In the first decade of the month, gardeners finish harvesting root crops. You need to dig up the celery and radish with a shovel or pitchfork. Small roots of celery and parsley can be left in the winter. At the same time, late-ripening white cabbage and Brussels sprouts are harvested. This cabbage can be dug in the basement to extend its consumption.
At the stage of leaf dying off, harvesting of horseradish roots begins. Large rhizomes and their branches are used for processing, and small roots should be left for planting next year. The best planting material for horseradish is considered to be lateral roots 20-25 cm long and 1-1.5 cm thick. The roots must be tied in bunches and dug in trenches, alternating with dry sand. It's time to plant the mint rhizomes. Before planting, furrows are made with a depth of 8-10 cm.In wet ground, pieces of rhizomes with a length of 20-22 cm are laid with a continuous tape.Row spacing is 45-60 cm.After laying, the roots are sprinkled with soil, then a ridge with a height of 10 cm is made over the row with a hoe.
In the second decade of October, leeks are harvested. Then it must be sorted by the diameter of the false leg, tied into bundles and dug in the basement into wet sand. You can transplant celery and parsley root vegetables into window pots or winter greenhouses. It is necessary to ventilate the greenhouses until the temperature drops there to 0 ° C. If the temperature in the basement is above 5 ° C, it must also be ventilated. It's time to remove plant residues after digging out late-ripening crops. It is necessary to complete the incorporation of organic fertilizers, including in areas where seedlings and early green vegetables will be grown. In warm weather, after harvesting late crops, it is advisable to spill the soil with a solution of Baikal EM-1 fertilizer for its recovery, accumulation of available forms of nutrients in it and faster warming up in spring.
In the last decade of the month, you can dig up perennial rhubarb rhizomes for subsequent distillation of vitamin greens from them. In this case, the plants are placed in a box close to each other, then sprinkled with soil on top and watered. After reducing the outside air temperature to 2-3 ° C, you can proceed to winter crops (if needed) carrots, beets, parsley, lettuce, spinach. The seeds can be covered with sand or a previously prepared unfrozen soil mixture with a layer thinner than during spring sowing by 0.5-1 cm, but the seeding rate should be increased by 20-25%. Then it is necessary to mulch podzimny crops with peat or compost with a layer of 2-4 cm.
Greenhouse frames can be stacked next to the greenhouse. Remove the film from film greenhouses, if it is well preserved, wipe it and, twisting it onto round slats, put it in a warm room for winter storage. It is necessary to have time to prepare the soil mixture, boxes, pots for the winter forcing of vegetable crops and growing seedlings. Spinach should be removed before frost. It is recommended to store it in plastic bags at a temperature of -1 ...- 3 ° C.
In the first decade, it is necessary to finish picking apples of late winter varieties, remove all damaged and rotten fruits. Treat fallen leaves with 7% urea solution. This will allow you not to collect them for incineration, but to bury them in the soil.
Remove trapping belts, collect and destroy pests that may be under the flaky bark.
You can prepare shoots from own-rooted cherry and plum plants. To do this, it is necessary to remove a layer of soil near the overgrowth, exposing the skeletal root of the mother plant at a distance of 15-20 cm on both sides of the overgrowth. If there are no fibrous roots on the skeletal root, it is necessary to stimulate their formation by chopping off the skeletal root at a distance of 15-20 cm from the point of attachment of the growth to it from the side farther from the stem of the mother tree.
In the second decade, the beds with rooted cuttings should be sprinkled with peat or dry leaves with a layer of 5-6 cm.
You can remove overgrowth of cherries and plums. To do this, it is better to dig up the offspring to the place of their growth from the root and remove without leaving the hemp. The root must again be carefully covered with soil.
At the end of the month, if you have purchased seedlings, but are going to plant in the spring, then they need to be dug in. To do this, dig a trench 40 cm deep. Make the southern side inclined, put the seedlings in one row at an angle of 450. Bury the roots to the level of the root collar, trample the soil with your foot and water to fill all the voids between the trunks. Cover the dug-in plants with spruce branches to protect them from mice and retain snow. Replace the labels on the seedlings with stronger ones or wrap them in plastic to keep the variety names. It is necessary to lift the branches of young trees and tie the ends to the central conductor.
It is necessary to coat the trunks and forks of skeletal branches with freshly slaked lime or chalk with the addition of copper sulfate, previously dissolved in hot water, to protect the trunks from sunburn. The trunks of fruit trees should be covered with humus, peat, foliage.
It's time to tie the trunks of young trees with spruce branches or roofing felt to protect them from mice to a height of at least 80 cm. Bend the raspberry branches to the ground.
Cover the strawberries with humus or peat without covering the hearts.
If you haven't done so before, feed the honeysuckle. Once every 3-4 years, 8-10 kg of organic matter must be added under it, and it is recommended to add 30-40 g of double superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt annually. The annual application of the last two fertilizers can be replaced by the application of 20-50 g of AVA granular fertilizer once every 2-3 years.
Alexander Zharavin, agronomist, Kirov
In autumn, it becomes noticeably colder at night, but it is still warm during the day. Such an unstable temperature does not allow many garden crops to bear fruit, so it is imperative to carry out autumn work in the country to prepare for winter. Here's a handy reminder of what to do in your garden in the fall. Save and use!
After harvesting, it is necessary to immediately put the soil in the garden and in the garden in order. Autumn tillage increases its fertility, helps to fight pests, diseases, weeds and reduces labor costs. So, what is useful to do in the garden in the fall?
Autumn tillage for the prevention of diseases and pests
The beds must be cleaned of large weeds, dry tops, fruits and other debris. It is best to start the autumn tillage at the same time as harvesting or as soon as possible afterwards. Do not postpone for a long time: spores of pathogenic fungi ripen on rotting plant debris, infecting the soil and preparing for a successful winter. This is facilitated by rain, and in clear weather - fog and night dew.
Very often they write that autumn work in the country is the tops of tomatoes and other plant waste, and signs of infection should not be put into compost, but burned. But this is not necessary: in the thickness of the compost there are no suitable conditions for the development of pathogens, the matured compost is safe for garden plants.
Loosening of the topsoil
Immediately after harvesting plant residues, loosen the beds as early as possible to a depth of 3-4 cm in order to destroy the soil crust.
This must be done before a steady cold snap. Loosening provokes the germination of weed seeds. The more they have time to ascend by the fall, the better. After the autumn digging of the soil, the seedlings will die, this will reduce the work on weeding in the next season.
Autumn digging of soil
Do I need to dig up the soil in the fall? Autumn digging is not useful for all types of soil. On sandy crumbly soil, it does not give a positive effect, but for heavy clay soil it is extremely useful.
Digging the soil in the fall improves the structure of the clay soil. Pores, air voids are formed in it, where oxygen penetrates. It is very important for root respiration and the absorption of nutrients by plants. With a lack of oxygen, nutrients become inaccessible to plants, and the productivity of plants decreases.
Autumn digging of soil in the country reduces the infection of the garden with pests and diseases. It destroys the passages and nests of pests, opens access to cold air. Lumps turned onto the surface freeze better, this contributes to their partial disinfection.
When digging, the number of annual weeds is reduced. Small shoots of weeds easily die after digging, which will make it easier for you to weed next season.
Snow moisture is used rationally. After digging, more snow accumulates on the hilly surface of the garden bed. Moreover, when the snow melts, the water does not flow down the sides, but enters the pores and wells formed after digging and is absorbed deep into the soil. Thus, in the spring, garden vegetables can use the reserves of biologically active snow moisture for growth.
Hurry up to complete the digging before the onset of prolonged rains: when the earth gets wet to a depth of 10 cm or more, it is no longer possible to dig it up, since in this case you will trample the soil, and this will disrupt its structure. As a rule, experienced gardeners try to catch the digging by the beginning of October.
Dig the beds to a depth of about 15-20 cm, turning over the lumps if possible so that the weed shoots are at the bottom. It is not necessary to carefully break up the lumps and level the bed: snow and water will accumulate better on an uneven surface. This is the necessary autumn work in the country.
Manure. Can manure be applied in the fall? If you have nowhere to store and compost a large amount of manure, you can buy it in the fall and put some of it in greenhouses and garden beds right away, and put some in a heap for ripening. It is allowed to introduce fresh manure during the autumn soil preparation for planting cucumbers and other pumpkin crops (zucchini, pumpkin, melon), as well as dill, celery, late cabbage. If there is a lot of straw or sawdust in the manure, in the first year after its application, vegetables require nitrogen fertilization, since coarse organic materials will bind nitrogen when overheated. You will get the maximum return from the introduction of fresh manure in a season, when you can plant the same pumpkin crops, cabbage, greens, beets, radishes on the fertilized places.
Manure usually contains a lot of weed seeds. Therefore, it is convenient to apply it not in spring, but in autumn: most of the weeds will have time to sprout, and you can destroy them by loosening even before planting the main crop. In addition, when applied in autumn during the winter, manure is saturated with moisture, gradually begins to rot and mixes well with the soil.
How to apply compost and manure humus to the soil. Ripe manure and compost can be applied to the soil in both spring and autumn. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. During the autumn application, part of the nutrients is washed out by melt water, but organic materials reach optimal moisture content, and then easily mix with the soil. Therefore, choose the method that is more convenient.
Usually, under raspberries, currants, strawberries, apple trees and other perennial fruit crops, rotted manure and compost are applied during loosening after harvest.Perennial flowers are also fertilized with decomposed organic fertilizers in the fall. In this case, fertilizers can not be mixed with the soil, but laid out like mulch - in winter it will play the role of insulation. It is more convenient to dig up garden beds in the fall only roughly, without breaking lumps, and add humus or compost in the spring for planting vegetables. In order to save money, you can limit yourself to filling with organic fertilizers only holes for planting seedlings and grooves when sowing seeds.
Peat. Low in nutrients, but good as a soil conditioner. Low-lying peat loosens heavy clay soil and increases the moisture holding capacity of sandy soil. Dry peat is poorly wetted and very slowly soaked in water, which makes it sometimes difficult to evenly distribute it in the soil. It is convenient, if there is time, to introduce peat in the fall. If you have poorly cultivated very heavy soil in your garden, this advice will come in handy: add 4-5 liters (half a bucket) of peat per 1 m2 with autumn digging, then in the spring - the same amount of peat or humus and dig it up again. This will make it easier to mix the organic material evenly with the soil, and it will be easier to break up large clumps of clay.
Autumn soil liming: lime, chalk, ash, dolomite flour and other lime additives. Fluff lime is introduced into the soil only in autumn, as it slows down the absorption of phosphorus. To avoid harm to plants, it is necessary that several months pass from application to the beginning of active growing season.
Now, to reduce the acidity of the soil, they often use not lime, but dolomite or limestone flour, chalk, ash. All of these additives can be added to the soil at any time. This is often done in the spring: during a thorough loosening and leveling of ridges, it is easier to distribute a small amount of lime material in the soil. It is advisable to apply ash only in spring - it contains water-soluble nutrients that are lost when washed out by melt water.
Mineral fertilizers. For a more rational consumption of mineral fertilizers in the garden, it is better to apply them in the spring, immediately before sowing or planting vegetables. For perennial crops, it is necessary to apply mineral fertilizers in the fall.
Contrary to popular belief, autumn fertilizers should include not only phosphorus and potassium, but also nitrogen (although in a different proportion compared to summer fertilizers).
After leaf fall, the metabolism of perennial crops slows down, but does not stop completely. Many plants continue to consume nitrogen and store it for vigorous growth in the spring. The assimilation of nitrogen in cold soil is very slow, and the need for it in the spring, especially in fruit trees, is very high, and the spring fertilization cannot cover it.
In the fall, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers can be applied to the personal plot separately, but it is more convenient to use balanced autumn mineral complexes - they are in the assortment of almost every fertilizer manufacturer.
One of the flower crops that needs special attention in October is hyacinths. Their bulbs are planted no later than October 10, when the soil temperature at a depth of 15 centimeters is kept at a level of at least +5 degrees Celsius. Higher soil temperatures negatively affect the quality of plant growth and development. The distance between future flowers is at least 15 centimeters. Each planting hole should have a layer of sand. After planting and watering, the holes are mulched with peat with a layer thickness of up to 5 centimeters.
If no one has previously taken care of the wintering plants on the flower beds, they should be cut to the ground and covered with a layer of compost.
Before stable frosts, it is necessary to have time to prepare the roses - cut, sprinkle and sprinkle the base of the bushes with sawdust.
October rains saturate the earth with moisture. It will help trees survive the winter better, but it can turn both the garden and the vegetable garden into impenetrable swamps. No wonder one of the names of October was "dirty man". The first snow, which may fall in the middle of the month, complements the dampness with winter cold. Therefore, it is worth catching dry and clear days in order to complete the main work in the garden and vegetable garden in October - to clean the site and prepare the plants.
Very little time has passed since the day of the autumnal equinox, and the day is already noticeably waning. In the old days, they used to say: "the day has fallen behind the night - a felt boot has faltered over a stump." It gets dark now early and there is not so much time left for active gardening work.
Gardening in October
By this time, almost the entire crop has already been harvested. It remains to pick the apples of late varieties - the hardest and most "maturing". Until October, you can leave the viburnum - it will just partially lose its bitterness from the first frosts.
When the fruits are removed, and the leaves have thinned significantly, it is convenient to carry out sanitary measures. If you haven't done your sanitary pruning yet, it's time to do it. At the same time, remove the dried and spoiled fruits remaining on the branches - they are useless in the crowns.
Garden work in October
On the beds, you also need to complete the harvest. In the first half of October, late-ripening varieties of white cabbage, cold-resistant root crops are harvested: turnips, rutabagas, radishes, leeks, as well as the remaining greens: parsley can remain in the garden until frost. Also, until the ground is frozen, you need to dig up the horseradish rhizomes.
When the crop is harvested, remove plant residues from the beds and greenhouses - send them to the compost. Dig up the garden in October, mulch the beds. Mulch will allow the soil to mature better by spring, and will itself become a valuable fertilizer, improving its structure and fertility.
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Works in the flower garden in October
As in the vegetable garden, the flower beds need to carry out a comprehensive cleaning. Remove remnants of dried stems and wilting annuals. Prune any perennials that you did not prune in September. Those that are still in bloom - leave for last. Some of them, like chrysanthemums, can even be transplanted into pots and used to decorate your home. By the way, this is a great idea for landscape decoration. If you are still spending time in the country, and the plants in the garden are already covered or harvested for the winter to revive the space, you can use late flowers transplanted into pots. For example, placing them on the steps of the stairs or on the terrace. If it gets completely colder, you bring them into the house, and then you can take them to the city.
Cereals do not need to be cut off at all - in winter, frosty and covered with snow, they greatly decorate the site. Do not neglect other seasonal décor - autumn bouquets and fruit compositions will add imagery to the site and bring an autumn summer cottage atmosphere to a city apartment.
What other gardening work needs to be done in October? - The soil in perennial flower beds also needs to be carefully loosened and mulched. Bulbous plants should also be mulched if you have delayed planting them, and they have little time to take root well before frost. Tulips are still planted from bulbs in early October, as well as hyacinths - they should not be planted too early.
Lily bulbs are prone to sticking and need protection during the October rains.
If you already have an idea of how you want your flower beds next year, many annual flowers can also be sown before winter. Among them are cornflower (Centaurea), snapdragon (Antirrhinum), calendula (Calendula), cosmos (Cosmos), Eschscholzia, Iberis, Alyssum and many other plants that reproduce well by self-seeding.
Roses need to be prepared for shelter for the winter by pruning, depending on the species, and removing non-lignified shoots. Leftover leaves also need to be removed, especially in climbing species. Shrub roses need to be piled high enough - to the place of tillering.
Clematis are pruned depending on whether they bloom on the shoots of the current or last year. The former are cut low enough - up to 50 cm, and sometimes shorter, in the latter, long stems are left for future flowering. They, like the stems of climbing roses, are bent to the ground, additionally securing them with staples, but not pressing them tightly to the soil.
Whitewash, or rather, paint the trees in the fall or early winter. To do this, choose garden paint with the addition of fungicides and a good adhesive base. It will help get rid of pests and pathogens hibernating in cracks in the bark. And at the end of winter - it will protect trees from sunburn.
It is better not to use chalk and water-based whitewash, as they will wash off with the first rain.
Whitewashing in spring is predominantly decorative and does not perform significant protective functions.
Roots of celery, parsley, parsnips, turnips, radishes, radishes, carrots continue to be poured in the beds, pumpkin ripens. All these crops must be removed in October, before the onset of severe frosts, from -5oC. But the late cabbage is harvested after small night frosts, after October 15-20. She will only be softer and sweeter from this. Harvesting should be done in dry weather to keep the vegetables better.
If space permits on the windowsills, then, by all means, dig up the cuttings of parsley, sorrel, mint, lemon balm, basil and transplant them into pots for further distillation of greens. Treat yourself and your loved ones with fresh vitamins and aromatic tea in late autumn and winter.
Collect fresh land in a meadow or forest for growing, replanting seedlings and indoor plants. Sift it and leave it in a garden house, greenhouse, where it will freeze to exclude pests and worms. Such soil will be an excellent addition to store-bought peat mixtures. Just do not take soil under conifers, oak.
We put things in order in the beds
All plant residues, weeds, especially those affected by diseases, must either be transferred to a compost heap and covered with a layer of earth, or they must be used to form warm beds. Some summer residents sprinkle them with lime.
Under all garden perennial crops, and this is the majority of medicinal plants (thyme, sage, monarda, lavender, etc.), humus, compost, which will be both food and mulch, is added.
In October, in most regions of Russia, winter garlic and onion sets are planted on turnips and greens. Previously, a few weeks before planting, the beds are prepared and fertilized with fertilizers so that the soil ripens and settles without deeply drawing the bulbs. At the same time, beds are formed for winter crops of carrots, lettuce, parsley, spinach, beets, dill. Sowing of these crops will be later, in November.
Progress report and plans for the next season
In hot pursuit, it is worth analyzing the successes and mistakes of the past garden season, what worked and what did not work out. Perhaps more attention should be paid to agricultural cultivation techniques, to get a theoretical shoe during the winter months, to listen to the advice of experienced farmers. Sketch out a preliminary planting plan for the new season, taking into account the crop rotation. And, of course, you must definitely praise yourself for the crop grown in such a difficult season, because your crop is the best!