Adenium: home care, growing from seeds, types and photos


Houseplants Published: January 26, 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:

Botanical description

Adenium (lat.Adenium) belongs to the Kutrovy plant family. The genus includes approximately five plant species. This succulent lives in South and Central Africa.
Indoor adenium - shrubs or small trees, grows up to 35 cm in height in indoor conditions. The trunk is thick. The leaves are velvety and shiny. The flowers are quite large, dark crimson and white.
Adenium has received many names among the people. The most common is Desert rose because of the similarity of flowers to rose flowers.

Briefly about growing

  • Bloom: from April to July and from September to October, but can last more than six months.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • Temperature: during the period of active growth - 25-30 ºC, during the rest period - 12-15 ºC.
  • Watering: only after the substrate has completely dried.
  • Air humidity: increased, especially during active growth.
  • Top dressing: during the growing season, once a month with mineral fertilizers for indoor flowering plants.
  • Rest period: from November to March.
  • Transfer: young plants are transplanted annually, adults - as needed.
  • Substrate: sod land with broken bricks or expanded clay of a large fraction.
  • Reproduction: seeds, cuttings, layering and grafting.
  • Pests: scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites.
  • Diseases: due to drafts, a sudden change in conditions of detention or a sharp drop in temperature, the plant may lose leaves. Adenium is resistant to diseases.
  • Properties: adenium has poisonous juice!

Read more about growing adenium below.

Photo of adenium

Home care for adenium

Lighting

Indoor flower adenium is very photophilous, does not require shading, so it is best to place adenium on the south window. After a cloudy winter, the plant must be allowed to get used to the direct rays so that burns do not appear on the trunk. Also, adenium is shaded if the direct sun shines on it for more than 5 hours a day.

Temperature

To grow adenium in indoor conditions, a certain summer air temperature is needed - from 25 to 30 ° C. It will not be superfluous to expose the adenium houseplant outside in the summer in a place protected from rain. The dormant period for the plant comes along with a decrease in temperature and a decrease in the duration of illumination - at this time the leaves of adenium turn yellow and fall off. In winter, the temperature should not drop below 10 ° C, and the optimum is considered to be from 12 to 15 ° C. Hypothermia of the roots should not be allowed - the plant may die.

Watering adenium

During the care of adenium at home in the summer, they provide regular watering - water immediately after the soil is completely dry. In winter, watered gently and little. If the plant hibernates at a temperature of 15 to 20 ° C, then watering is carried out only after the soil has dried. When wintering in a colder place, watering is either very rare, or completely stops watering. Young specimens are also watered very limitedly. After the spring awakening of the plant, it is advisable to water it for the first time 2-3 weeks after the buds appear and the adenium begins to grow.

Spraying

During active growth, indoor adenium is sprayed with a fine spray. When the plant begins to bloom, you need to spray carefully, making sure that no water gets on the flowers.

Top dressing

Home adenium is fed with fertilizers for indoor plants in spring, summer and early autumn no more than once a month. The concentration of the solution is 1.5-2%.

Pruning

Adenium is pruned only when necessary, do it in the spring. To obtain a tree from adenium, the lateral branches are cut to a third of the length. To obtain a bush, cut off below. The formation of adenium is a long and difficult process, but it leads to good results.

Adenium transplant

Young specimens are transplanted in the spring every year, and adults, if necessary. It is preferable to take the pot light, which protects it from excessive heating; adult specimens are transplanted into small and wide pots. You need to water the plant after some time (4-6 days) after transplanting, which will allow the roots to dry out. The soil mixture is prepared loose - take leafy, turfy land and coarse sand in equal parts, and add a little charcoal. The substrate for older plants is made up with a lot of sod land with the addition of broken bricks. There must be good drainage at the bottom of the pot.

Growing from seeds

With long storage, adenium seeds lose their germination, so you need to make sure that they are fresh. Seeds are sown in late winter - early spring. The soil mixture is prepared from sand, charcoal and vermiculite. Before planting seeds, they are soaked for half an hour in a solution of potassium permanganate, and then for several hours in a warm solution of Zircon. The seeds are not sealed, but sown, after which they are lightly sprinkled with soil. The temperature must be kept at 33-35 ° C - in a week there will be shoots. If the temperature is lower, adenium seeds at home may sprout later or not germinate at all. After emergence, they are illuminated with fluorescent lamps, ventilated regularly and kept at a temperature of at least 18 ° C. When the first two leaves appear in adenium, they gradually begin to be taken care of, as for adult specimens. And after the appearance of two more, they dive into separate pots.

Propagation of adenium by cuttings

It is difficult to propagate apical cuttings - they rot very quickly. Propagated by cuttings in summer or spring - they are cut into pieces of 12-15 cm and dried by treating with charcoal. A mixture of charcoal and sand, perlite or fine expanded clay is suitable for rooting cuttings. Fine charcoal or sand should be poured around the root collar, which will protect the base of the stem from decay. Provides bright lighting and temperatures do not drop below 25 ° C. The soil should not be excessively moist. If done correctly, the cuttings should take root within 4-5 weeks.

Reproduction by layering

The adenium plant is propagated by air layers in May-June. With a sharp knife, a circular incision is made on the shoot (the shoot should be 2 cm in diameter). The incision site is dried and treated with a stimulant for root formation. The incision site is wrapped in sphagnum, then wrapped in opaque cellophane. From time to time, sphagnum needs to be moistened. After about a month, roots should appear, after which you need to separate the layers from the parent and plant in a pot with soil for an adult adenium.

Reproduction by grafting

Adenium can be grafted both on another copy of adenium and on Oleander. With a sharp knife, you need to make cuts in the rootstock and scion, then combine the plants and fasten them (you can use a special spray). The temperature should not drop below 30 ° C, the humidity should be high, and the lighting should be bright. A new plant must be hidden from direct rays and the shoots at the rootstock must be immediately removed.

Virulence

Adenium has a poisonous juice, so after working with the plant, hands should be thoroughly washed with soap. Children and animals should not be allowed to the plant, in order to avoid poisoning. Growing adenium at home requires responsibility.

Diseases and pests of adenium

Adenium leaves turn yellow and fall off. The reason for this is drafts, a sharp change in the conditions habitual to the plant, or too cold air. Correct care.

If the leaves of adenium begin to fall off in the fall, then this is a normal phenomenon - it means that the adenium goes to winter rest.

Pests of adenium. Adenium rarely suffers from pests, but can be affected by scabies, ticks, mealybugs.

Views

Adenium boehmianum / Adenium boehmianum

Flowers of this species differ in color from the rest. The flowers are blue-white or lilac-pink, the corolla tube and throat are purple.

Adenium multiflorum / Adenium multiflorum

This species reaches 2.5 m in height. The trunk branches at the apex, lignifies with age. The flowers are the same as those of adenium obessum, but there are more of them.

Adenium obesum (obese) / Adenium obesum

Other name obese adenium. This species grows up to 1.5 m in height. The plant grows slowly. The trunk lignifies over time, branches in the upper part, brown-gray in color. Leathery leaves grow at the ends of branches, grow up to 10 cm in length, gray-green in color. Adenium blooms in summer, flowers are red, white or pink up to 6 cm in diameter; gather in corymbose inflorescences.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Kutrovye
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information

Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Kutrovye Plants on A


Adenium

Adenium belongs to the genus of shrubs and woody plants, like plumeria, its homeland is Africa. This plant is given the most romantic names, for example, desert rose, impala lily for its beauty, endurance and ability to decorate any landscape.

In its natural habitat, the growth rate of adenium is measured in meters. Do you already want to plant such an exotic handsome man? We will teach you how to do it at home.


Plant varieties

Depending on the type and variety of ademium, the size of the plants differs significantly. The most common are the following varieties:

  1. Santa Claus. The variety is distinguished by its extraordinary beauty during the flowering period. The flower petals are milky red in color and bordered by a white stripe. Flowering is noted for six months. The view is displayed by sectioning.
  2. Oleander. A natural variety that continues to be improved through the efforts of breeders. There are two subspecies of this variety: monochromatic and mix. The flowers are white and crimson.
  3. Dorset Horn... The variety is rare and very unusual. The shape of the leaves as a result of the mutation became similar to the horns of a sheep. The rest of the characteristics are the same as for other varieties. In many ways, flowers are similar to mini-size adenium. Their colors are white and crimson.
  4. Fat... Grown at home. A year after planting, the plant will bloom. Branches in the lower part are thickened, but taper towards the top. More details: https://doma-v-sadu.ru/komnatnye-rasteniya/sukkulenty/adenium-obesum.html
  5. Anaconda... Visually looks like a tree. The color of the flowers is red, pink and white.
  6. Terry adenium (yellow love). The grown succulent blooms in yellow, which is a rarity for this plant. The decorative effect is achieved due to the fact that all the petals are terry, and not smooth.


Varieties

The genus adenium includes 5 types:

  1. Boemianum
  2. Multi-flowered
  3. Obese (Somali)
  4. Olifolium
  5. Swazicum.

Each of them has its own varieties. Not all of them are used for home breeding. Some can be seen only in greenhouses with conditions as close as possible to their natural, natural.

The variety was bred through long selection specifically for keeping in the house.

Bushes are compact, up to 20 cm in height, strongly branching, with succulent smooth leaves.

They bloom profusely and for a long time, but there are no terry varieties among mini adeniums. It reaches its maximum size by 5 years, it grows very slowly.

There are mini subspecies such as:

  • Mini Size Red - red flowers with a dark border and a white core. Has a smooth transition from white to scarlet
  • Mini Size Sunup Star - small white and pink flowers. Among florists, the name of the subspecies "Morning Star" is common.
  • Mini Size White is a recently bred variegated variety with large white flowers. The petals are even and symmetrical, with a cream border around the edge
  • Mini Size Pink - bright pink flowers with a white center. Closer to the edge of the petal, the pink shade is more saturated

Mini adeniums differ not only in color and size of flowers, but also in leaves of different shapes. They can be straight and twisted, bent inward.

The mini-variety Richie deserves special attention - it is the most exotic. A dwarf tree with a thick trunk and an abundance of bright pink flowers attracts everyone's attention.

Crested

In some species, due to a rare mutation, a comb (crested) form is formed. It is most commonly found in cacti and succulents, but sometimes also in adeniums. Looks like a cockscomb.

A crested flower can be grafted, but they are bred in a nursery without a rootstock.

Growing is not easy. It is impossible to force the shoots to curl; this is laid down at the genetic level.

It is possible in the first year of a plant's life to be grafted with a cuttings of the appropriate variety. Then, by the age of 3, the flower will acquire the properties of a crested adenium.

Obese, or Somali

It got its name from the caudex shape - thickened downwards in the manner of a small barrel. It grows more often in the form of a tree, in the absence of pruning, it can grow near the ground, like a shrub. In nature, it is high, in an apartment it does not exceed 60 cm.

Adenium photo adenium photo

Leaves are long, lanceolate, placed on short petioles alternately. They have a smooth, glossy surface. The shape of the flowers is funnel-shaped, the color is scarlet. The buds have no smell.

Various varieties of obese adenium have been developed.

  1. Candy
  2. Black fire
  3. Sarah

  1. Quatro (each flower has 4 rows of petals) - Golden Rose, King Rose, Dark Lord
  2. Triple (petals in three rows) - Amazine Rose, Anna
  3. Double (2 rows of petals) - Moon Sprey, Devine Creation.

Arabicum

Most often used for bonsai, due to the shape of the trunk and branches.

The caudex is greatly thickened, roots protruding from the ground, making the plant look like an alien creature. The bark is smooth, light, and resembles skin in texture. The flowers are large, from pink to red.

At home, it sheds foliage in late autumn and blooms in early spring.

Flowers bloom during a period when the tree has not yet grown green mass. It looks like a bright bouquet on a bare trunk and branches. Looks original and unusual.

Socotransky

In nature, this is the largest form of adeniums, it looks like a baobab with a thick trunk and small-leaved crown. It grows in the Arabian desert, where it reaches 5 meters in height and almost the same is the width of its trunk.

Adenium home care care

At home, it is rare due to the difficult conditions of detention. This variety requires a high temperature (at least + 27 ° C all year round) and bright lighting, otherwise the plant will bend, the thick trunk becomes ugly, flowering does not occur.

Adenium Bema

The most poisonous variety. Since ancient times, its poison has been used to rub arrows before hunting. Some tribes in Namibia still do this. The poison is very strong and fast-acting.

Despite this, Bem's adenium is grown at home by exotic lovers.

The species is unpretentious, blooms in the 3rd year of planting in winter. The leaves are corrugated, with wavy edges. It looks impressive even without flowers. It propagates well by seeds that ripen even in apartment conditions.

Attention! Always use heavy gloves when handling the flower.


Adenium: photos

Read also:

Adenium is a beautiful plant native to Africa. In total, there are about 7 types of it. At home, as a rule, thick adenium is grown, characterized by slow growth and a powerful developed stem. Adenium blooms in spring, and its bright flowers intertwine with each other in a bizarre way. With proper care, you can admire this beautiful flower all year round.

Read other interesting rubrics


How to form caudex

Many are attracted to the desert rose not by flowering, but by the beautiful, unusual caudex (thick trunk of the plant). It is formed in two ways:

  1. Trimming the center root. The first transplant of adeniums occurs 2-3 months after germination. The next one in six months. When transplanting, you need to trim the central root. This will lead to the growth of lateral roots. They can be twisted, laid out in a circle, over time they will thicken more and more. The roots can be lifted off the ground, which gives the caudex an unusual shape and good thickness.
  2. Formation of the caudex "Trinity" (Three)... It is necessary to take three seedlings at the age of 3 months. They should be approximately the same in volume and height. We plant them close to each other and wrap them with cling film or tape. After a couple of months, we remove the bandage and use a sterile knife to make shallow cuts at the points of contact. The deeper the cuts, the better the chances of success. We again tightly tie the adheski to each other and leave for 2-4 weeks, after which they should grow together.


Basic landing rules

Adenium seeds, in principle, are not whimsical and can germinate in almost any conditions. But the fate of the seedlings will depend on how you plant them. There are a large number of techniques that have their own supporters and critics. We will try to provide the most complete information about the possible options.

Choosing a container for planting

You can choose absolutely any container for planting. But there is one condition - it should not be too large, since adeniums love tightness. The larger the pot you take in volume, the longer the root system will master it, which means that the plant will not have enough strength to build up the green mass. In addition, the smaller the container, the lower the risks of the gulf.

50 ml disposable plastic cups or shallow food containers with a lid are ideal. But in any case, the results will be much better if you plant several seeds close to each other in the same container. So the roots of the seedlings will meet the resistance of the neighbor's root system, which will speed up the process of mastering the pot.

In the photo there are two containers of different depths. Both will do. The one on the left can be filled with soil to the desired level. The right one initially has low walls

Many garden stores have a variety of special seedling containers for sale.

It is better to plant seeds more densely - several seedlings will master such a container faster

With such a close planting, transplanting may be necessary earlier, but the quality of the seedlings will be better.

Choosing a substrate for planting

On this issue, the opinions of many adeniumists differ. But the topic of soil has always been and remains controversial. Someone prefers a sterile substrate to reduce the risk of mold and rot: perlite, lechuza-pon, seramis and others. Some people like to sprout seeds on damp cotton pads, napkins, or gauze. It is important for someone from birth to accustom the seedlings to the mixture in which they will grow in the future. For the purpose of prevention, it is advisable to sterilize such a soil: steam it in a water bath, warm it up in an oven or microwave.

The option of germinating seeds on moistened cotton wool - effective and sterile / 127619268 @ N02

Soaked napkins are used here - also quite a working option / rosesandadeniumsflowersandseeds

In our store, we tried all possible methods, but did not notice much difference. The main thing is to use only that substrate that meets all the requirements for adeniums and is convenient for you. The main reference point is that it should be loose and light. You can read more in this article.

Seed soaking

There is still no consensus on whether soaking affects the germination of adeniums. We believe that there is nothing wrong with prevention, since fungal infections often affect crops in high humidity conditions. This can happen even when using a sterile substrate, as the fungus often hides on the seeds themselves.

Soaking is carried out for 15-30 minutes in warm water with the addition of the drug. Any of those presented below are suitable for processing.

  • Potassium permanganate solution (1%, light pink).
  • Hydrogen peroxide 3% - 30 drops per glass.
  • Fungicides: Fitosporin-M - 1.5 g of powder (0.5 teaspoon) per 100 ml of Previkur Energy water - 1.5 ml per liter of water.
  • Stimulants: "Epin" - one ampoule per liter "Zircon" - a drop of 300 ml "HB-101" 1-2 drops per liter of water "Ribav extra" - two drops per 100 ml, "Heteroauxin" - six tablets per liter. These drugs will not kill the fungus, but the seedlings will be more resistant to infections.

If you buy very fresh seeds from Russian breeders, then they often do not need to be soaked. This seed has good germination and strong immunity. And species that germinate poorly and slowly are still worth processing.

For soaking, it is enough to pour the prepared solution onto the bottom of a plastic cup so that it completely covers the seeds

Greenhouse

For the successful germination of adenium, a greenhouse is a prerequisite. For this purpose, you can use both a ready-made container with a lid, and a plastic bag or gripper, put on a glass or pot. But it is extremely important to ventilate it twice a day for 15–30 minutes, since without oxygen, seeds and seedlings are attacked by rot.

Bottom heating

The optimum soil temperature for germinating seeds is considered to be in the range from 27 to 35 ° C. This is a very important condition on which both the percentage of germination and the survival rate of seedlings will depend on. This is difficult to achieve without the use of bottom heating. That is why many adenium growers plant seeds in the autumn-winter period, when central heating is working in the house.

For bottom heating, you can use: thermo-rugs or special rugs for reptiles, infrared floor heating, central heating batteries, a coil in the bathroom. The sun is also a good option, but, unfortunately, not the most reliable one - after all, even on cloudy days, seedlings need warmth. In addition, young plants are very delicate, and the sun's rays, combined with condensation on the walls of the greenhouse, can cause burns.

Thermo mats are very popular among flower growers, and now it's easy to get them - many online stores sell them

Some options of such mats have a temperature regulator and a thermal insulating coating, which will avoid overheating of the substrate.

In specialized stores, you can buy infrared film for underfloor heating. It is usually sold in lengths of one meter or more, and you will need the skills to connect it to the network. But there are also ready-made options.

A battery is fine too, but it's better to put something under the container to avoid overheating the soil.

The coil in the bathroom is a great way to keep the soil warm even in summer when the central heating is off. In the photo, we have demonstrated the placement option. A towel helps prevent overheating

Backlight

With a lack of light, the seedlings will stretch out a lot, and ultimately this will significantly affect their appearance - you will not get a compact fat man. But it is the unusual forms of adenium that attract florists so much. Even in summer, we recommend germinating seeds under lamps and only gradually accustom the seedlings to natural light. In autumn and winter, this is generally a prerequisite, since the length of the day is too short for the full development of light-loving plants. Read more about additional lighting in this article.

It is often difficult to combine supplementary lighting and bottom heating, especially when placing a greenhouse in a bathroom. Until the cotyledon leaves open, the seedlings can be in the dark, but then they should be transferred under a lamp. If you are using a common container, you should not wait for all the seeds to germinate, it is enough for the majority to sprout, the rest will catch up.

It is optimal to use the bottom heating and illumination from the very beginning of sowing

Step-by-step landing instructions

  1. First, we fill the container with soil, but not all of it - there should be a place on top so that the seedling has room to grow while they are in the greenhouse. Depending on the container chosen, 3-5 centimeters of free space will be enough.

The photo shows the ground level in different containers. The container on the left has high walls, but if you fill it in half, there will be enough space for the seedlings even with the lid closed. When planting in a 50 ml plastic cup, leaving a lot of free space will not work. But this problem is solved with a package that will serve as a greenhouse and will not interfere with the growth of the plant. The left container is shallow, so we fill it taking into account the height of the lid

  • Soak the seeds in a fungicide or stimulant. We skip this step if you are not a supporter of these procedures, or you do not have the necessary drugs. Prevention is voluntary and does not guarantee anything - it's up to you.
  • We spread the seeds on the surface of the soil, close to each other: at a distance of 0.5-1 cm. They can be slightly pressed down, sprinkled a little or buried, but not more than one centimeter. As practice shows, when the first shoots appear, curiosity makes the rest begin to "excavate". With shallow sowing, everything that happens to the seeds is visible - there is no need to touch them, and thus the risk of injury is reduced.

    Something like this you can decompose seeds on the surface of the soil.

    In order not to get confused in sowing, it is convenient to use various dividers or beacons

    It is better to plant more than one seed even in a small glass.

    The photo shows the permissible depth. On the left, the seed is simply sprinkled, on the right, it is buried 0.5 cm into the ground.

    In Asia, seeds are sown even denser and in large containers, but this will be relevant if you have the same germination conditions / Singhs-Garden-Tips-1402775266510419

    To moisten the soil, spray it with warm water, you can additionally add a stimulant or fungicide to it. If the seeds were previously soaked, the solution in which you did it is also suitable.

    The soil should be wet, but you do not need to make a swamp - this will lead to rotting of the seeds

  • We organize a greenhouse and bottom heating. It is very important not to forget to arrange airing twice a day for 15-30 minutes. Additionally, condensation can be removed from the walls. However, do not allow the substrate to dry out in the greenhouse; spray it periodically so that the seeds receive the necessary moisture.
  • When germinating, not all seedlings are able to free themselves from the skins on their own - they will need your help. This must be done carefully so as not to damage the growth point, since without it the adenium will be unviable. For convenience, moisten the hat with warm water and wait a few minutes - after that it will be much easier to remove it.

    Do not rush to remove the peel, let the seedlings cope with it on their own for two or three days. If you accidentally damage the cotyledons, do not throw out such a seedling - the growth point may be intact, and the second pair of leaves will be able to grow

    During germination, the seedlings can bend strongly downward. There is no reason for panic here, after a while they will reach for the light and will stand level. If you try to lift them, you can damage the delicate suction roots. You can see them in the photo, they look like fluff

    On the right is a seedling with a damaged growth point, unfortunately, it will not be able to survive

    Adenium species with low germination rates: Dorset Horn, white mini-adeniums, some species - should be undressed 2-3 days after planting, even if they have not yet germinated. This greatly increases the percentage of their survival. / DorsetHornAdenium

  • Once the bulk of the seeds have sprouted, they need to be rearranged under the lamp, if they are not already there. The required supplementary lighting mode is 16-18 hours. Some adenium water heaters do not turn off their lamps around the clock, but we recommend leaving a dormant period.
  • With the appearance of the first pair of leaves, you can begin to wean the kids from the greenhouse. This should be done gradually, daily increasing the airing time until the greenhouse is completely removed.

    Such seedlings can already be accustomed to the dry air of an apartment, they have two or three pairs of real leaves in addition to the cotyledons

  • Even if you removed the container with seedlings from heating, for their good growth and development, the soil temperature should not fall below 25 ° C
  • The first days of life are a very important stage in adenium grown from seeds. Basic conditions: uniform watering without overdrying and gulf, an abundance of light and heat.
  • Fertilizers can be applied already with the appearance of the first true leaves. Those with a predominant nitrogen content are best suited. And also seedlings respond well to the use of vitamins and stimulants. In our store we use Hesi TNT complex fertilizer, Hesi Super Vit vitamins, natural Hesi Power Zyme enzyme and HB-101 stimulator for top dressing from scratch. We mix vermicompost into our soils. When planting, Orgavita granules can be added as an organic fertilizer.

    We wish you friendly shoots and strong, healthy fat men!


  • Watch the video: Adenium Root Training From step to step


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