Cryptocoryne (lat.Cryptocoryne) - a genus of herbaceous amphibious plants of the Aroid family, growing along streams and rivers in regions of Asia with a subtropical and tropical climate. In culture, these plants are grown in aquariums. For the first time a plant of this genus was described in 1779, and the genus itself was formed and was described by 1828. In total, there are about 60 species in the genus.
The genus name consists of two Greek roots and translates as "hidden ear". In England, Cryptocoryns are called hidden flutes.
Read more about the cultivation of Cryptocorynes below.
Cryptocorynes are small amphibious herbaceous plants found in terrestrial, semi-submerged and floating forms. Usually they are a bush of 5-15 whole, petiolate, ovate or lanceolate leaves. In submerged Cryptocorynes, they are often ribbon-like with a pimpled surface. The color of the leaf blades can be olive, green, brownish, and sometimes bright red. The rhizome of Cryptocoryne is horizontal. Small inflorescences are wrapped in a fancy colored blanket, transformed into a tube with a slightly swollen bottom. Inside the bedspread is an ear 1 to 3 cm long - an inflorescence characteristic of aroid plants. The ear consists of male and female flowers. The fruit of the Cryptocoryne is a juicy berry.
In aquarium practice, several types of Cryptocorynes are used, however, the conditions of keeping for all species are approximately the same. These plants can be grown in containers without the supply of carbon dioxide and at low lighting levels: only 0.4-0.5 W / L will be enough for normal growth and development of Cryptocoryne.
In the photo: The content of cryptocorynes in the aquarium
The water temperature in the aquarium should be about 24-28 ˚C, medium hardness, and the pH should be in the range of 6.5-7.5 pH. Nutrient soil for Cryptocoryne, which is laid on the bottom with a layer of 5 cm, must contain complex fertilizers.
Cryptocoryne care consists of weekly replacing a fourth or fifth of the volume of water in the aquarium and feeding with water-insoluble fertilizers in the form of balls of clay or peat.
Apply liquid fertilizers undesirable as they contribute to the overgrowth of algae in aquariums.
From time to time, you need to completely change the water in the aquarium to fresh, filtered or settled for two days tap water.
If you want to see the Cryptocoryne bloom, you will have to do the following manipulation: put a layer of garden soil without lime and humus on the bottom of a pot with a diameter of 7 cm, then a layer of clean gravel, mixing it with a small amount of peat. Pot the Cryptocoryne. Fill the aquarium with water to a height of 4 cm, place the flower pot in it and turn on the bottom heater. Provide the plant with bright lighting for 12 hours a day, and in six months or at least a year later, Cryptocoryne will bloom.
Cryptocoryne grown in an aquarium reproduces vegetatively: by offspring or by dividing the rhizome. Offspring separated and planted when it reaches half the height of the mother plant. To split the rhizome, it is kept on the surface of the water and completely freed from the leaves. After a few weeks, shoots will appear on it, and when their leaves reach a length of 5 cm, the rhizome is cut according to the number of shoots and the cuttings are planted in the ground.
Cryptocorynes do not respond well to any innovation: a change of place, a sharp change in lighting, temperature or water composition. From this they can get sick. "Cryptocoryne disease" which is accompanied by the loss of decorative qualities, and then the death of the plant: the leaves of Cryptocoryne become soft, turn glassy and begin to decompose.
It is still not known for certain what exactly causes Cryptocoryne disease.
Sometimes the infection enters the aquarium with new, diseased plants. If the leaves begin to rot, try to save at least the rhizome: change the water and soil in the aquarium.
Pictured: Growing Cryptocorynes outside of an aquarium
With the wrong content and a rare change of water, Cryptocoryne is affected by root rot. You can save the plant at an early stage of the disease by cutting out all rotten and suspicious areas on the rhizome with a sharp sterile tool.
If the plant is kept under too bright light, it will become overgrown with algae.
Elongated petioles and unhealthy pallor of the leaves are evidence of insufficient lighting, and if the leaf plates become too light, this is a sign of a lack of nutrients in the soil. In low temperature water the growth and development of Cryptocoryne stops.
Cryptocoryne can damage snails. Just remove them from the aquarium.
This is a bush with a short stem and corrugated ribbon-like leaves resembling aponogeton: they have the same tuberous plate, which in hard water can reach 4 cm wide and one meter long. Located on long brownish-red petioles, the leaves on the upper side are painted in a dark shade of green, and they are lighter on the bottom. In an aquarium, the leaves do not grow longer than 30-50 cm, and Cryptocoryne rarely blooms. In nature, one specimen can form 7-8 female and up to 70 male flowers. The purple blanket on the cob is rolled into a tube 7 to 17 cm long.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne aponogetifolia
Or Cryptocoryne walkeri, or cryptocoryne lutea - a beautiful and easy-to-care plant from Sri Lanka. It does not have a stem, the leaves form a rosette up to 15 cm high, located directly on the horizontal rhizome. Leaves up to 25 cm long form dense thickets. Their color depends on the intensity of light: in the shadow they are green, while in the middle of the plate a red tint may remain.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne walkeri
Also has no stem. This is a herbaceous bush from Indochina up to 50 cm high with a rosette of dark green or olive leaves, not so burgundy and reaching a width of no more than one and a half centimeters.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne retrospiralis
The most variable species is native to Sri Lanka. The length of the leaves of various forms of this species can be from 10 to 40 cm, and the width is 2-3 cm. The color of the leaves, depending on the variety, can be green or brown. In low light conditions, it is Cryptocoryne red, and due to its bright unusual coloration, this species is often used by aquascapers. Some forms of leaf blades are slightly wavy. The most popular are:
In the photo: Cryptocoryne wendtii
Herbaceous stemless plant from Malaysia up to 35 cm high with rosette lanceolate leaves of dark green color on the upper side of the plate and burgundy-purple from the bottom. Longitudinal veins are distinguished by a brighter color.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne affinis>
Or Cryptocoryne petchii - stemless bush up to 15-20 cm high with a rosette of long heart-shaped leaves. On the upper side, the leaves are colored in a brownish-olive color, on the bottom - in red-violet. In nature, this plant can be found in Sri Lanka.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne beckettii
Originally from Thailand. In favorable conditions, it can reach a height of up to half a meter, so it is grown in large aquariums. The leaves of this species are long-petioled, oval, glossy, olive with light spots on the upper side of the plate and purple below.
In nature, it grows in fast-flowing water bodies of the island of Borneo. This plant appeared in culture relatively recently, but has already gained popularity due to its unpretentiousness and high decorative effect. The leaves of this species are narrowly elliptical, from 8 to 30 cm long, up to 2.5 cm wide, with a round base and a pointed tip. A pimpled green leaf blade with a brown border along the edge is located on a petiole from 5 to 20 cm long.In the conditions of an aquarium, Cryptocoryne Gudoro can grow up to 30 cm.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne hudoroi
Or cryptocoryne nuri grows naturally in Malaysia, on the Malacca Peninsula. This species needs professional care and is found in culture only among experienced aquarists. Narrow-ovate or lanceolate leaves with a pointed tip reach a length of 10 to 30 cm and are located on petioles 3-10 cm long.The color of the leaf plate can vary from bright green to reddish-brown, and often the surface of the leaves is streaked with reddish lines.
In the photo: Cryptocoryne nurii
In addition to those described, Cryptocorynes heart-shaped, Griffith, Pontederia-leaved, purple, shiny, ribbed, Parva and others are grown in culture. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, hybrid varieties of Cryptocorynes have been developed, which are highly decorative. For example:
Sections: Houseplants Ornamental-deciduous Aquarium Aroid (Aronic) Plants on K
Speckled catfish, or ordinary corridor, or baby catfish, or straw carapace (Peppered corydoras, Pepper Cory) is a popular aquarium fish native to South America. It belongs to the schooling species, so you should buy at least 4-8 individuals at once. This peaceful and calm fish will be an excellent choice for a community aquarium. Omnivorous. Most of the time the corridor spends in shelters or lies on the scenery. Likes to dig in the ground, strongly stirring up the ground. Reproduces easily in aquariums. Under good conditions, the corridor can live up to 15 years. For a couple, you will need a jar with a volume of 20-30 liters. Speckled catfish can be recommended for novice aquarists.
Etymology: the generic name Corydoras comes from the Greek. κόρυς (korus) - "helmet", shell and δορά (doras) - "skin". The specific name is from the Latin. paleatus - "spotted pattern".
Areal: Southeast of South America - Brazil (La Plata river), Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina.
Habitat: silted, slowly flowing and stagnant waters with dense vegetation. In the wild, speckled catfish crawl out in small groups to muddy shoals, where they pick up everything edible. The organ of locomotion is the strong spines of the pectoral fins.
Description: an elongated body with a powerful forepart and a narrow tail. The abdomen is straight, the back is convex. The sides are flat, they are covered by two rows of bone plates (22-24 plates in the upper row and 20-22 in the lower). The tail is two-bladed. The pectoral fin has a sharp, spiny ray (these the rays are quite sharp and can pierce human skintrying to grab the catfish with his bare hands). The mouth is lower, on the upper lip there are two pairs of sensitive antennae. The eyes are globular, mobile. There is an adipose fin equipped with hard rays. The dorsal fin is high. In addition to gill respiration, there is also intestinal respiration (breathing with atmospheric air).
Aquarium: general (bottom area is more important than the height of the aquarium).
Dimensions: the minimum volume of the aquarium is 20 liters per pair. A flock will require an aquarium of 50-100 liters and a length of at least 70-80 cm.
Water: dH 2-18 °, pH about 7, powerful filtration, aeration, moderate or weak flow. Weekly water changes up to 20-80% (depending on fish stocking density). With insufficient oxygen content in the water, the corridor rises to the surface of the water and swallows air.
Temperature: 20-25 ° C. It tolerates a short-term increase in temperature up to 30 ° С and a decrease to 15-18 ° С. The higher the temperature of the content, the shorter the lifespan of the catfish.
Lighting: scattered, muffled.
Priming: coarse river sand or rolled gravel (otherwise catfish can damage their antennae), poured in a thick layer.
Plants: thickets of living plants, planted along the side and rear walls of the aquarium on the surface of the water, several bushes of floating plants.
Registration: driftwood, branches, smooth stones, various shelters. When decorating an aquarium, it should be remembered that the corridor can swim into a narrow gap (between stones, between the air filter tube and the wall of the aquarium, etc.) and die there, unable to get out.
Feeding: in nature it feeds on worms, crustaceans, insects and plant material. In aquariums, he takes live (tubifex, bloodworms, corets), vegetable and combined feed (AL Bloodworm, Tetra TabiMin, Tetra PlekoMin, Sera Viformo, Sera Premium Spirulina Tabs, etc.). It collects food from the bottom, but can rise to the surface of the water and swallow food.
Behavior: speckled corridor is a schooling, active fish that must be kept in a group of at least 6-8 tails (in nature, such groups number several hundred individuals). The peak of activity is in the dark, but it is quite active during the day. Most of the time he sits in shelters, lies on rocks or decorations. Likes to dig in the ground. Catfish can make sounds due to the movement of their pectoral fins. As a rule, sounds are made by young people when they are frightened or by adults during spawning.
Water zone: bottom layer of water.
Breeding fish: gregarious or nesting spawning (2-3 males and 1 female or 4-8 males and 2-4 females). Spawning aquarium with a volume of 30-100 liters, dim lighting, soil is not required, filtration, good aeration, several broad-leaved plants, water level 15-20 cm.Water parameters: pH 6-7, dH up to 15 °, T 19-22 ° C, the water must be separated for at least 2 days. In a general aquarium, eggs can be deposited on the heater, air intake pipe from the filter and glass. Spawning causes the replacement of up to 50% of the water volume, a decrease in temperature by 2-5 ° C, a drop in atmospheric pressure and increased aeration. The aquarium is placed near the window so that the morning rays of the sun fall on it. Producers are planted in the spawning grounds in the evening, and in the morning (at dawn) spawning begins, which lasts several hours. After 7-10 days, spawning is repeated. Water with caviar is tinted with methylene blue (up to 5 mg / l) or "Sera mycopur"; aeration and filtration are required during the incubation of eggs.
Sex differences: males have a sharp, triangular dorsal fin; females have a rounded dorsal fin.
Puberty: occurs at the age of 6-8 months.
Number of caviar: up to 250 white-transparent eggs with a diameter of 1.5-3 mm.
Egg incubation period: 5-6 days (at a temperature of 23-25 ° C).
Comments: speckled catfish strongly muddies the water. Poorly tolerates salt and drugs, including malachite green.
The corridor is sensitive to excess nitrates in the water, which can lead to fungal infection of the whiskers, and ultimately the death of the fish.
Albino (whitish-pink) and veil forms were bred.
Platidoras striped is a rather large ornamental fish, the body of the catfish is covered with alternating longitudinal stripes of different colors (brownish-yellow or black-white). With age, such an original coloring of the fish loses its clarity.
The body shape of Platidoras is cylindrical with a small rounded abdomen. As a rule, females are somewhat larger than males. Representatives of this type of fish for a home aquarium have such characteristic features of appearance: a rather large head with small bone spikes-growths that form a kind of helmet-shell, as well as rather large eyes.
The mouth of the catfish is framed with long antennae - two pairs of such antennae are located on the lower lip of the fish and one on the upper one.
The fins of the catfish are quite developed; the back and pectoral fin have endings in the form of a ray framed by small spines and hooks at its tip. These structural features of the catfish imply that its owner should be especially careful and careful, since a prick with such a thorn on the fin can be quite painful. In addition, the rays of the fin are often entangled in the net due to the hooks located there.
The average size of an adult fish in its natural habitat reaches 23-24 cm.In an aquarium - no more than 16-18 cm.
Interesting fact! The striped Platidoras is often called the "singing" catfish. This effect is caused by the friction of the fish's fins, which causes chirping sounds.
Red-tailed rassbora, or borapet rasbora (Blackline rasbora, Red-tailed rasbora) is a popular aquarium fish. Inhabits stagnant and slow-flowing water bodies of Southeast Asia. This is a peaceful, active, schooling fish. He willingly takes live and dry food. Unpretentious in keeping, compatible with many peaceful species of fish. Reproduces easily in aquariums. Based on the above, it can be recommended for beginners.
Areal: Southeast Asia - Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia.
Habitat: stagnant and slowly flowing reservoirs, calm backwaters of larger rivers, ponds, reservoirs. Red-tailed rassbora is often found in turbid water, at a depth of up to 2 meters.
Description: body elongated, strongly flattened laterally. The profiles of the back and belly are evenly curved. The dorsal fin is displaced closer to the caudal peduncle. The mouth is terminal, the eyes are large. The caudal fin is two-lobed. The lateral line is incomplete.
Aquarium: species, general or Dutch oblong aquarium.
Dimensions: a school of 6 fish requires an aquarium with a volume of 50-70 liters and a length of at least 40 cm. For a school of 10 tails, a volume of at least 100 liters is required.
Water: pH 6-7.5, dH 4-12 °, aeration, powerful filtration (peat is added to the filter element), weak flow. Weekly water changes up to 20-30%. Red-tailed rassbora is sensitive to a lack of oxygen and an excess of dissolved organic matter in water.
Temperature: 23-25 ° C.
Lighting: top, scattered.
Priming: any dark color.
Plants: live plants planted along the back and side walls of the aquarium, on top are several bushes of floating plants with long roots (pistia).
Registration: driftwood, roots, stones and other decor. Free swimming space required.
Feeding: In the wild, the Borapet Rasbora feeds on small insects, worms, crustaceans and other zooplankton. In aquariums, it takes live (insects and their larvae, plankton, small cyclops, daphnia, bloodworms) and dry food.
Behavior: mobile, schooling fish, which must be kept in groups of 6-20 individuals.
Water zone: middle and top layer of water.
Can be contained with: small calm fish (other types of rasbor, tetras, small barbs, loaches, belontias, gourami, plekostomus, cockerels, zebrafish, acanthophthalmus, trigonostigmas, badis-badis).
Cannot be contained with: large, aggressive fish.
Breeding fish: spawning is paired, portioned. Producers are seated for 7-15 days and fed abundantly with live food. Every day, up to 10% of the water volume is changed. A spawning aquarium with a volume of 30-60 liters, a separator net and several bushes of small-leaved plants are placed on the bottom, several bushes of floating plants are placed on the surface. Natural lighting, aeration, filtration (using a low-power sponge filter), the water level is 15-20 cm. Above the spawning box is covered with a cover glass. Water parameters: T 24-27 ° C, dH up to 1.5-3 °, pH 5.5-6.5. Fish are planted in the spawning grounds in the evening, and spawning usually begins in the morning. After spawning, the water level is lowered to 10 cm, and the aquarium itself is darkened.
Sex differences: the male is smaller, slimmer and brighter than the female.
Puberty: occurs at the age of 8-10 months.
Number of caviar: 50-200 eggs.
Incubation period: 18-48 hours.
Offspring: juveniles swim for 3-4 days. In a nursery aquarium, low aeration is required. 40 day old fry are transplanted into a larger aquarium with a water level of up to 30 cm.
Feeding juveniles: starter food - "live dust", rotifer, ciliates, then - nauplii of brine shrimp and cyclops.
Jumping from parents: after spawning, the producers are planted.
If you are breeding labidochromis, you need to separate the young couple for spawning and immediately remove it when fry appear, since sometimes the parents themselves eat their offspring. You can feed your little ones with special food for fry, or simply grind the usual food for cichlids. On average, individuals of the yellow African woman live for 8 years.
Breeding labidochromis yellow is an exciting activity that will allow you not only to enjoy the juicy color of African fish, but also to observe its interesting and meaningful behavior. The main thing in keeping labidochromis is a sufficient volume of the aquarium and peaceful neighbors with whom the yellow fish will not have conflicts. And then your water system is sure to fill with amazing yellow specks!
There are about 50 underwater species of the genus Echinodorus. This diversity is due to their ability to easily form hybrids, both in natural and in aquarium conditions.
The size: there are small ones up to 5 cm, medium ones and there are giants up to 1-2 m.
Description. Leaves are collected in dense or loosesocket, by form ribbon-like, petiolate or petiolate, oval, cordate, elliptical, lanceolate or ovate. The edges of the leaf blade are even or wavy, longitudinal veins usually up to 5 or 7, 9 (less often up to 3), or 11 or more. Petioles in cross section are rounded, grooved, trihedral or triangular-flattened. Coloration leaf plate - from pale to dark green, almost black, different shades of red (golden brown, wine, raspberry, cherry, etc.). Some plants have leaves from purple, dark red and white spots.
Echinodorus can be divided into two groups: simple and complex in cultivation... Simple ones form stable underwater forms and in an adult state have a height of at least 15-20 cm. These are: E. aschersonianus, E. intermedins, E. horemanii, E. horizontalis, E. maior, E. osiris, E. portoalegrensis, E. umguayensis, E. "aspersus", E. "barthii", E. "janii", E. "Osiris doppelt Rot", E. "Rose" and many others.
For those who are simple in content, the following rules must be observed:
Adult powerful specimens do not tolerate new conditions well and often die from lack of nutrition or, for the same reason, change the growth point. Or, once in a favorable environment, they tend to quickly transition to a surface form, which we do not need. So use for planting it is necessary young plants grown from seeds, as well as seedlings obtained by vegetative propagation from dormant buds on peduncles or rhizomes. It is necessary to cut the rhizome so that both the separated and the remaining part have several leaves and roots. It does not matter if it is an emergent plant or an underwater one. Such plants quickly adapt to the conditions of the new aquarium, begin to grow actively, and the leaves of above-water forms are replaced by underwater ones in the coming months.
Are able to fit to wide range of conditions external environment (hardness, illumination, chemical composition of water). But it is desirable that the water is not very hard (no more than 20 °). The temperature should not fall below 15 ° C. BUT best if water will have hardness up to 10-and etc.temperature above 20 ° C... They live in both sunny and shaded areas. But a prerequisite good development and growth of echinodorus is a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction of water (pH 6.8-7.6) and bright enough lighting. Not less than 200 W per square meter, which makes it possible to create illumination of the order of 16,000 lux on the water surface. The duration of daylight hours during the cultivation of Echinodorus underwater should not exceed 10-12 hours. This is enough for their growth. In addition, not an overabundance of lighting excludes the possibility of the transition of plants to the above-water form. If possible, it is necessary to exclude the impact on the aquarium with echinodorus natural light, even scattered light.
These plants do not tolerate the acidic reaction of the soil. Thoroughly washed gravel or crushed stone with a grain diameter of 3-7 mm is best suited. Such soil is well ventilated, easily cleaned by the "suction" method and does not sour anymore. Cleaning should be done at least after 7-10 days, over the entire bottom area. In this case, 1 / 5-1 / 3 of the water is replaced with settled fresh, because it is with her that the required amount of trace elements enters the aquarium. The need for additional application of mineral fertilizers, as a rule, does not arise.
E. osiris E. Ocelot E. speckled E. ruby E. pointed E. narrow-leaved E. Goremana E. small-colored E. Red flame E. "Jungelstar" E. Asherson heart-shaped E. subaltus E. spatula E. large, Bart E. cordate