In Russia, most gardeners and summer residents are engaged in the cultivation of plums. Berries are consumed fresh, used in preservation, making sauces and desserts.
There are different varieties of plums, which differ not only in the color of the fruit, but also in the consistency of the pulp, ripening period, taste and shelf life.
When to plant a plum and what are the subtleties of planting fruit trees in autumn - we will tell you in the article.
Plum seedlings can be squeezed in both spring and fall. In the spring, the tree takes root better, it immediately grows. This makes it possible to track the health of the plant and prevent diseases and pests.
In the fall, the tree actively begins to grow the root system, without being distracted by the growth of branches and leaves. And this is practically the main condition during the period of survival and adaptation of the plum to a new place.
The presence of autumn precipitation provides the plum seedling with the necessary amount of moisture and frees the gardener from additional watering.
But the early onset of cold weather can negatively affect the plum, planted at the wrong time.
The end of the growing season in autumn facilitates easier transplantation and accelerated survival of the plum. And the choice of seedlings in autumn is richer than in spring, since the trees survived the summer and prepared for wintering.
For the timing of planting plums, see the video:
Since gardeners have different opinions regarding the planting season of plum saplings, you should be guided by the landing dates directly by the climate... In the fall, it is customary to plant plums in the southern regions, but northern summer residents prefer not to take risks and plant fruit trees in the spring.
A harsh winter will not allow a weak plant with a young root system to survive, so work should be postponed until warmth.
Gardeners of the central regions of Russia, the Central strip, the Moscow region can start planting plums in the fall, provided that 20-25 days remain before the onset of frost. During this time, the plum will gain a foothold in a new place, have time to take root and get used to the soil, lighting and environmental conditions. Approximate landing time is September.
It is better for summer residents of the Urals and Siberia to postpone planting plums until spring, but if there is no way to save seedlings, you can plant them in August. Southern plant breeders plant plums in October, as the climate allows it.
Some summer residents check the lunar calendar while gardening., because the recommendations of astrologers really have a beneficial effect on the further growth and fruiting of plants and fruit trees.
For favorable and unfavorable days for planting plums in 2021, see the lunar calendar at the link: https://kalendargoda.com/kogda-sazhat-slivy-2021-posadka-lunnyy-kalendar-vysazhivanie
Plum seedlings are recommended to be purchased in specialized nurseries or agricultural stores., since they usually sell high-quality varietal goods there. Moreover, in the store you can get advice on growing of a particular variety, as well as clarify the taste and appearance of the fruit.
Before buying, you need to find out how suitable the selected variety is for the climate and ask questions about the winter hardiness of the crop.
If the plum is brought from a warm region and has not previously been grown in a specific climate, you should refuse to purchase the variety, since it is unlikely to grow and bear fruit as needed.
Examine the seedling carefully:
Among other things, it should be clarified what type of pollination the variety belongs to. If it is cross-pollinated, it will need a pollinator, that is, another plum tree to do this.
For plums, it is better to select an area where the soil is predominantly medium-clay or clayey. If the soil is acidic on the site, wood ash, chalk, dolomite flour, lime weighing up to 300 grams are introduced into the planting pit.
Fertilizing plums during autumn planting:
In the presence of fertile and loose soil, peat, humus, 3 tablespoons of mineral fertilizers are added before planting (potassium sulfate, superphosphate, urea are suitable). Chicken eggshells work well. It is crushed and brought to the bottom of the planting pit.
Plum loves sunny and well-lit areas of the south or southwest side of the garden. If the tree falls into the shade or grows in the shade of other tall trees, it will bear little or no fruit at all.
Plum tree does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater. Therefore, if they rise above the level of 1.5 meters, you should change the place or make an artificial embankment.
The distance between the plum trees should be 3 meters. With this planting, trees do not interfere with each other, at the same time they remain pollinators. Plum trees should not be planted next to tall apple or cherry trees. The shadow from them, and the neighborhood itself, does not always have a beneficial effect on the plum.
Plum grows well near a fence or a house, where there is no wind and draft. With a lack of moisture near the plum, the leaves turn yellow and the fruits become smaller, with an excess, the roots rot and the trunk and fruits crack.
The plum planting pit is usually prepared in advance. If possible, it is better to dig it up six months before work. If this is not possible, the pit can be prepared in 15 days. The planting hole is made 0.7 m in diameter, 0.5 m deep. A peg is placed in the center of the finished hole, to which the seedling will subsequently be tied.
Drainage and nutrient mixture are poured into the bottom of the pit. The longer it is in the hole, the better for the seedling. During planting in the autumn, humus and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the planting pit.
The soil that will be used for planting plums should consist of a surface layer of earth, sand, gravel, humus, peat and mineral fertilizers.
The use of superphosphate, saltpeter, potassium chloride is permissible. In the presence of these components, the first 2-3 years of life, the plum tree can not be fertilized with anything.
Before planting, plum trees are carefully examined for damage. The bark of the tree should be brown, without mechanical and painful damage. The roots are elastic and clean. If the roots are dry, the seedling is placed in a bucket of water for 24 hours, after which the entire system is re-examined, those roots that have grown longer than 25 cm are cut off, tangled and dry ones are removed.
For the best effect, urea is added to the water, a stimulator of root formation. If painful lesions are found, the root is kept in a solution of potassium permanganate.
How to plant a plum:
After preparing the planting pit, the seedling is planted in open ground. The seedling is set next to the peg, the roots are directed down and straightened. The nutrient mixture is carefully poured from above, periodically the mass is compacted.
Do not press the soil hard to avoid damage to the root system. The root collar of the tree should not be buried; it should rise 55 cm above the top level of the soil.
After the seedling is planted, it is watered and tied up. For the first watering, 4 buckets of water are enough.
Planting plums in autumn:
Caring for a plum sapling planted in autumn consists of watering, mulching, loosening and weeding.
Water the tree once every 5 days. If it rains, no watering takes place. Watering is carried out at the root, after which the soil should be loosened to avoid hardening.
To prevent moisture from evaporating quickly, the trunk circle is covered with mulch. It helps to further protect the root system from frost.
Before the onset of cold weather, the plum tree is wrapped with agrofibre or cardboard. This will save you from freezing and will also protect you from rodents. In early spring, the insulation is removed so that the tree does not rot and rot under it from excess moisture and lack of air.
The first pruning of a plum seedling is done in the fall after planting. The main skeletal branch is shortened to one meter in height. Subsequent pruning affects the lateral shoots.
If the planting of the seedling was not organized on time, it is better to postpone the procedure until spring. In this case the seedling is dropped directly in the garden, or placed in a dry and cool dark place. The basement, the temperature in which is kept in the region of 5 degrees Celsius, is quite suitable for storing the seedling for 3-4 months.
In this way, by the way, do many experienced gardeners. When choosing a seedling in the fall, they carry out planting work only in the spring, citing the fact that the choice of planting material in the fall is much better.
Is it possible to plant a plum in October:
Plum trees are planted both in spring and autumn. In the spring, the seedling grows immediately and builds up its green mass. In autumn, the plum strengthens the root system and prepares for winter. But in the spring, a stronger tree already begins to grow actively.
If the plum is planted correctly and is properly cared for, fruiting begins at 4 years of age. When buds appear in the first 2 years, they are removed so that the tree does not waste energy on their flowering and transformation into fruits.
Plum care consists in simple and ordinary procedures: watering, feeding, weeding, loosening, mulching. In the first years of life, care should be provided before cold weather.
Watering the plum seedling is carried out after planting. Before the onset of frost, a young tree is watered every 5-7 days, provided there is no precipitation. If you follow the recommended planting and care recommendations, growing plums does not become difficult and burdensome.
A garden plot or a summer cottage should look aesthetically pleasing - beautiful fruit trees and shrubs serve as an excellent decoration of the territory. If difficulties often arise with apples and pears, then mountain ash is unpretentious. Any gardener will be able to grow trees with red-yellow elegant fruits, the main thing is to comply with planting dates and basic care recommendations.
How to plant rowan in open ground and take care of it, we will consider further.
Sea buckthorn is best planted in the country in the spring, in which case the plant will have time to grow stronger before the onset of cold weather.
But for seedlings with a closed root system, an autumn planting may also be acceptable. Its dates vary from late September to early October. An important condition is a comfortable temperature of +4 degrees.
They plant sea buckthorn after leaf fall, so that the seedling can spend all its energy not on natural processes, but on taking root in a new place.
Sea buckthorn is best planted in spring, then the plant will have time to grow stronger before the onset of cold weather
If the dates for planting the bush were missed, then the seedlings need to be dug into the groundso that they can overwinter for later cultivation. To do this, at the highest point of the site, they dig a groove 50-60 centimeters high, and put the seedlings there.
The crown should lie in a southerly direction, this position will help to avoid sunburn. Then the hole is sent with earth and thoroughly watered.
As soon as the cold comes, the plant is completely buried with soil., leaving only the tips of the branches on the surface. To protect against rodents from above, such a structure is covered with spruce branches.
After the appearance of snow, it is carefully tamped around the seedling to create additional protection. When adding several seedlings at once, root plexus should not be allowed.
Advantages and disadvantages spring and autumn planting of sea buckthorn:
About 250 varieties of plum trees have been bred. If before the plum was considered a southern tree, now zoned hybrids with 100% survival rate have been bred. They give good yields both in the northern latitudes and in the southern regions.
|Region||Name of plum varieties|
|Middle zone of Russia||Hungarian, Ussuri, Renklod, Chinese, Giant, Blue bird, Svetlana, Smolinka|
|Moscow suburbs||Bogatyrskaya, Hungarian Korneevskaya, Volgograd, Mirnaya, Zarechnaya early|
|Ural and Siberia||Pearl of the Urals, Uiskaya, Uralskaya yellow, Kuyashskaya, Shershnevskaya, Chebarkulskaya, Ailinskaya, Uvelskaya, Mikhalchik, Uralsky prunes, Pioneer, Vega, Uralskaya zolotistaya, Pride of the Urals, Chemal's gift, Zolotaya Niva|
|South of the Country||July, Golden Ball, Zarechnaya early, Early, Souvenir of the East, Romain, Renklode, Svetlana, President, Empress|
|Leningrad region||Red ball, Renklod collective farm, Tula black|
Plum Svetlana bred by seaside breeders, tolerates frosts calmly and gives stable yields. Fruits are yellow, round, one weighs 26-28 g. It begins to bloom after May 10. Harvested in August. Sweet taste with sourness, the bone is separated from the pulp. One tree can produce up to 30 kg of plums. The first fruits are harvested at the 5th year of life.
Giant - a fast-growing, high-yielding variety. Fruits appear for 3 years when a two-year-old tree is planted. It has subspecies with burgundy, yellow-orange, purple fruit colors. The pulp is sweet. Harvesting in mid-September, fruits weighing up to 100 g.
Hungarian - prunes are made from this species. Varieties: Italian, Voronezh, Michurinskaya, Belorusskaya. Medium-sized trees reach a height of up to 4 m. The first fruits grow at 6-7 years of age, large, up to 5 cm in length, elliptical in shape. The color is lilac, violet, blue. Harvested at the end of August. Drought-resistant variety, life expectancy 25-30 years.
Pearl of the Urals - winter-hardy plum, drought-resistant, has a high yield. Chinese fruits are 25 g in size and have a firm, sweet flesh. Pearl bears fruit for 4 years of life, 17-19 kg of fruits from each tree.
Early - plums appear on the 3rd year of life. The tree lives for 20 years. Harvest - up to 10 kg per plant. There is a bad harvest every 3 years. The mass of one fruit is 20-30 g, round shape, yellow-orange color with a red barrel. The pulp is yellow, aromatic, sweet with sourness.You may be interested in:
The main disadvantage of this variety is that the plum brings a large harvest, so the branches do not stand up and break, and over time the fruits become smaller.
Plum can grow on any soil, the main condition is fertility and looseness.
It does not tolerate stagnant moisture, therefore, groundwater must lie at a depth of at least 1.5 m. The plum does not react well to the shade, the quality of the fruit drops, the leaves brighten. If the soil is acidic, then it must be calcified with dolomite flour or ash. Before digging, add about 0.8 kg per 1 m². Plum is planted in spring and autumn. In the spring - in April, before the buds bloom, and in the fall - in mid-September, before frost. If you bought a seedling in the fall, then dig it in and cover it with spruce branches, then with snow. In the spring, check for damage and dig up immediately before planting. You need to plant as soon as the buds began to swell. If you miss the moment, then the seedling will take root worse.
Landing sites should be sunny and sheltered from the wind. The young plum sapling should not be shaded by any trees or plants; for this, it must be planted on the south side of the trees. The distance between rows of young plums should be about 3 m, between trees also about 3 m.
Landing pits cooked in the fall, but you can also in the spring a couple of weeks before planting. The depth of the pit is about 50 cm, the diameter is about 70, a straight stick (aka planting stake) is placed in the center, the filling mixture is placed in the hole around the stick. To eliminate the risk of damage to the bark after planting, keep the root collar at a height of 3-5 cm from the ground. Spread out the roots of a small tree and cover with a top layer of soil without fertilization. When you fall asleep, shake the seedling lightly so that there is no void near the ground. When you add soil, then slap it as you fill the hole. Make sure the seedling is planted on the north side of the stick and at a 90 ° angle to the ground. Tie it with something to the stake.
Filling mixture consists of the earth of the upper layers, humus, ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium chloride, river sand, gravel (increases the temperature in the soil layer, due to which the root system begins to function earlier in the spring). Water after planting there should be about 4 buckets per seedling. Mulch the near-trunk circle with humus or peat, and dry soil is also possible.
When figuring out when it is best to transplant plums, in autumn or spring, you need to consider the advantages and disadvantages of both options. The farther south the region, the higher the survival rate.
Advantages of autumn planting:
When planting plants, be sure to take into account the region of residence. Compliance with all recommendations will ensure the desired result.