easier to bend them, from these considerations, choose shoots that you will graft later. Remove excess growth in a timely manner, all energy should be directed to the development of 2-4 shoots needed for grafting. Tie them to a trellis or some kind of temporary support, young shoots are very fragile and break off easily. When the shoots reach a length of 50-60 cm, you can start re-grafting.
Such grafting is done if you want to see the fruiting of a new variety, but are not ready to remove the entire old bush for this. In this case, one sleeve can be re-grafted. The picture shows a fan bush of grapes, let's say that our goal is to re-graft the left sleeve.For vaccination in this case, we need only a couple of shoots, you should not leave more, we will remove everything else on the sleeve. We remove the fruit vine and cut the replacement knot so that 2-3 eyes remain on it. Other trimming options are possible, this is not fundamentally important, the main task is to get a couple of good green shoots at the end of the sleeve.
When the shoots start to grow, leave only two shoots conveniently located for grafting at the end of the sleeve and fix them so that they will not be broken by the wind. There should not be more growth points on the re-grafted sleeve. It is very important that shoots do not form below the grafting! Check it out regularly.
On the remaining sleeves, we reduce the load of shoots by 40-50% per year of vaccination, this measure will significantly increase the chances of success of our event. As in the case of grafting the entire bush, wait until the shoots reach a length of about 50 cm, then start preparing the scion.
Grafting a rootstock seedling at school is fundamentally no different from the described options, we will also leave 2 shoots on the seedling in the spring, the rest of the shoots must be removed in a timely manner.
If the grafting is carried out in the spring or at the beginning of June, then woody cuttings harvested in the fall are used as a scion, if we graft later, green scions can be used. Storing grape cuttings intended for grafting is no different from storing them for rooting. A day or two before grafting, we take the cuttings out of storage, update the slices and put them in water for soaking (be sure to update both slices!), As well as in preparation for rooting. Be sure to check the cuttings for the quality of preservation before grafting so that the whole operation is not in vain. They should be green and juicy when cut. With prolonged storage, the cambium layer (between bark and wood) may begin to die off, if you find that the cambium is brown, the cuttings are not suitable for grafting.
After soaking, we proceed to the operation.
This grafting is sometimes called "black to green", as the scion is lignified, and the rootstock is vegetative. I will show the process by the example of grafting rootstock seedlings, if you re-graft an adult bush or its sleeve, then the rootstock shoots will most likely be much thicker. Grafting is carried out in the lower part of the shoot, which by this time has become quite tough, the core and wood have taken shape, the tissues are no longer herbaceous. The photo shows a rootstock seedling, the shoots of which still need to be prepared.
Very carefully, with a sharp knife, remove all stepsons, leaves, eyes of the rootstock, cut the shoots to the desired length with a pruner. In the photo, the shoot, from which everything superfluous has already been cut off, the shoot is shortened to three internodes.
Now let's prepare the scion stalk. Ideally, if the diameter of the rootstock and the scion are the same, it is acceptable if the scion is thinner than the rootstock, it is more difficult to make a high-quality graft if the scion is thicker than the rootstock. The upper cut is made 1.5-2 cm above the peephole, the lower one is about 5-6 cm under the peephole. We sharpen an equilateral wedge with a grafting knife, the length of which is approximately two to three times longer than the diameter of the cutting, usually about 2 cm.
I highly recommend orienting the wedge relative to the peephole exactly as shown in the photo. If the diameters of the rootstock and scion are the same, this is not too important, but if they are different, then my advice will be very useful.
In the literature, there is an urgent recommendation to make a cut in one motion, do not pay attention, in practice it is almost impossible. Prune as many times as needed. It is important that the cut does not dry out in the process and is as smooth as possible. Green vaccinations are good for beginners because they forgive some mistakes. If, due to a lack of skill, you cannot make a cut quickly, keep a glass of clean water close at hand and moisten the cutting periodically.
After preparing the wedge, we make a split on the rootstock shoot. Here you can orient the splitting as you like, the shoot is oval in cross-section and you can use this, choose the diameter for splitting that is as close as possible to the diameter of the scion cutting.
Carefully insert the graft into the cleft. It is important that the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock coincide, at least from the side of the scion eye. If the diameters of the rootstock shoot and the scion are very different, orient the cutting so that the coincidence is from the side of the scion eye.
The figure shows how to combine the cuts in the case when the rootstock shoot is thicker than the scion cuttings.
Pay attention to how much sap is released from the rootstock shoot. Ideally, a drop should be collected on a cut for literally 10-15 seconds, but this is not always the case. Lack of moisture in the soil or varietal characteristics of the rootstock can cause the sap to be released very slowly or almost not. In this case, the winding of the vaccination should be carried out as follows:
If the sap is actively released, it is not necessary to wrap the upper part of the scion over the eye. In any case, such a winding will not get any worse.
For wrapping, I recommend using only food grade plastic stretch wrap. The winding is applied in several layers with tension, from bottom to top. If you did everything correctly, then with abundant release of the rootstock sap, literally 5-10 minutes after inoculation, the scion will be saturated and the sap will stand out on its upper cut. Leakage of sap through the winding is not permitted!
The experience of many years has shown that cling film is the best material for grafting grapes. I will prepare a separate review of materials and tools for vaccination, and will tell you more about the reasons for this choice, for now, just take my word for it.
It is convenient to wrap with a roller 1.5-2 cm wide, cut with a knife from the following roles:
Let us now consider the option when the scion is thicker than the rootstock shoot. I must say right away that it is better to avoid such combinations, but sometimes you still have to do them. In this case, the sides of the wedge on the grafting are not sharpened parallel to each other, but at an acute angle. The expectation is that the fusion will be on the side of the eye, and the opposite side will be tightened with callus.
This is how the grafting joint turned out. On the side of the ocellus, the cambial layers coincided.
Again, the shown combination of rootstock with scion is far from the best, this is an extreme option. Nevertheless, there is a chance for such a vaccination. This is how it will normally look after 7-10 days:
In June and July, green cuttings cut from vegetative shoots can be used as a scion. Such grafts are called green-to-green. The wedge on the handle is performed in the same way, it is even easier to cut it:
On a green scion, a stepson can start growing, if he is in the leaf axil, or a wintering bud. It makes sense to leave the stepson only if he is small, and his leaves do not evaporate a lot of moisture. If the stepson is large, then he is cut out completely, in which case the wintering bud will grow. The difficulty of grafting with a green graft is that such grafts can quickly dry out under the scorching sun, in this case, full wrapping of the graft with a film is more than justified. To maintain the life of the scion, it is advisable to leave a leaf or part of it on it. On the other hand, moisture quickly evaporates through the sheet, which contributes to desiccation. In very hot weather, it makes sense to shade the vaccinations made with a green scion. The photo shows the grafting, where the main axillary leaf is removed, but there is a small leaf on the stepson.
In the next photo, the scion does not have a stepson, but part of the main sheet is left, its area is reduced by about three times.
Grafts made with green scion cuttings are generally as reliable and easily successful as those made with lignified cuttings, but they usually start growing later. This is due to the fact that the wintering eye needs more time to wake up. His natural task is to go into winter and bloom next year, but we make him do it this year. To re-graft a separate sleeve of a bush, one should prefer grafting with a lignified scion, or with a green graft leaving the stepson, such scions start growing earlier.
As already mentioned, with a high-quality operation, the kidney will begin to bloom in 1-2 weeks. Vaccination care in the first couple of months consists in the periodic removal of the rootstock growth below the grafting joint, and the timely garter of the shoots. In drought, it is desirable to provide additional watering. Wrapping the scion stalk completely with a grafting film, I refused to shade the grafts, this is not necessary, except when grafting with a green stalk in the heat at + 35C.
Approximately 30 days after the vaccinations, you need to check if there are any constrictions of the joints with the winding tape:
If constrictions are found, we cut the film in several places with an ordinary razor blade, this is done along the handle. Shallow wounds won't do much harm.
In 50-60 days after inoculation, the film can be completely removed.
Let's see what I ended up with. This is how the grafted grape seedlings looked two months after grafting:
This is how the joints of grafts made with thick scions into the split of a thin rootstock shoot are tightened:
Here, during the time the winding was not removed, quite strong constrictions were obtained:
Some grafts were done with two-eyed cuttings because I doubted their quality. And not in vain. Only one of the two buds was alive.
This is probably all there is to know about cleft vaccination. There are several other ways that I also sometimes use, and we will consider them in the following publications, but if circumstances allow grafting into the cleavage of a green rootstock shoot, then this is exactly what I do, since I do not see any disadvantages due to which it was worth would give up the simplest and most reliable way of grafting grapes.
The best precursors for spice - potatoes, cucumbers and legumes. You cannot plant basil for several years in a row in one place. This will lead to massive damage to plants by Fusarium.
The nicest neighbors are tomatoes... They contribute to the correct development of culture and repel pests.
2 months after germination, the basil is ready to be placed in the garden... In the southern regions, seedlings are planted in the ground in early May in the Moscow region, in the Urals, in Western Siberia - in early June.
The further north the region and the higher the risk of frost, the later the basil is transplanted.... With the threat of a sharp cold snap, the beds are covered with agril or film.
If there are a lot of seedlings, the strongest, most developed plants are selected.... It is best to plant basil not in grooves, but in a square-nested way - in holes at a distance of 15–20 cm from each other with row spacing of 30–40 cm.
Basil soil requires light with drainage... On stagnant and heavy soils, the culture does not develop well, grows slowly. She loves open sunny areas, but grows well under young fruit trees without a spreading crown (apple trees, pears, cherries).
Everyone wants to have grapes in their yard, but many are simply afraid to deal with such a royal plant. In fact, the care, planting and all the points associated with the grape bush are greatly exaggerated. Grapes are the same as all plants - they love the sun, care, require care and love.
Therefore, it is better not to be afraid, but to try to plant and grow. The grape itself is already special. One of the few centenarians on Earth. It is already mentioned during Ancient Egypt and Greece, which is impressive. Grape berries have served people at all times as a cure for weakness, raising mood, increasing strength and obtaining beauty.
Already in our time, they were able to explain the characteristics of the fruits. Dry or fresh, like wine or juice, grapes are beneficial for their properties. The amount of vitamins that are in the berries can replace several medications at the same time. For example, used to strengthen the heart muscle.
The fact that some varieties of grape bush are prescribed for people with diabetes also speaks of magical properties.
Grapes are the same as all plants - they love the sun, care, require care and love
Grapes are loved by both adults and children. It is used as a delicacy (special varieties) for the holidays and for baking. They are also used in salads and hot dishes. Varieties are distinguished not only by shape and color, but also by name and scope. If the variety is table, then it is simply eaten and enjoyed.
Universal - application in all areas of human activity. As well as special varieties for the preparation of wines and as a decorative decoration.
Do you still doubt that the vine must be on your site? You can continue to talk about all the virtues of grapes, but if you succeed in convincing, then let's move on to the appearance of a shrub in your garden.
Many amateur gardeners claim that you can plant grapes at any time, except in winter. And some manage to grow young grapes in their mini-garden in winter. But our task is to help and explain to beginners how and when to plant grapes with cuttings and whether it can be done in the fall.
Many amateur gardeners claim that you can plant grapes at any time, except for winter.
First you need to choose a variety and make sure what it includes. If this variety is too thermophilic, then such a procedure as planting in autumn with cuttings is canceled.
Wild grapes can be planted at any time, as they are accustomed to Spartan conditions and in most cases do not have the same problems as some hybrids. When planting wild grapes, you only need to choose a place, and then it will be able to develop itself.
But it is used only to decorate gazebos, fences and the surrounding area. It also contributes to pollination, and if you want to create a new variety. So it's better to stock up on a couple of bushes just in case.
In order to plant grapes with cuttings in the fall, it is better to choose a frost-resistant variety. So, you will be calmer when the winter cold and blizzards are outside the windows.
Now let's move on to the moment of landing itself.
Propagation of grapes by cuttings consists of several stages. And the first of them is a responsible approach to the selection of sprouts, which will later turn into a beautiful plant.
To make this happen, first determine the variety that suits you in terms of taste from the frost-resistant ones presented.Next, make sure that the area where you live is suitable for the plant.
If you are not a breeder, then you should not try to plant grapes using seeds.
For a beginner, it is better to plant grapes by cutting in the fall, that is, vegetatively. For this method, determine the type and method of vegetation:
For a beginner, it is better to plant grapes by cutting in the fall, i.e. vegetatively
It is recommended to plant it by a vegetative method by all growers, since all the features and complex of biological substances of the bush that became the progenitor will be preserved. It's all about excellent regeneration.
At the same time, roots, stems, cuttings, and inflorescence legs are capable of recovery and healing.
Even severe frosts with proper cover and without it (provided that the variety can withstand temperatures of minus 21 to 35 degrees) will not be able to harm the grapes, and partially or completely frostbitten ones often recover.
A stalk with a bud is suitable for planting material, and for this it must be rooted. Having put down the roots, the seedlings are ready for planting. If the shoot has been chosen correctly, then rooting will be successful. To do this, the vine is carefully selected and examined:
Make sure the seedlings are healthy. To do this, look at the slice, it should be white. If the shoot is one year old, it is bright green. It should not be dry: the existing eyes sit firmly on the handle and not crumble.
The preparation of the shoot must be correct, otherwise its death cannot be avoided.
After two days, the stalk must be placed in a growth stimulator for one day. Only then carry out the procedure.
By cutting or buying grape cuttings in the fall, you can keep them until spring. This will be helped by a special technology, in which the processes are kept in the basement, before that they have been processed and tied into bundles.
By cutting or buying grape cuttings in the fall, you can save them until spring.
Autumn planting of grape seedlings is convenient because any soil will be suitable. But for a better development, do additional testing and tillage. The depth of the dug hole plays an important role in planting. Check waterloggedness and groundwater availability.
Waterlogging always leads to the development of pathogenic microbes and decay of the roots of the bush in spring or summer. Groundwater should not be closer than 2 meters. But there is an opportunity to fix such a problem - to regularly loosen the soil for oxygen access.
When the seedlings are already planted, do not forget about the need to mulch the soil. Such an event will definitely have a beneficial effect on growth and harvest in the future.
It is difficult to find an ideal soil, therefore, before planting cuttings, the recommendations will be as follows - add the following substances to the soil:
Drainage must be present, as the shrub grows better on rocky soil.
The scion must be covered with a plastic bottle.
Many gardeners believe that planting grape seedlings in the fall is much better than in the spring. You can't argue here, since everyone has their own priorities before boarding. Again, everyone chooses a method that is convenient for himself personally. Adherents of the spring method can observe the growth of the shrub for several months, but at the same time carry out additional spraying, loosening and watering. When planting grape seedlings in winter, all these moments are skipped, which undoubtedly makes the work of the grower easier.
The entire event takes place in the last week of September and throughout October. Until the first frost. It is advisable not to delay with this, so that the grape cutting can take root. Freezing must not be allowed. Then how to plant grapes in the fall so that the shoot can feel calm and comfortable all winter?
To do this, we carry out preparatory work for wintering:
Since it will soon be cold, it is recommended to cover the planted grapes with peat. It keeps moisture and warmth very well, which gives an advantage to the roots. If there is no peat, then needles or sawdust can be used. Make of them something like a mound, the height of which should not be less than 30 cm.
Now our grapes are under protection, and a wonderful shrub is waiting for you in the spring.
Balsam loves light soil that can quickly become saturated with moisture, but without stagnant water. If it is oversaturated with mineral fertilizers, nitrogen, then this will lead to an abundant build-up of green mass and poor flowering, or the plant will refuse to bloom at all. Therefore, when planting, they use either purchased soil intended for balsams, or they prepare the composition on their own. For him they take two parts of sod land, humus, leaf land, one part of peat and sand.