Today, an increasing number of gardeners are switching to natural farming, completely ignoring mineral fertilizers. In this case, the most significant way to improve the quality of the soil is the use of green manure. But their rash use for tomatoes can not only be useful, but also harm, reducing crop yields.
This is the name of some types of annual plants, sowing which on the site before planting or after harvesting crops it becomes possible improve the composition and structure of the soil.
The root system creates tubules in the soil, which improves drainage. The roots become food for microorganisms, which further intensify their activity. Dense green manure protects the soil from drying out and winding.
At the final stage of the life cycle, plants, decomposing, fill the soil with nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus necessary for the active development of plants.
Gardeners do not recommend growing tomatoes in a permanent place. The land in the beds is depleted, the yield decreases. To improve the soil, it is recommended to plant siderates.
Sowing can be done early spring or autumn... It all depends on how the main crop is planned to be grown - in unprotected soil or in greenhouse conditions.
If the planting of siderates is carried out in the fall, then next year it is allowed to plant tomato seedlings on these beds again.
Some gardeners are afraid to use green manure, fearing that the plants will clog up all the beds. But this opinion is erroneous, because such plants take a long time for the seeds to fully ripen. They do not have time to do this, since they fall under harvesting long before the formation of seed material - during their flowering period.
The main advantages of such plants include the following features:
It should be noted that there are a number of negative aspects:
Most of the green manures are planted using a common technology. The soil in the beds should be cleared of weeds, slightly loosened and leveled. You can sow in rows, but many people prefer to do it. solid scattering... If the necessary skills are not available, then the evenness of sowing can be achieved by mixing the seed material with sawdust or sand in equal proportions.
Sowing is completed by incorporating the seeds with a conventional rake. The depth should not be too deep.
It will be better if the bed is rolled up - this will make it possible to achieve uniform shoots. To protect the beds from birds, you can cover them with non-woven materials until the shoots appear.
There is no need to sow one plant throughout the garden. By combining herbal and cereal varieties, you can have a complex effect on the soil, perfectly fertilize it.
As a rule, ready-made mixtures containing seeds are used for this:
In such beds, green manures grow an excellent green mass, as they actively reach for sunlight. By cutting off the stems, they can be easily transferred to tomato beds, using in the form of compost.
it is best to plant in the shade vetch, phacelia, oily radish, mustard.
For tomato crops, green manure plants must be planted, observing a number of requirements:
All planting and cultivation activities must be organized a few weeks before planting the tomato. Greens from siderates are best left on the surface of the beds - they will make an excellent mulch.
As a rule, the following plants are preferred:
Unfortunately, growing green manure is an effective way, but it requires additional time and effort.
Fans of organic farming recommend biologics, are able to quickly and with good quality enrich the beds with useful components without planting green manure. The raw materials for this can be food waste not containing meat residues... Mowed grass, weeds that do not yet have seeds, and small twigs are also added.
Make sure that no walnut, hornbeam, oak, poplar and willow get into the compost. Hogweed, dope, nightshade and other plants containing toxins are also prohibited from using.
Recycled waste will save you money on the purchase of seeds and will not take a lot of time to use.
This is how many gardeners maintain the fertility of the beds in the soil and greenhouse. It is only necessary to sow the plants and then embed their green mass in the soil. If you use the above recommendations, you can independently enrich the beds for tomato seedlings with useful elements.
The recommendation is that you should not use a plant of the same species, in the same area, as a green manure. It is advisable to alternate and combine crops that belong to different families, for example, rye is a cereal, and mustard is a cruciferous. More details about the types and properties of various siderates can be found in this article on siderates.
Their biological characteristics exclude competition for nutrients between themselves and the main crop - tomatoes.
When gardeners plant tomatoes, they expect a good harvest. But collecting it is not so easy, the reason for everything is specific factors that can affect the fertility of the culture.
You can use various fertilizers, buy drugs and water tomatoes with them, but it is easier to use siderates, because they:
Siderata are plants that can significantly affect the quality and quantity of the harvested crop. They act as natural fertilizers.
In the process of growth and development, plants saturate the soil with nitrogen, in addition, they increase the effectiveness of the drugs used, if the gardener decides to fertilize the tomatoes.
There are several crops that agronomists advise to use for growing tomatoes. Plants have their own characteristics.
When choosing green manure seeds for planting, pay attention to the timing of their sowing. In order not to lose the crop, consider the compatibility of the green manure with the main crop.
|Name||When to sow||When to bury|
|Vika||Early may||After 3 - 4 weeks|
|Mustard||Spring, autumn (September - October)||After 30 - 40 days|
|Buckwheat||Spring Summer||After 30 days, when flowers appear|
|Lupine||In the beginning of May||After 8 weeks, when buds appear|
|Marigold||August||Before flowering, about 1.5-2 months after the emergence of mass shoots.|
|Oats||In the beginning of May||After 40 days|
|Rye||Autumn (August - October)||After 4 - 5 months|
|Phacelia||Spring - Autumn||After 35 - 40 days|
|Siderata||Vegetable crops not recommended for planting after green manure|
|Lupine, Vika||Beans, beans|
|Mustard||Cabbage, radish, radish|
|Buckwheat||Sorrel, spinach, rhubarb|
Most garden crops prefer soils with a neutral and slightly alkaline reaction. Heavy clay soils tend to be acidic. They do not warm up well and retain water. Siderata will help get rid of weeds and pests, improve the structure of the soil and bring it closer to neutral.
To refine acidic soil, use:
Siderata grown on the site can improve the composition and structure of the soil and improve it. Plants are unpretentious, seeds are cheap. Regular sowing of green manure crops and incorporation of biomass into the soil increases its fertility.
Green manure plants have an effect depending on the type of soil that prevails in the garden. One and the same green manure behaves differently on different types of soil.
If there is acidic soil on the site, it is recommended to sow plants from the hydrophilic group, as they regulate the indicators, bringing them closer to neutral values. Grain green manures are also suitable. This type of soil is not suitable for cruciferous crops.
On heavy soils, planting amaranths and sunflowers would be a good solution, which will loosen them with their roots and make them air and moisture permeable. On light sandy soils, legumes are ideal.
Everyone wants to get not just a good, but a huge harvest of tomatoes, in order to eat and treat relatives and for harvesting - so that there is enough for everything.
For myself, I found an interesting method that I have been using for several years.
I want to make a reservation right away that I try to grow the most environmentally friendly vegetables and fruits in the garden, so I use various folk methods. Those that I liked, I try to describe and post on this channel.
We will talk about how to care for planted tomato seedlings in the following publications. Today we will talk about a method that I call "live mulch" for myself.
As soon as the soil in the greenhouse has thawed, I plant green manures in it (now is the time), this is me about the greenhouses, which are located in the Leningrad region.
Spring is early this year and the soil in greenhouses is already warmed up for planting green manure.
In a greenhouse that is dedicated to planting and growing tomatoes, I sow oil radish or mustard.
Sometimes I sow both. In one half, some seeds in the other, others.
Siderata grow rapidly. By the time of transplanting tomato seedlings, they are already growing in a green carpet. Cover the ground completely.
At the time of transplanting tomatoes, I do not touch the green carpet of green manure. In the places where I plan to plant a tomato bush, I make holes, and loosen the soil a little.
In the holes I have done, I bury the siderates (those that were in this place). When planting in the hole, I add a handful of chopped crackers and half a glass of wood ash.
I spill it well with water. A day later, I plant tomatoes on the site of the prepared holes.
As the green carpet grows, I trim it. Then it grows again until the next haircut.
All summer, under the tomatoes, sedirates grow in me, which suppress the growth of weeds and enrich the soil.
I do not know if this is related to my growing method, but after I began to apply this method, the notorious phytophthora no longer visits my tomatoes.
And another tip, if you are overcome by the problem of late blight, try to grow early ripe varieties of tomatoes.
With the development of modern breeding among early maturing varieties, you can find those that are suitable for harvesting and have good keeping quality.
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The planting rules are very simple. The main thing is to choose the most suitable crops that can heal and improve the structure of the soil, for the autumn or early spring. So the earth will not just rest, but recuperate for the next season. The cost of seeds of this category of plants is low and allows sowing green manures not only in small areas of greenhouses. Sideration allows you to prepare large areas of open ground.
Siderata is a good, natural fertilizer that can be used without fear of making a mistake in the dosage. The complex effect of plants in the process of green manure on the structure and quality of the soil allows more efficient use of the land, changing its yield for a long time.
According to experts, a triple harvest of legumes is equivalent to a portion of manure necessary to restore soil fertility. So, a simple planting of peas, lupines or clovers will help the land plot with minimal financial costs. True, this method requires additional labor costs, so everyone has the right to choose an easier way. Given the peculiarities of growing tomatoes in small greenhouses, it is much easier to plant green manures, thereby extending the life of the soil.