Best green manure plants: legumes


Plants from the legume family can greatly improve the condition of depleted soil. Leguminous green manures provide the soil with the necessary amount of nitrogen, thereby restoring nutrients to its fertility. The choice of green manure depends on the soil available on the site. There is a suitable green manure for each type of soil. It is very important to make the right choice of leguminous plant.

The best siderates from the legume family

Fodder beans

The plant has a strong root system and a straight fleshy stem. It can be planted on various soils - marshy, clayey and podzolic. This annual plant is able to reduce the acidity of the soil and saturate it with sufficient nitrogen. The broad beans keep weeds out.

One hundred square meters of land will require approximately 2.5 kg of seeds of this herbaceous plant. As a result, the soil of this area will contain about 60 g of nitrogen, about 25 g of phosphorus and almost 60 g of potassium.

Broad beans are frost-resistant crops. They are able to grow at air temperatures up to 8 degrees below zero. This means that the plants can be safely planted after harvesting the main harvest on the site, and they will have time to grow up to severe frosts and winter cold.

Vika

The vetch is a climbing plant that needs support in the form of another more resilient crop. Often this green manure is sown together with oats, which becomes such a support. The plant has small purple flowers. The advantages of vetch over other green manure plants in the rapid growth of green mass. Therefore, vetch can be sown in early spring, before planting vegetables.

This herbaceous plant prevents the spread of weeds and the destruction of the soil. It grows only on neutral soils. 10 square meters of land will require 1.5 kg of seeds. As a result, the soil will be enriched with nitrogen (more than 150 g), phosphorus (more than 70 g) and potassium (200 g).

Mowing of this leguminous green manure is carried out during the period of bud formation or at the very beginning of flowering. For growing tomatoes and cabbage, vetch is the best precursor.

Peas

Peas also belong to the siderates, which are rapidly gaining green mass. This green fertilizer takes only a month and a half to grow, but it is very afraid of night frosts. A slight drop in air temperature is not dangerous for him.

Peas are best sown in August when most of the harvest is harvested. It is recommended to mow the plant during the period of bud formation. Peas thrive on moist, neutral soils. This legume green manure renews the composition of the soil and improves its air exchange. The soil becomes loose and absorbs moisture easily.

10 square meters of land will require 2-3 kg of seeds, which in the future will improve the soil composition by 115 g of nitrogen, 70 g of phosphorus and more than 210 g of potassium.

Donnik

In the legume family, there is an annual and biennial sweet clover. A biennial sweet clover is usually used as a siderat. The plant has a tall (more than 1 meter) branched stem with fragrant small yellow flowers, which bees love to feast on.

The plant is not afraid of cold weather and drought. Its root system penetrates deep into the soil and from there extracts numerous useful elements. Melilot can grow on soils of different composition. He is able to improve their fertility, improve the composition. This herb is an excellent pest control agent.

This legume green manure is sown at the end of the summer season, grown, but not mown in the fall, but left until spring. The overwintered sweet clover grows very quickly with the arrival of spring heat. It must be mown before flowering begins. The seeds of the plant are small. For one hundred square meters of land, they will need about 200 g. On a plot with such an area, the melilot contains from 150 to 250 g of nitrogen, almost 100 g of phosphorus and from 100 to 300 g of potassium.

Lupine annual

Lupine is a herbaceous plant that is considered the best green manure. The plant has finger-like leaves, erect stems and small flowers of a lilac or purple hue, collected in inflorescences. Its main distinguishing feature is its unusually deep and long roots (up to 2 meters).

Lupine can grow in any soil. He is able to improve, renew and restore the structure of the most depleted and poor soil. Its root system makes the soil loose and easily accessible to moisture and air.

The plant must be sown in early spring or late summer. At the initial stage, lupine requires abundant and regular watering. Siderat is subjected to mowing after about 2 months, but always before budding. It is an excellent precursor for strawberries and strawberries.

For 10 square meters of land, 2-3 kg of seeds will be required, depending on the variety. This leguminous plant contains nitrogen (200 to 250 grams), phosphorus (55-65 g) and potassium (180-220 g).

Alfalfa

This plant is perennial, loves moisture and warmth. Alfalfa is able to regulate the acidity of the soil and provide it with all the necessary organic components. Very demanding in the choice of soil. It will not grow on swampy, rocky and heavy soils with a lot of clay.

At the initial stage of growth, the plant needs abundant and regular watering to quickly build up green mass. With a lack of moisture, alfalfa begins to bloom ahead of time, and the amount of greenery remains minimal. The green manure is cut before the buds are formed.

For one hundred square meters of land, 100-150 g of alfalfa seeds are enough.

Seradella

This moisture-loving legume green manure belongs to annual plants. For its cultivation, weather with frequent rains and low temperatures and a shady area are suitable. It tolerates small frosts well. It can grow on any soil except acidic.

Saradella is sown in early spring and after 40-45 days it builds up the necessary green mass. It is mown and left for new greenery build-up.

The plant contributes to the renewal and improvement of the soil composition, and also repels harmful insects. It prefers to grow in humid climates or in constant high humidity.

On a plot of one hundred square meters, from 400 to 500 g of plant seeds are consumed. The composition of the soil is improved by at least 100 g of nitrogen, about 50 g of phosphorus and more than 200 g of potassium.

Sainfoin

Sainfoin green manure is a perennial plant that can grow in one place for 7 years. He is not afraid of frosts, cold winds and drought-resistant weather. In the first year, sainfoin builds up the root system, all his strength goes only to this. But in subsequent years, green manure increases a large amount of green fertilizer.

A distinctive feature of the plant is its ability to grow in rocky areas due to its powerful root system. The length of its roots reaches 10 m in depth. From such a depth, the roots get useful organic substances inaccessible to other plants.

To sow a plot of one hundred square meters, you will need about 1 kg of seeds.


Best green manure plants: legumes - gardening

Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.

Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.

Deciduous species are easier to transplant than conifers and evergreen deciduous trees.

The growth, development and productivity of fruit trees largely depend on the degree of their resistance to frost.

The aerial part with flowers is used. Action - diuretic, laxative and diaphoretic, emollient and anti-inflammatory.

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Sideration plants

There are people who mulch literally everything on their site, including paths. A side effect of this approach is getting rid of the bear - it does not live in cool, moist soil. But this is possible when there is a flood meadow or abandoned neighboring areas behind the fence - mow for yourself, and mulch. And if everyone around is just as smart, and the nearest meadow or grove is several (tens) kilometers away? Where to get good organic mulch?

Many people sow the garden with white clover, and the paths on the site with lawn grass or simply ryegrass. Here is a great source of excellent mulch, especially if your farm has a hopper lawnmower. But for those whose eyes are more accustomed to traditional beds, the agro-technique called "sideration" will greatly help. Its essence lies in growing industrial crops without obtaining a harvest from them, but using green and root mass as fertilizer.

Sideration is mainly used as a means of organizing a short crop rotation - in the fall, after harvesting the main crop (for example, potatoes), an intermediate crop (most often rye) is sown in its place, which is embedded in the soil either in the fall or, if the crop is winter, in spring.

Then the main crop takes up the area again.


Types of dressings

Peppers are fed at home by root and foliar method. Each method has its own advantages.

Root

Fertilizer solutions are carefully poured in a thin stream under the base of the stem. In this case, the liquid should not get on the leaves. The soil is moistened in advance with clean, settled water. This method of feeding significantly improves the composition of the earth.

You need to follow a few simple rules:

  • monitor dosage carefully
  • do not let the solution get on the leaves, so as not to burn them
  • never bring in fresh droppings or manure, they must be thoroughly refilled.

Foliar

They are also called leafy. The bushes are sprayed from a fine spray bottle with solutions of various fertilizers. The surface of the leaf plate quickly absorbs liquid droplets, and they simultaneously penetrate into all plant organs. Particular attention is paid to the reverse side of the sheet, as it has a porous structure. This type of feeding is useful for seedlings that have a strong green mass. Spraying is carried out either at dawn or after sunset. For safety reasons, you need to carefully select the dosage of drugs.


For dry land

Cereals

Cereals improve the structure of the soil, it becomes able to greedily "drink" water. They can grow on any kind of soil, increasing its moisture permeability, and also prevent it from being washed out.

Drought-resistant plants are sown on dry land: rapeseed, rape, phacelia, which give a lot of green mass and prevent the leaching of mineral elements.

Vika will turn any soil, even dry, in 3 years into loose fine black soil. Siderat saturates the soil with nitrogen, perfectly loosens the top layer and promotes the release of phosphates, which are poorly soluble.

For structureless soil with erosion processes

Cereals

Cereals not only inhibit the growth of weeds - with their powerful roots, depriving them of their right to exist, they also prevent the leaching and weathering of the earth. After sowing, they are cut a couple of weeks before the main crop is planted. It is not worth digging up the soil, it is enough to slightly loosen it, and you can plant vegetables.

Clover

Clover protects the earth from weathering. Its roots also make the ground loose, oxygenated and more humid. Sow it in spring or summer, watering abundantly (the plant loves moisture). You can not sow it for 2-3 years. Together with beneficial bacteria, it saturates the soil with humus.

Thanks to its strong and long roots, oats protect light soils from erosion and prepare the ground for sowing a variety of crops.

Plant green manure plants between rows, and you not only protect crops from weeds, but also protect the soil from weathering and rain.


Green manure plants for soil

Not so long ago, most people had no idea what green manure is for soil. And now they are sown both in small household plots and in large farms. It is important to know that it is necessary to use green manure plants according to certain rules, otherwise, instead of benefit, the opposite result can be achieved. Therefore, it is worth familiarizing yourself with what, where, when and after what you can sow.

Manure as an irreplaceable fertilizer for the soil is gradually becoming a thing of the past. It is difficult to get it, and after using it you constantly have to fight weeds. It will be easier to replace it with mineral fertilizers, but gardeners-gardeners most often try to use the organic matter of their own plot. To replenish the soil fertility by at least 1%, it is necessary to add a bucket of humus or 2-3 buckets of compost per 1 sq. M, it will be much more profitable to use green fertilizers for the soil - green manure.

Green manure plants do not give a crop, but they improve the structure of the earth, it becomes light and convenient for processing. And green manures are also good orderlies, they protect the soil from pests: wireworm, May beetle larvae, putrefactive bacteria. One of the best soil cleaners is mustard, because its roots secrete sulfur, which many pests cannot tolerate.

In order for the advantages of green fertilizers to be fully manifested, several points must be taken into account. The most important thing is that you cannot sow green manure in the garden, where the crops related to it will grow later. Cabbage, radish, radish should not be planted in the beds after mustard, rapeseed, oil radish, since they belong to the cruciferous family, they have the same diseases, the same pests and there will be no benefit from such a crop rotation.

Phacelia is an ideal green manure for the garden. It belongs to the aquatic family, so any plants can be planted after it. Phacelia is not affected by diseases and pests; it grows well both in the sun and in the shade. Its deep roots loosen the soil well and fill it with nitrogen and phosphorus, and its delicate leaves and stems, rotting, give a fairly large amount of nitrogen.

When choosing green fertilizers, it is worth considering what result is needed in the end. If you decide to grow mulch quickly - sow phacelia, mustard, oil radish. Better than everyone else, the roots of cereals - rye, oats, barley, can loosen the dense soil.If you need to replenish the soil with nitrogen, it is worth sowing legumes - peas, lupines or vetch. Leguminous plants per 1 square meter give 20 g of nitrogen, this is equivalent to adding 4 square meters of manure to this area.

Never get carried away with one crop, green manure plants for the soil must be alternated, but you can grow several plants at once on the same bed, in this case, experts advise you to sow seeds not in bulk, but in separate rows.

For early crops - onions, lettuce or radish - siderates are best sown in the fall. Green fertilizers can be sown under cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers and other vegetables in early spring under a film

After the appearance of the green mass, it can be left as mulch on the soil surface, microorganisms will process it very quickly, so you will have both mulch and good organic fertilization. A small green mass can be buried in the ground.

The most important rule is that the seeders should not be allowed to grow before the seeds appear. It is best to mow them as soon as buds begin to appear, there is a lot of nitrogen in young plants and they decompose faster in the soil.


Recommendations

Sideration, as already became clear from the text of the article, although organic, but a very time-consuming process. Therefore, you should adhere to some recommendations in order for the time and effort spent to bring the maximum effect.

  • Siderata should be planted both before and after the main crop.
  • The main plants and green manure must be of different families.
  • Sow green manures densely, giving preference to annuals.
  • The soil for sowing plants, and green manure is no exception, must be moist.
  • Following the basic rule that the soil should not remain bare, it is recommended to sow green manures in summer too.
  • Do not dig or plow green manure, but trim or mow. Although there is another opinion that it is necessary to dig it up, since in this case the biomass will better bend and saturate the soil with useful substances as much as possible, turn into a full-fledged "green fertilizer".

It is interesting to know that lawns and green lawns, for the information of their lovers, can also be attributed to plantings of siderat plants.

Do not be discouraged if the soil on your plot does not give the desired yield. She may be too emaciated. The recipe for restoring its fertility is the use of "green fertilizer". You should refrain from planting major crops. At least in the "problem areas". Next year, and if suddenly there is no desired effect, then in a year, your site will again delight you with a bountiful harvest.

And yet, even without close attention of a person, siderata plants with a beautiful green carpet will cover the earth from all negative influences in a short time.


The best siderates from the legume family

Fodder beans

The plant has a strong root system and a straight fleshy stem. It can be planted on various soils - marshy, clayey and podzolic. This annual plant is able to reduce the acidity of the soil and saturate it with sufficient nitrogen. The broad beans keep weeds out.

One hundred square meters of land will require approximately 2.5 kg of seeds of this herbaceous plant. As a result, the soil of this area will contain about 60 g of nitrogen, about 25 g of phosphorus and almost 60 g of potassium.

Broad beans are frost-resistant crops. They are able to grow at air temperatures up to 8 degrees below zero. This means that the plants can be safely planted after harvesting the main crop on the site, and they will have time to grow up to severe frosts and winter cold.

The vetch is a climbing plant that needs support in the form of another more resilient crop. Often this green manure is sown together with oats, which becomes such a support. The plant has small purple flowers. The advantages of vetch over other green manure plants in the rapid growth of green mass. Therefore, vetch can be sown in early spring, before planting vegetables.

This herbaceous plant prevents the spread of weeds and the destruction of the soil. It grows only on neutral soils. 10 square meters of land will require 1.5 kg of seeds. As a result, the soil will be enriched with nitrogen (more than 150 g), phosphorus (more than 70 g) and potassium (200 g).

Mowing of this leguminous green manure is carried out during the period of bud formation or at the very beginning of flowering. For growing tomatoes and cabbage, vetch is the best precursor.

Peas

Peas also belong to the siderates, which are rapidly gaining green mass. This green fertilizer takes only a month and a half to grow, but it is very afraid of night frosts. A slight drop in air temperature is not dangerous for him.

Peas are best sown in August when most of the harvest is harvested. It is recommended to mow the plant during the period of bud formation. Peas thrive on moist, neutral soils. This legume green manure renews the composition of the soil and improves its air exchange. The soil becomes loose and absorbs moisture easily.

10 square meters of land will require 2-3 kg of seeds, which in the future will improve the soil composition by 115 g of nitrogen, 70 g of phosphorus and more than 210 g of potassium.

Donnik

In the legume family, there is an annual and biennial sweet clover. A biennial sweet clover is usually used as a siderat. The plant has a tall (more than 1 meter) branched stem with fragrant small yellow flowers, which bees love to feast on.

The plant is not afraid of cold weather and drought. Its root system penetrates deep into the soil and from there extracts numerous useful elements. Melilot can grow on soils of different composition. He is able to improve their fertility, improve the composition. This herb is an excellent pest control agent.

This legume green manure is sown at the end of the summer season, grown, but not mown in the fall, but left until spring. The overwintered sweet clover grows very quickly with the arrival of spring heat. It must be mown before flowering. The seeds of the plant are small. For one hundred square meters of land, they will need about 200 g. On a plot with such an area, the melilot contains from 150 to 250 g of nitrogen, almost 100 g of phosphorus and from 100 to 300 g of potassium.

Lupine annual

Lupine is a herbaceous plant that is considered the best green manure. The plant has finger-like leaves, erect stems and small flowers of a lilac or purple hue, collected in inflorescences. Its main distinguishing feature is its unusually deep and long roots (up to 2 meters).

Lupine can grow in any soil. He is able to improve, renew and restore the structure of the most depleted and poor soil. Its root system makes the soil loose and easily accessible to moisture and air.

The plant must be sown in early spring or late summer. At the initial stage, lupine requires abundant and regular watering. Siderat is subjected to mowing after about 2 months, but always before budding. It is an excellent precursor for strawberries and strawberries.

For 10 square meters of land, 2-3 kg of seeds will be required, depending on the variety. This leguminous plant contains nitrogen (200 to 250 grams), phosphorus (55-65 g) and potassium (180-220 g).

Alfalfa

This plant is perennial, loves moisture and warmth. Alfalfa is able to regulate the acidity of the soil and provide it with all the necessary organic components. Very demanding in the choice of soil. It will not grow on swampy, rocky and heavy soils with a lot of clay.

At the initial stage of growth, the plant needs abundant and regular watering to quickly build up green mass. With a lack of moisture, alfalfa begins to bloom ahead of time, and the amount of greenery remains minimal. The green manure is cut before the buds are formed.

For one hundred square meters of land, 100-150 g of alfalfa seeds are enough.

Seradella

This moisture-loving legume green manure belongs to annual plants. For its cultivation, weather with frequent rains and low temperatures and a shady area are suitable. It tolerates small frosts well. It can grow on any soil except acidic.

Saradella is sown in early spring and after 40-45 days it builds up the necessary green mass. It is mown and left for new greenery build-up.

The plant contributes to the renewal and improvement of the soil composition, and also repels harmful insects. It prefers to grow in humid climates or in constant high humidity.

On a plot of one hundred square meters, from 400 to 500 g of plant seeds are consumed. The composition of the soil is improved by at least 100 g of nitrogen, about 50 g of phosphorus and more than 200 g of potassium.

Sainfoin

Sainfoin green manure is a perennial plant that can grow in one place for 7 years. He is not afraid of frosts, cold winds and drought-resistant weather. In the first year, sainfoin builds up the root system, all his strength goes only to this. But in subsequent years, green manure increases a large amount of green fertilizer.

A distinctive feature of the plant is its ability to grow in rocky areas due to its powerful root system. The length of its roots reaches 10 m in depth. From such a depth, the roots get useful organic substances inaccessible to other plants.

To sow a plot of one hundred square meters, you will need about 1 kg of seeds.


Watch the video: Best4Soil: Green Manures u0026 Cover Crops Practical Information


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