Strawberries (aka garden strawberries) grow in almost all garden plots of our country: from the Caucasus to Karelia, as well as in the countries of the former Soviet Union. She needs sun, moisture, good soil, moderate warmth and a lot of attention: this is one of the most labor-intensive berry crops.
Only in regions with a harsh climate do strawberries have to be grown in greenhouses. But in the vast majority of cases, this culture grows in the open field.
Ampel varieties of strawberries are grown even in a city apartment.
Ampel strawberries can be successfully grown in an apartment.
Various soils are suitable for strawberries: it grows on chernozems, and on loams, and on sandy soils. But the beds must be well filled with organic and mineral fertilizers. Reliable protection of the strawberry plantation from cold winds is also necessary.
The best precursors for strawberries are cabbage, salads, legumes, onions, garlic, clover. Raspberries, tomatoes, eggplants, potatoes are unsuitable. Almost everything can be planted next to strawberries, except for plants that give a lot of growth: raspberries, plums, cherries, horseradish. Optimal neighbors are various salads, beans, onions and garlic.
The relief of the site should be relatively flat. It can be planted on small slopes, preferably in the south-western direction, it must be remembered that in low places strawberries suffer greatly from frost. It should be borne in mind that at the chosen place the culture will grow for a maximum of 5 years. Therefore, it can also be planted in the aisles of young fruit trees.
Strawberries are grown in greenhouses and apartments, but mostly outdoors.
Depending on the climate, soil, area, relief and the wishes of the owner, the format for arranging a strawberry plantation may be different.
Quite high beds (20-30 cm above the furrow) have to be built in regions with high humidity, in swampy places. For strength, the ridge can be fenced with a fence made of boards, without this it will crumble. Structures are arranged long before planting, since at first the soil will settle strongly due to watering and rotting of organic fertilizers.
In areas with little snow, when growing strawberries on high ridges, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of winter freezing, therefore, in late autumn, additional shelter of plants should be provided with reeds, pine or spruce branches, non-woven material.
High beds are best fenced off: this way the soil will not crumble
The combs are made just before planting, the height of each is 25–30 cm. Before planting the seedlings, they are well watered. With this method of cultivation, it is convenient to care for strawberries: moisture in optimal quantities enters the roots of each bush, the plantation is well ventilated, which reduces the risk of disease.
There is a lot of space between the ridges, which is convenient for mechanized plantation care
With the carpet method, a strawberry mustache is planted without following any scheme. But when preparing the beds, an increased amount of fertilizer is applied to the soil. Over time, the strawberry grows and covers the entire area allotted to it with a solid carpet. The mustache is not removed, new bushes grow randomly from them. Plants create their own microclimate. A solid strawberry carpet prevents abundant growth of weeds, and moisture evaporates less, so the method is also suitable for arid regions.
A strawberry carpet can bear fruit well for up to 8-10 years. The berries grow smaller, although they are often sweeter.
Carpet cultivation of strawberries under the bushes creates its own microclimate, weeds do not grow, moisture is retained better
The chemical industry makes nonwoven plastics from polymers, usually polypropylene. On a garden bed covered with such material, a mulch effect is created, weeds almost do not appear, and the soil retains water well. The traditional nonwoven material is spunbond, the density of which for growing strawberries must be at least 45 g / m2. Lighter ones break quickly.
Spunbond will lie in the garden for several years, so the dose of fertilizer during planting must be significantly increased: for every 1 m2, add up to 3 buckets of well-rotted manure, not counting the usual amounts of mineral fertilizers.
For arranging the garden:
Agrofibre not only warms the soil, prevents weeds from growing, but also keeps the berries clean
Vertical cultivation of strawberries is used in cases where the area of the site is very modest. The beds are arranged from a variety of materials at hand - wide pipes, bags, car tires.
The soil is prepared in a large container in advance and must contain an increased amount of fertilizer. It is placed in a fabricated structure and strawberry seedlings are planted in the usual way. Maintenance of vertical beds is simple, but you need to carefully monitor soil moisture: usually watering is required much more often.
One of the options for vertical cultivation is the strawberry pyramid:
Vertical cultivation of strawberries saves space on the site
The timing of planting strawberries depends on the region:
Almost always, strawberries are propagated by rooted rosettes that form on the mustache. The best seedlings have several well-developed leaves, the roots should be at least 6 cm.
A good seedling should have several leaves and a developed root system.
For digging, organic fertilizers must be applied: 1 m2 beds - 8-10 kg of compost or well-rotted manure. Phosphorus and potash mineral fertilizers are added to them (from 5 to 10 g per 1 m2).
All types of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are quite suitable for strawberries. Of potash, it is better not containing chlorine (potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium). Ash from burning wood residues is the best option for the garden and vegetable garden.
Sometimes 2-3 plants are planted in one hole, if there are not enough good whiskers. Growing up, they give one large bush.
When planting strawberries, the heart must not be buried.
Immediately after the snow melts, the beds are cleared of dry and diseased leaves, and they are immediately burned. The soil around each bush is carefully loosened. Plants are mulched with humus. If severe frosts are expected during the preparation of strawberries for flowering or flowering itself, the beds should be covered with non-woven material (spunbond, lutrasil). Often used for mulching beds of needles of coniferous trees. Before flowering, they are poured abundantly between the bushes, creating a pillow of 4-6 cm. In August, the needles are collected and burned.
When using needles as mulch, the need for watering and loosening strawberries is reduced
On plantations 3-4 years old after harvest, all leaves are often mowed: not lower than 1-2 cm from the beginning of the growth of the horns, fertilized with urea and watered abundantly. This needs to be done no later than early August: it takes a month for the abundant growth of new foliage. The procedure destroys most pests, helps to fight weeds, and increases the yield. All mustaches, if they are not needed for new plantings, are cut off immediately after appearance.
Removing strawberry leaves after harvest helps to get rid of many pests
At the end of summer, weeding is carried out on strawberry beds, at the same time loosening the soil. In early August, in the middle lane, beds are prepared for new plantings.
In autumn, the soil around the bushes is loosened deeply; if possible, dig up to 20–40 cm. Cover the beds with humus or semi-rotten manure with a layer of about 5 cm. The bushes that have risen from the ground slightly spud, covering the bare roots. The extra mustache is torn off again.
Weeds that grow between rows in autumn can be left in place until spring to help build up snow.
Strawberries are the least hardy berry of those grown in garden plots. At a temperature of -15 ° C, leaves not covered with snow are severely damaged. Snow reliably saves bushes from freezing. In late autumn, in order to improve snow retention, brushwood and branches from pruning garden trees should be thrown on the beds. If there is no snow at the onset of severe frosts, the strawberries are covered with spruce or pine spruce branches. Nonwovens will also help.
Fertilizers applied during planting are enough for 1-2 years, after which the strawberries need to be fed. In early spring, when loosening under bushes, add 10–20 g of urea per 1 m2... You can also apply complex mineral fertilizers (for example, azofosku) according to the instructions on the package.
Urea is one of the safest nitrogen fertilizers
Top dressing with Azofoska is repeated after harvesting. If the leaves were mown, for the regrowth of new ones, increased doses of nitrogen fertilizers are needed: urea or ammonium nitrate (10-20 g per 1 m2).
With poor plant development, they can be fed in August. This can be done with solutions of mullein or bird droppings. Strawberries are also useful for foliar feeding, for example, with a 0.3% urea solution or a solution of a mixture of trace elements (0.2% potassium permanganate, boric acid and ammonium molybdate each).
You need to be careful when using organic feed, especially chicken manure: use only very highly diluted solutions, otherwise you can burn the plants. For 3-4 running meters of the bed, take 1 bucket of solution, in which no more than a handful of droppings are bred.
Ash from burning wood residues also gives excellent results: up to a liter jar per 1 m2 beds. Can be used dry or diluted with water. Any top dressing is best done after good watering or rain.
At the summer cottage, it is better to fight pests and diseases of strawberries without chemicals, but in difficult situations you cannot do without this:
In the first decade of April, strawberry plantations are watered with hot water (temperature 60–65 ° C). Such treatment destroys the larvae of ticks, weevils, nematodes.
Bordeaux liquid is widely used in gardens
The technology of growing strawberries in all regions is practically the same, however, the climate makes significant amendments to the timing of planting mustaches, the irrigation regime, and preparatory measures for winter.
The weather in the Moscow region is unpredictable: in winter frosts alternate with thaws. Because of this, many plants suffer from root suppression. To some extent, this also applies to strawberries. But in general, the climate is quite suitable for growing berries.
In the Moscow region, strawberries are usually planted in August, the deadline is early September. Tall beds are often used to keep the roots dry. If there is no time for careful care, they are grown with a carpet.
Optimal strawberry varieties:
Strawberries Krasavitsa Zagorja - one of the favorite varieties for the middle lane
The main activities are the mandatory trimming of the mustache, timely weeding, watering and feeding. During fruiting, strawberries are watered 2-3 times, another 1-2 times after picking berries, and in dry years - before flowering. For the winter, since there is little hope for timely snow, mulching materials are plentifully poured onto the beds.
The climatic conditions of Belarus are in many ways similar to those in central Russia. But, unlike the Moscow region, the weather here is more predictable: thaws in winter, of course, happen, but in general the weather is somewhat milder. It is very suitable for strawberry cultivation.
Strawberries are planted with a mustache at the end of summer, but even more often in spring, in May. If peduncles appeared on young bushes in the first summer after spring planting, they need to be cut off in order to get a bountiful harvest next year. Traditional varieties:
Strawberry varieties on the plantation try not to mix.
Before frost, the beds are covered with peat, pine needles or sawdust (5 cm layer), in the absence of these materials - leaves fallen from trees (up to 15 cm). It is necessary to cover it when establishing small negative temperatures. In early spring, the shelter must be removed, otherwise damping and death of the bushes are possible.
The climate of the Kuban is relatively homogeneous, although it depends slightly on the proximity of the sea. There are good conditions for growing strawberries.
The natural conditions of the Black Sea zone of the Krasnodar Territory are somewhat different, but they are even more favorable for culture. Strawberries grow here almost all year round.So, if you provide good care after the full harvest, there will be a second harvest at the end of summer.
The berry is planted in March or from mid-August to early October. Sufficient rainfall allows strawberries to be grown in the aisles of young orchards. We have to select varieties that are adapted to hot weather conditions:
Winters are very mild, and there is no need to carry out special work to protect against frost: just ordinary weeding, feeding and loosening.
The harsh weather conditions of Siberia call for taking seriously the protection of strawberries from frost. Choose seedlings of local varieties:
Southern varieties are grown only in greenhouses.
The warmest place is chosen for the plantation: a flat area or a small southern slope. A narrow-band single-line growing scheme is convenient in Siberia: mustaches growing not far from the row are rooted in place, forming stripes 25-30 cm wide. Strawberries are planted most often in the spring. With the threat of frost, young plantations are covered with foil, spunbond or spruce branches.
In areas with little snow at the end of October, the beds are covered with straw, reeds, a layer of plant tops (at least 10 cm). Further, the branches are laid, remaining from the pruning of garden trees. They trap snow, prevent the wind from blowing away the lower layers of insulation materials. In the spring, after the snow melts, the shelter is removed and sent to a fire or compost pit.
Growing strawberries using Finnish technology helps to fight the vagaries of the weather. Its essence is that the soil on the garden bed is covered with a black film, in which holes 4–6 cm in size are cut. Strawberry whiskers are planted in them. You can harvest the crop already 2 months after planting the seedlings. The reason is the rapid and uniform heating of the soil. But for the Finnish way of growing strawberries, an arrangement of a drip irrigation system is required.
Finnish technology involves the use of a black film, under which it is warm and humid
The peculiarities of the Ural climate require a gardener to be attentive to the cultivation of strawberries. It is necessary to choose frost-resistant varieties, gardeners prefer:
Optimal remontant varieties:
You can plant strawberries in the Urals both in early spring and at the end of summer. The second option is preferable. The mustache is planted in high beds, usually in two rows. A shallow trench is dug between them, in which a drip irrigation system is then mounted. The bushes are arranged in a checkerboard pattern, maintaining a distance of 30 cm between rows and about 20 cm in a row. They put a lot of manure when preparing the beds: in addition to the nutritional function, it will also warm the roots of plants. Of course, you need to take only rotted manure, best of all - horse manure.
If strawberries planted in autumn bloom, the buds must be removed so that the bushes are well prepared for winter. With the onset of light frosts, strawberry beds are covered with a layer of agrofibre or spruce branches. In the spring, the shelter must be removed.
Obtaining high yields of strawberries at a summer cottage requires a lot of investment. In addition to knowledge, it takes effort and time. You can grow strawberries in different regions. In the north, greenhouses are used for its cultivation. The most daring gardeners get their harvest even in a city apartment.
Graduated from the Chemistry Department of Moscow State University in 1981. Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor.
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A number of strawberry varieties have been developed in France. But, despite this, these varieties can be successfully grown in Russia.
Growing strawberries in the open field is carried out at different times, depending on the climatic and geographical conditions of the region where the culture is growing. The plant takes root well and gives a rich harvest at a temperature of 15 ° -25 °. Therefore, the best time to plant is:
If you correctly determine the timing of planting and provide the culture with proper care, you can get an excellent harvest and even start industrial cultivation of strawberries.
Good engraftment and growth of strawberries shows at an air temperature of 15-25 degrees Celsius, therefore, the optimal time for planting is considered: For the middle zone and the Moscow region - early spring (late March - mid-April), but preferable in autumn (early August - late September) For the south - autumn period (early September) For the northern regions - late May - early July. Strawberries, planting and caring for which are carried out in accordance with all the rules, gives a good harvest.
You can grow strawberries (or strawberries) in any soil, it is quite unpretentious and not too demanding. But the bushes feel especially good on black soil with the addition of ash. But the peat components of the soil are not recommended for this berry, although many consider peat to be rich soil for its cultivation. Also, too acidic soils are not recommended.
Before planting strawberries, the soil must be prepared, especially if it has not been previously cultivated. If the summer resident suspects that may beetle larvae or wireworms may be in the soil, then if possible, it is better to choose another place for planting. Beetle larvae can hibernate in the soil, and one larva is quite capable of destroying a square meter of planting. If it is impossible to choose another piece of land, then experts advise planting alkaloid lupine on the site (larvae die from eating its beans).
If the result is needed here and now, an ammonia solution is added to the soil. Modern materials make it much easier to grow strawberries outdoors. Geotextiles, for example, are good at allowing moisture to pass through, but not letting in light. And where there is no light, there are no weeds. If the summer resident decides to use it, then he does not need to fight weeds in the fall - it is enough to simply crush them so that they rot by the spring.
In the spring, it is enough to level the bed with a rake, get rid of the largest roots and branches, add compost and spread the fibers of agrofibre. Make holes in the fiber at a distance of 30 cm from each other and make indentations through them. They need to be watered and the strawberry bush should be planted carefully. Agrofibre passes moisture well, light does not penetrate through it, therefore, no one will interfere with the growth of strawberries. The summer resident may not think about weeding.
Instead of agrofibre, you can also use a simple roofing felt. However, in this case, it is necessary to lay an irrigation system under the roofing material - stretch the hose with filled holes (with a gypsy needle or awl) with a snake. On the one hand, you just need to plug this hose, and on the other, connect a water container, for example, a tank. Roofing material will retain moisture in the soil, so you don't have to water it often.
Dutch technology for year-round cultivation of strawberries in greenhouses
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