Bamboo (lat. Bambusa) is a genus of evergreen perennials of the subfamily Bamboo family Cereals, or Bluegrass. In the horticultural culture, plants are grown that belong not only to the genus Bamboo, but also to other genera of the subfamily Bamboo, however, for simplicity, all these plants are called bamboos. And in our story we will call them that way, however, in the section on the types and varieties of bamboo, you can find out to which species and genus a particular plant grown in culture belongs.
Cereals are the main sources of human nutrition, animal feed, and raw materials for industry. The share of grain growing in the world accounts for 35% of arable land.
Due to the variety of species, varieties and forms, crops can grow in different climatic zones. For this reason, the concentration of cereals on heavy and light soils is the same, but the yield varies significantly.
Grain is easy to transport, does not require high storage costs. At low humidity, about 18%, it is stored for a long time, while the loss is only 2%.
The share of grains grown in temperate climates is 40%. Wheat is the most important grain crop in Russia and in the world.
Wheat grains contain just a huge amount of useful substances: vitamins of group B, C, E, F and PP, amino acids, fiber, fructose, lactose, carotene, as well as many minerals (potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, silver, iron, calcium and others ). Thanks to this, the plant brings great benefits to the body:
- improving the functioning of the gastrointestinal system
- cleansing the body of harmful substances (also contributes to self-cleansing of the liver)
- improvement of brain activity
- regulation of metabolic processes
- strengthening bones, cartilage, nails and hair
- interferes with the deposition of fat in the body.
No matter how hard we try, we cannot get rid of weeds once and for all - they get to the site through a variety of sources:
Weed plants cause significant harm to agriculture and landscape design:
But, not everything is so simple. Agricultural technicians note that some types of weeds are also beneficial. Weeds with powerful roots break soil compaction and loosen the soil, extract nutrients from a great depth, which is not accessible to lawn grass and some garden crops. A good fertilizer is obtained from such plants.
All weeds are classified according to three main biological characteristics:
Depending on the lifespan, weeds are divided into juvenile and perennial species.
Juvenile "weeds" reproduce by seeds. This group includes:
Perennial weeds can grow in one place for up to 4 years. After the seeds are ripe, the terrestrial organs of the plant die off and the root system continues to develop. New stems grow from the underground part every year. Perennials reproduce vegetatively or by seeds.
By the way of feeding, the following types of weeds are distinguished:
Creeping wheatgrass lives in fields, vegetable gardens, orchards, in river floodplains, along roads. It has a deep root system and spreads quickly over the site.
The stem of the weed is erect, the leaves are flat, long with a rough surface. Wheatgrass is very resistant to unfavorable conditions, reproduces by rhizomes on almost any type of soil, a perennial plant of the family of cereals.
You need to get rid of wheatgrass, especially if you plan to plant potatoes.
Field bindweed (birch) is a perennial weed that envelops the stems of plants. One plant can confuse up to 2 square meters of crop area. Berry bushes suffer most from birch trees.
The length of the stem is up to 180 cm, the leaves are arrow-shaped, the fruit is a two-celled capsule.
The branched roots of the field bindweed go into the ground to a depth of five meters, so it is very difficult to completely get rid of the plant - you will have to dig out the roots.
Garden purslane is an annual plant with a reddish thick stem and fleshy leaves. The stem length is about 60 cm, the shoots of one plant can cover a significant area of the garden. Purslane can be used for medicinal purposes and in cooking.
Woodlouse (stellate) is a wintering annual, ephemeral. Weed seedlings appear in early spring, and when the time comes for germination of cultivated plants, woodlice grows into a solid green carpet. Carrot crops are greatly affected by this weed.
In the old days, woodlice predicted the weather for the near future. It was believed that if after sunrise the flowers of the starlet did not rise and did not open, then precipitation should be expected during the day.
Shchiritsa thrown back is an early spring annual, characterized by very high fertility. Weed seeds are not afraid of mechanical influences and retain the ability to germinate for 5-40 years.
The plant has a high pubescent stem (up to 150 cm), ovate-rhombic leaves, flowers are collected in a dense paniculate inflorescence. Seeds can germinate from a depth of no more than 3 cm.
Herringbone (chicken millet) - infests vegetable crops (sunflowers, carrots, beets) at the beginning of their growth. In rainy years, it is able to completely drown out sparse young crops.
The stem reaches 120 cm in height, the leaves are broad-linear, pointed at the edges, the inflorescence is a panicle with spiny, single-flowered spikelets, filled with seeds that look like millet.
The tenacious bedstraw is an early spring annual. A distinctive feature - the trunk and leaves of the weed literally cling to clothing. The tenacious bedstraw appears on fertile, limestone-rich soils.
The weed horse system is pivotal, the stem is tetrahedral up to 1 m in height, on the edges of the stem there are small, downward-curved thorns. Flowers are collected in dense panicles, flowering period is summer.
Shepherd's purse is a wintering annual, blooming from spring to late autumn. Seed viability lasts almost 35 years. The height of the stem is about 20-40 cm, the leaves are pinnately dissected, the root is pivotal.
White small flowers are collected at the very top of the stem, the flowering of the weed continues all summer. During this time, the plant gives 2-4 generations (the seeds fall off and germinate immediately).
Field Yarutka is an annual plant with characteristic rounded fruits with a notch at the top. The height of the stem is no more than 40 cm, the leaves are collected in a rosette and are located near the ground. During the flowering period, the yarut gives up to 50 thousand seeds. The maximum depth from which seeds can germinate is 5 cm.
Pink sow thistle, better known as the thistle of the field, is a common perennial weed that infests any crops. The height of a sow thistle can reach 1.5 m, the surface of the stem is prickly.
The leaf shape is lanceolate, there are thorns along the edges. An adult plant has a powerful root system that grows up to 6 meters deep. Buds are laid on the bends of the root, giving development to aerial shoots.
The main source of clogging of the garden with a thistle is the vertical root. When fighting sow thistle, it is necessary to destroy the root system located at a depth of 60-70 cm
Bluegrass is an annual weed. At the beginning of growth, the plant is imperceptible, but over time, the weed blooms and stands out with ugly spots on the lawn carpet. Bluegrass thrives on compacted soils in lowlands. If the weed is removed in a timely manner, then it will not appear on the lawn for a long time.
The appearance of dandelions on the lawn, the seeds of which are carried by the wind, cannot be avoided. Best of all, dandelions "take root" on young, rarely planted lawns. The weed plant has fleshy roots that contain a large supply of nutrients. This must be taken into account when weed control - for complete destruction, more than one treatment with selective herbicides will be required.
Buttercup creeping is a perennial weed with a stem creeping on the ground. The length of the plant is about 1 m, the leaves are trifoliate. Buttercup reproduces by seeds and vegetatively. It develops favorably in damp and insufficiently lit places.
Moss, like buttercup, appears on moist soils in lowlands. To combat it, the lawn must be regularly aerated and drainage ditches made. The height of the moss is no more than 50 cm. If you do not fight this weed, then it is able to completely displace lawn grasses and lead to waterlogging of the soil.
The appearance of moss may indicate a "poor" soil composition, lack of nutrients and an excessive level of soil acidity.
Plantain often grows in compacted, trampled soil or in places where there is stagnant moisture. A garden fork is suitable for removing mature plants. If plantains have grown significantly on the lawn, then selective herbicides should be used.
Veronica filamentous settles on moist soil, rich in useful elements. The height of the plant is no more than 12 cm, the stem is thin, the flowers are delicately lilac. The weed reproduces by shoots.
Clover is the most problematic weed, causing a lot of trouble for lawn owners. A perennial plant with a height of 15-50 cm, the root system is pivotal, the leaves are ovoid. The emergence of clover can signal a lack of nitrogen in the soil.
Active growth of clover can be provoked by potash and phosphorus fertilizers applied in spring
White Mary is a frost-resistant weed on the site, growing from early spring to late autumn. The height of the plant can reach 1.5 m. The maximum depth from which the seeds can germinate is 10 cm. The plant must be removed before flowering, since one weed can give about 500 thousand seeds with different germination times.
Common oxalis (hare cabbage) is a perennial plant with a powerful root system. The weed grows in groups and easily "clogs" the lawn grass. Oxalis is very resistant to many chemicals, so the most effective way is to uproot the weed.
Not all weeds are pests; useful wild plants can also be found in the garden and in the garden.
Blue cornflower is a healing seasoning in cooking. It is believed that the plant has a diuretic, analgesic, choleretic and wound healing effect. Infusion of flowers helps with boils, eczema and conjunctivitis. Dried cornflower inflorescences are used as a natural food coloring.
Meadow clover is credited with antiseptic and anti-inflammatory qualities. The plant is used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and dry cough. Spring salads are prepared from clover flowers and young leaves, and dried shoots are added during cooking of second courses.
Young nettles are a valuable gift of spring. It contains large amounts of vitamin C and carotene. Drinking a decoction of nettle stimulates the body's metabolism and promotes weight loss. Nettle is used for cooking soups, borscht, meat, omelets and other dishes.
Horsetail is a perennial plant up to 60 cm high. It is used in the treatment of the bladder and as an antimicrobial agent. Dry herb is brewed, insisted and drunk before meals. To improve blood circulation and relieve conditions in rheumatic diseases, it is recommended to take "horsetail" baths.
Highlander bird (knotweed) is an annual weed that grows in gardens, parks, vegetable gardens and lawns. Knotweed contains many biologically active substances: coumarins, flavonoids, essential oils, vitamins and phenol carboxylic acids. The plant can be used as an antipyretic agent for colds or externally - to accelerate the healing of wounds and ulcers.
It will be much easier to control weeds in the garden and lawn if there are not too many of them. For this it is necessary to carry out preventive measures.
Lawn Maintenance Tips to Reduce Weed Risk:
Prevention of the appearance of garden weeds:
On land plots next to cultivated crops, plants, which are called weeds, are unauthorizedly settled. Dealing with harmful herbs is time-consuming. Today, over 2 thousand different species are known. Among the garden "inhabitants" you can find poisonous and harmful, which can poison domestic animals. You can find out the names of weeds in the garden from the photo in the tables below.
Plants litter fields with agricultural crops, summer cottages, are found along roads, fences, they do not have certain places of settlement.Many types of weeds can be observed near cultivated plants. For example, with wheat or barley, you can see a stupefying chaff (puzzle), and with buckwheat, a bindweed mountaineer. Growing next to cultivated plants, they affect the yield and product quality, quickly spread in the garden through seeds, fruits, and seedlings.
Weed grasses are classified according to their properties: agrobiological, which take into account how they feed, reproduce, what life span, and botanical, which determine the class, family, variety, genus of the weed.
In addition, some plants can be attributed to parasites, while others to semi-parasites, which have different ways of feeding. For example, grasses dodder, broomrape can be attributed to the first species, while other weeds feed on their own, such as white mistletoe, field broomstick, and marsh mytnik.
These include herbs such as creeping wheatgrass, bitter wormwood, horse sorrel and others. They have a strong root system that lives for a long time, and the death of the stems occurs 1-2 years after fruiting, but these weeds are able to renew from a small fragment.
Classification of perennial weeds:
They have a short lifespan, about 2 years. For example, in spring species such as quinoa, rape, wild oat, development ends after fruiting in autumn. They have a shortened growing season, high seed productivity, germination appears at a temperature of + 2-5˚С. Autumn seedlings of winter species tolerate winter well and only stop their development in summer. These weeds include an awnless fire, which is very useful for cattle, but interferes with cultural crops.
In wintering varieties, the development resembles spring plants. Falling seeds take root, give new shoots. In the rosette phase, they winter well, and in the spring, seeds ripen on the emerging flowering stem, from which they multiply, and the weed dies. Winter forms have a root rosette of leaves. Two-year-old grasses belong to juveniles. In the first year, the plant develops, a leaf rosette is formed from spring shoots, the root hides deep into the ground. Only in the second year does the weed develop seeds. This biological group includes a shepherd's bag, a field Yakut, a field broom.
The herbs described above are not cultivated by humans, but fill fields, forests, summer cottages.
Photos and names of cereal weeds will help a novice farmer identify harmful plants in his garden. It is important to identify the growth of the weeds before the beginning of its flowering. Cereals, including weeds, form a large number of seeds in one inflorescence. They are lightweight, well tolerated by the wind, getting into the soil, do not lose their properties for several years. The long branched root allows cereals to take root in regions with unfavorable climates. For weed control, weeding and spraying with herbicides are used.
All types are suitable for rockeries, but the stemless thistle (C. acaulis) is especially good.
Tough, thorny leaves are collected in rosettes. Blooms in late summer. Inflorescences - baskets with a diameter of 6-8 cm, open only in the sun. Peduncles from 10 to 30 cm.
All thorns are dried flowers. Especially good for planting near rocks, in holes and on terraces.
Very sun-loving. Drought-resistant. Poorly tolerates the transplant. Does not tolerate waterlogging. Prefers loose loams, but develops normally on any non-acidic, well-drained soils. Winter-hardy. It freezes only in severe snowless winters and during stagnant winter-spring waters.
Primroses will decorate any rock garden. This plant, suitable for rockeries, got its name because it blooms one of the first.
The species of the Auricula section are distinguished by a special originality. These are typical alpine plants, their leaves are smooth, leathery, flowers are wide open. They prefer non-acidic moist soils, they are drought-resistant. Sun-loving, but tolerate shading. Frost resistant.
There are varieties with large and double flowers, and there are also charming "dwarfs":
Small primrose (p minima) - which are best suited for a rocky garden.
These photos show varieties of primrose flowers for rockeries, the names of which are presented above:
Petiole cut leaves are collected in a basal rosette. Flowers are solitary, usually large. Planted in a sunny or slightly shaded, well-drained area. Most species require slightly acidic sandy loam or stony soils. They don't like transplants, they grow without it for many years. They are drought-resistant and absolutely do not tolerate the proximity of groundwater. Hardy, no shelter required. In culture, the most common forms and varieties originating from P. vulgaris (P. vulgaris).
The leaves form a powerful rosette. The flowers are bell-shaped, collected in a brush. There are a huge number of species and varieties, from 15 to 100 cm in height. Most species are unpretentious: undemanding to soil and lighting, drought-resistant and frost-resistant.
Suitable for any rockery, look harmonious in any composition, depending on the size, it can be planted in large or small rocky gardens, in groups or singly.
An interesting, but rare in our gardens, a group of decorative deciduous plants with leaves dying for the winter. A huge variety of species and varieties makes them indispensable when creating rockeries. Openwork forest species - Siberian diplasium, sharp-toothed kochedyzhnik, phegopteris binding, various types of golokuchnik - use to create background curtains. Dwarf mountain species, rarely exceed 15 cm in height.
As shown in the photo, such plants for rock gardens need to be planted on retaining walls and in crevices of rocks:
Most of the species are dwarf rock ferns with a height of 5 to 30 cm. The feathery leaves are collected in dense bunches. Unpretentious and frost-resistant. Every 3-5 years
Decorate with mountain "dwarfs" the walls of dry masonry, rock crevices. They are very good on small rocky woods rejuvenate with spring division. Plants are undemanding to soil fertility. They develop well both in the sun and in the shade, but only if the roots are protected from dryness and overheating, so they should be planted in holes under stones or in crevices between slabs.