Atrophy: definition and meaning

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Spinal muscular atrophy

L'spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a disease that affects the nerve cells in the anterior horns of the spinal cord from which the nerves to the muscles start and which transmit motor signals (also called motor neurons).

In its most common form, spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive disease, ie it can occur only if the affected person inherits mutations in the gene involved in the disease from both parents. In the event that both parents are carriers, for each conception the probability that the mutation will be transmitted by both to the unborn child, making it affected by SMA, is 25%. There are also some extremely rare forms of SMA that can manifest as a mutant or autosomal dominant form.


In the first half of the eleventh century lHeresy is seen as a kind of infection that infected the faithful. Heretics are considered insane because they read the sacred texts independently, without the mediation of the ecclesiastical world. Heretics have never been anti-Christian: they rejected the ecclesiastical hierarchy and its function of mediation with respect to God.

With the name of ancient heresies phenomena such as the simony (the purchase and sale of ecclesiastical offices) and the nicolaism (the concubinage of clerics). In the first half of the eleventh century, a movement known as pataria whose objectives were the struggle against the marriage of the clergy and against simony. The pataria cannot be considered a heresy because in the first place the creation of a more educated and correct Church was proposed. Reform of the Church: in the eleventh century, the main objective of the reformers was to free the Church from everything that appeared to interfere with its interests and its autonomous functioning. The centrality assumed by the pope caused it Eastern schism in 1054 which determined the birth of the Greek Orthodox Church. Pope Gregory VII gave an important turning point to the reform by arranging that all bishops depend directly on Rome and incardinated the religious life of the faithful within a series of obligatory and controlled sacraments. With the Dictatus papae the absolute superiority of the pope was established. The first heresies were born with the Reformation.

Middle Ages: meaning and chronology

Video: Atrophy -Types and Causes Made Easy. What is atrophy?

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