Devices and methods in an adaptive landscape farming system


Read the previous part: Components of an adaptive landscape farming system

To develop adaptive landscape farming at your dacha, you need to start by collecting and generalizing agrochemical and landscape background information. To do this, it is necessary to determine the fertility of each square meter of a summer cottage field, carry out a mapping of the garden plot, and then, on their basis, determine the exact doses of fertilizers, develop a technology for growing plants and harvesting.

During the summer, operational diagnostics of the state of plants is additionally removed, and during harvesting, the missing information is collected again, the existing information is clarified, after which new technologies are drawn up for the next growing season.


This work takes two years - and the precision farming system is considered to be mastered. In the following publications, we will try to reveal the essence of all this work with specific examples, we will calculate fertilizer doses, we will compose cultivation technologies so that everyone can implement the system at their site in kind.

And today we will introduce you to adaptive landscape precision technology used in industrial agriculture, in a large agricultural enterprise.

Collection of agrochemical and landscape information in industrial production, they are performed using numerous instruments and satellite systems developed at the Agrophysical Institute of the Russian Agricultural Academy. General reconnaissance is first performed using a radio-controlled unmanned aerial mobile complex with geoinformation referencing via satellite, which allows aerial monitoring of agricultural fields.

In aerial photography of fields, the state of a specific soil, specific crops and plantings in a specific landscape. This information is then used to differentiate fertilization with precise doses for each square meter of field, applying plant protection products and dressing.

For a more detailed determination of the content of nutrients in the soil and carrying out agrochemical analyzes, an automated complex is used for conducting an agrochemical survey with gps-binding of selected samples, mounted on a car.

The complex is equipped with a GPS satellite receiver, an on-board computer, an automatic soil sampler and special software that allows you to create electronic contours (maps) of fields (with centimeter accuracy) and conduct agrochemical soil survey at a modern level using the latest scientific achievements in the field of information technology.

Based on the information collected by this complex, cartograms of the soil area are compiled, which are used to develop technology for the cultivation of agricultural plants, to determine the soil cultivation system, fertilizer system, determine the doses of fertilizers and the need for chemical plant protection products and for other necessary agrotechnical measures.


The resulting cartograms reflect the state of the soil of an individual field or even a garden plot, an entire farm, or, for example, the entire Leningrad region. If you look at the cartogram of the entire Leningrad region, created in order to determine the potential of the fields at growing potatoes, then it can be noted that when cultivating this crop, the possible yield, depending on the fertility of the soil, ranges from 40 to 400 centners of tubers per hectare, that is, it differs ten times.

It can be seen that not everywhere you can get a good harvest, especially when cultivating plants according to an organic system, without the introduction of fertilizers and plant protection products. Yellow, orange and red colors characterize areas where you can grow the lowest potato yield, greenish color allows you to get a yield in front of 120-180 centners / ha. This is better, but not enough yet. And only in the dark blue areas of the region it is possible to get yields of more than 200 c / ha, which is quite acceptable.

The minimum yield that can be obtained on infertile soils is 1.5-2 times higher than the planting rate of tubers. Naturally, she cannot suit anyone. For example, you planted a bucket of potatoes, and you got 1.5-2 buckets of harvest. This is ineffective. In such areas, it is necessary to introduce modern farming systems that allow you to get a harvest of 1 in 10.

We have seen cartograms of a small (summer cottage) field. So even on it, the difference in soil fertility is sometimes significant. The spatial diversity of the field is noted in terms of soil fertility, sometimes it differs by 5-6 times. It is also difficult to grow a good harvest on such a garden plot.

A detailed description of soil fertility up to the smallest contour equal to 1 square meter is needed in order to even out fertility with the help of fertilizers and agrotechnical measures. Such a detailed soil characteristic can be obtained not only by using satellite systems and complex automated systems, but also by simple manual accounting of plant yield, which we will do by determining soil fertility by manually measuring the actual productivity of plants in a specific agricultural landscape. This method is also used in large agricultural enterprises.

When harvesting grain crops, data on soil fertility are automatically determined by devices installed on the combine, where the mass of threshed grain and straw is weighed from each square meter, and according to the yield of plants, cartograms of the soil fertility of a particular field are then compiled.

This method of accounting for the mass of plant yield is available to gardeners and summer residents, it is enough just to weigh the harvested crop of plants from each square meter and draw up cartograms manually. It's not difficult at all

The size of the grown crop rather well characterizes the level of soil fertility, and this fertility will correspond to a specific landscape, since the crop is a function of the conditions that actually developed in a specific place, in a specific gardening and in a specific summer resident.

And then it will be very easy to create an adaptive landscape system. The methodology for accounting for the yield and soil fertility will be analyzed in detail in the following publications. After collecting information on soil fertility in a specific landscape, cartograms are drawn up, fertilizer doses are calculated for each square meter of the site, they are applied on a specific square meter of the field, sowing plants, caring for them and harvesting, according to the size of which it is again determined: is it correct everything was done.

During vegetation of plants again control the situation with plant nutrition, determining what they lack or what is in excess. This is done using hand-held devices or automatically using an unmanned aerial vehicle. This can also be done during the maintenance of crops, for example, before planting or when hilling potatoes, a computer and devices that control the growth and development of plants are installed in the tractor cab, which record information and give commands to apply fertilizers or plant protection products in the right quantities directly to field, directly for each small plot (1 m2). This is all done on large areas where one person cannot cope. At the summer cottage, all this can be done manually.

The processes occurring in the soil-sowing-atmosphere system are also monitored using a stationary multifunctional 32-channel automatic agrometeorological station (CAAS-AFI), which is designed to study in the field the processes occurring in the soil-sowing-atmosphere complex, including measuring and registration of parameters of the surface layer of air, parameters of heat and mass transfer in the soil and parameters characterizing the state of plants.

All these complexes and devices were developed at the Agrophysical Institute of the Russian Agricultural Academy. Gardeners do not need to have them at home, because it is very expensive, the owner of six acres can do everything manually: weigh the crop, draw up cartograms and technologies, in addition, he can use the Internet - weather data, distribution plant diseases and pests or get information from a nearby weather station. This small sightseeing excursion to the world of adaptive landscape precision farming, to the world of science, which we have done, we hope, will be useful for gardeners and summer residents, it gives an idea of ​​the scale and possibilities of work on the development of a landscape environmentally friendly farming system. We wish you every success!

Continue reading - Suburban agriculture: mapping fields, maintaining crop rotation

Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Scientific Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,

Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener


Introduction of the thesis (part of the abstract) on the topic "Drip irrigation and fertilization of tomatoes in the zone of light chestnut soils of the Volga region"

The relevance of research. Modern agro-ecological and economic conditions dictate to vegetable-growing farms in the Lower Volga the need to choose environmentally friendly technologies and technical means of irrigation, which include drip irrigation. This method allows maintaining a favorable water-air regime in the soil without surface and deep discharge of irrigation water. The necessary soil moisture in combination with the application of mineral fertilizers during the growing season ensures the planned harvest of vegetables.

Based on considerations of maintaining ecological, economic, social balance and stability, one of the main tasks of irrigated agriculture is to use every cubic meter of irrigation water used for irrigation of crops most efficiently. Along with this, it is advisable to use irrigated land, first of all, for valuable, highly profitable crops, which include tomatoes. This is the leading vegetable crop in the Volgograd region.

The limiting factors for the development of tomato production using drip irrigation systems are the lack of irrigation technology, consistent with the peculiarities of water distribution over the irrigated area and the technology of cultivation of this crop. Our research is subordinated to the solution of the problem of substantiating the regimes of drip irrigation and fertilization of tomatoes cultivated in open ground and providing the formation of 80-100 t / ha of fruits of the planned quality.

The purpose of the research is to substantiate the elements of resource-saving technology of drip irrigation and a system of tomato fertilization, which ensure the formation of fruit yields of 80-100 t / ha of high quality.

The tasks of the research included the solution of the following questions:

- taking into account the agroclimatic resources of the region, conduct a study and assess the possibilities of regulating the conditions for growing tomatoes with drip irrigation

- to assess the impact of drip irrigation on the main indicators of the production process of tomatoes and the formation of crop quality

- to evaluate the influence of the levels of mineral nutrition on obtaining high quality tomato fruits, with a yield of 80-100 t / ha

- to establish the regularities of the formation of the water regime of the soil during drip irrigation, to study the dynamics of water consumption and to establish bioclimatic coefficients for the research region

- to substantiate the main elements of the technology of drip irrigation of tomatoes, ensuring the maintenance of the necessary soil moisture in the active layer to obtain 80-100 t / ha of fruits with high taste and nutritional qualities, sugar content - not less than 48%, acidity - not more than 8% of dry matter weight

- to conduct an economic assessment of water and mineral nutrition regimes and propose an improved technological scheme for the cultivation of tomatoes with drip irrigation.

Scientific novelty. The main indicators of the production process and the formation of the quality of the tomato crop were determined under various modes of drip irrigation.

Quantitative indicators of tomato water consumption were obtained, including bioclimatic coefficients depending on the sum of average daily temperatures from the beginning of the growing season.

The regime of drip irrigation and the dose of mineral fertilizers of tomatoes for obtaining high quality fruits, while forming the planned yield levels of 80-100 t / ha, have been substantiated.

An economic assessment of the cultivation of tomatoes with drip irrigation and fertilization in the zone of light chestnut soils of the Trans-Volga region has been made.

The main provisions for the defense:

- a comprehensive assessment of the regulated regimes of water and mineral nutrition of tomatoes with drip irrigation, ensuring the highest yield of high quality fruits

- indicators of the production process of tomatoes with different combinations of modes of water and mineral nutrition

- patterns of water consumption, water regime of the soil and the main parameters of the technology of drip irrigation of tomatoes in the open field

- economic assessment of the efficiency of tomato production with drip irrigation.

The reliability of the research results is confirmed by the data of experimental material obtained using modern, approved and standardized techniques in an amount sufficient for processing by methods of mathematical statistics. Positive results of pilot production testing by implementations.

The practical significance of the research results is that an improved technology for the production of tomatoes with drip irrigation is recommended for the production, focused on the formation of the best taste and nutritional qualities of fruits with a steady yield of 80-100 t / ha. Considered and presented in the form of parametric tables, graphs and regression equations, the regularities of the production process of tomatoes under drip irrigation can be used in the development of industry projects by scientific and design organizations.

Approbation of work. The results and main provisions of the dissertation work were reported at scientific and practical conferences at the Volgograd State Agricultural Academy, at conferences of young scientists of RosNIIPM and extended meetings of the scientific section "Operation of reclamation systems" of the Department of Agriculture, Melioration and Forestry of the Russian Agricultural Academy (in 2005-2007 d).

The results and main provisions of the dissertation work were introduced in two vegetable farms in the Volgograd region, the farm of Vladimir Dmitrievich Vybornov and the Rostok farm, with a total area of ​​7 hectares, respectively, with the maximum economic benefit - 258 thousand rubles / ha.

Compliance with the content of the dissertation, the specialty in which it is recommended for defense. The dissertation presented by Yuri Olegovich Akimov in its focus corresponds to the passport of the scientific specialty 06.01.02 - "Melioration, reclamation and protection of lands" p. 4.

Publications. The main provisions of the dissertation are set out in 3 published works.One article was published in the journal "Reports of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences" recommended by the Higher Attestation Commission.

Structure and scope of work. The dissertation consists of an introduction, five chapters, conclusions, recommendations for production, a list of references and applications. The content of the work is set out on 207 pages, incl. main text 152 pages 32 tables, 22 figures and 36 applications. The list of used literature includes 174 sources, including 12 foreign authors.


Introduction of the thesis (part of the author's abstract) on the topic "Biological characteristics and breeding assessment of species and varieties of the genus Narcissus L. in the south-west of the CCR: the example of the Belgorod region"

The relevance of research. In Russia, in open ground, from representatives of the Amaryllidaceae family J. St.-Hil. cultivates mainly varieties of the genus Narcissus L. [Artyushenko, 1970]. Low demands on growing conditions, wide ecological plasticity, the presence of numerous forms that differ in the structure and size of the perianth, high decorativeness make it possible to recommend daffodils for wider use in floriculture [Krichfalushiy, Komendar, 1990 Konovalova, 2005]. However, in urban landscaping, daffodils are rarely used and are practically not used in spring flower arrangements. This is explained, mainly, by the lack of a sufficient amount of varietal planting material and insufficient knowledge of the behavior of the introduced varieties in new growing conditions for them [Kulikov, 2010].

Species and varieties of the genera Galanthus L., Narcissus, Leucojum L. are used in open field floriculture and for forcing. To date, numerous varieties of these flowering plants have been created by breeders and amateur flower growers. For landscaping, the introduction of new species is important, which successfully replenish the assortment of flowering plants and are involved in breeding to create a variety of varieties. Of the representatives of the amaryllis family, hibernating in the open field, daffodils, as larger bulbous plants, are stable in culture and bloom stably under the condition of shelter for the winter.

However, it is not only the decorative features of amaryllis that attract attention. In the 20th century, valuable alkaloids were discovered in a number of species, such as galantamine, narcissin (lycorin, amarylline, galantidine), which were successfully used in medicine [Turova, 1974 Hammerman, Thunder, 1976 Takhtadzhyan, 1982].

Species of the subfamily Amaryllidoideae, naturally growing on the territory of Russia, are listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation [2008] and regional Red Data Books (Red Data Book of the Krasnodar Territory [2007], Sochi [2002], etc.) with the status of rare or vulnerable species. Under the influence of the anthropogenic factor, the populations of such species are rapidly decreasing.

A great contribution to the study of the genus Narcissus in Russia was made by Z.T. Artyushenko [1970] (St. Petersburg), V.N. Bylov, E.H. Zaitseva [1977], N. Ya. Ip-politova [2001] (Moscow), T.V. Evsyukova, Z.P. School [2003] (Sochi) abroad - G.Ye. Kapinos [1961] (Azerbaijan), E.K. Zagorcha, [1990] (Moldova), V.V. Krichfalushiy, V.I. Komendar [1990] (Ukraine), JI.B. Zavadskaya [2005] (Belarus). However, the development and structure of shoot systems have been studied in a single number of species, the technology of growing planting material of these valuable ornamental plants in the Black Earth zone has not been developed. The creation and study of collections of daffodils and other representatives of amaryllis, identification of the features of their structure and development is an urgent task, since it contributes to the expansion of the cultivated area and the introduction of the most cultured stable species and varieties in the landscaping of settlements in the south-west of the Chernozem region.

The purpose and objectives of the research. The purpose of the work is to identify the biological characteristics of species and varieties of the genus Narcissus for breeding and expanding the range of ornamental plants in the climatic conditions of the southwest of the Black Earth Region.

In accordance with the goal, the following tasks were set:

- to study the rhythms of seasonal development of species and varieties of the genus Narcissus

- to study the features of the formation of daffodil bulbs

- to reveal the variability of quantitative and qualitative morphological traits of Amaryllidaceae species and varieties in the climatic conditions of the south-west of the Chernozem region

- to investigate the ability to seed and vegetative propagation of species and varieties of the genus Narcissus

- to identify the features of forcing daffodil bulbs.

- to study the economic and biological characteristics of the most valuable and promising varieties.

Scientific novelty. For the first time in the climatic conditions of the south-west of the Chernozem region, the rhythms of development, the timing and characteristics of flowering of four species and 33 varieties of the genus Narcissus were studied. The lifespan of monocarpic shoots from the beginning of bud formation to the death of the basal parts of the developed shoots was established; structural features of the aerial part of the shoots of species and varieties of the genera Narcissus, Galanthus and Leucojum, epidermis of leaf blades, and the variability of the main morphological characteristics were studied. The coefficients of seed productivity and vegetative reproduction in species and varieties of the genus Narcissus have been calculated, as well as the sympodial type of growth of bulbs has been established. An assessment was made of the introduction of the studied species and varieties of daffodils for use in breeding purposes and in gardening. The factors that determine the duration of forcing, the height of flowering shoots and the abortion of buds (the size of the bulbs, their storage conditions before forcing, temperature) have been determined.

Practical significance. Identified highly decorative, culture-resistant species and varieties of daffodils 'Dutch Master', 'Passionale', 'Rip Van Winkle', 'Split', 'Tahiti', 'Tete-a-Tete' and 'White Lion', recommended for industrial cultivation in the climatic conditions of the south-west of the Chernozem region. Sources of valuable traits for breeding have been identified - high seed productivity, tall generative shoots, flowering time. Practical recommendations have been developed for the cultivation of species and varieties of the genus Narcissus in the climatic conditions of the south of the Central Russian Upland and their forcing. The characteristics of the most promising varieties of foreign origin introduced in the climatic conditions of the south of the Central Russian Upland are given. Based on the assessment of economically valuable traits, the species N. cyclamineus, N. minor var. pumilus and varieties of daffodils' All Glory ',' Aranjuez ',' Gertie Millar ',' Golden Harvest ',' Ingle-

scombe ',' Ornatus Maximus' and 'Sir Watkin' for various types of use (forcing, cutting, landscaping). The most promising cultivated species and varieties of the studied collection of daffodils were transferred to FGBNU VILAR for use as sources of biologically active substances.

The main provisions for the defense.

1. Features of the formation of daffodil bulbs in the climatic conditions of the south of the Central Russian Upland.

2. Features of vegetative propagation of daffodils by dividing bulbs for breeding purposes.

3. Species and varieties of daffodils, the most adaptive in the climatic conditions of the south of the Central Russian Upland and promising for breeding for the main economically valuable traits (flowering time, plant height, coefficient of vegetative reproduction).

Approbation of work results. The main provisions and results of the work were presented: at international conferences - "Biodiversity: problems of study and conservation" (Tver, 2012), "Preservation of the diversity of tropical and subtropicogenic flora during introduction" (Yaroslavl, 2012), "Floriculture: traditions and modernity" ( Volgograd, 2013) All-Russian scientific and scientific-practical conferences - "Biodiversity and culture communities in extreme conditions" (Apatity, 2012), "Biologization of the adaptive landscape farming system - the basis for increasing soil fertility, increasing the productivity of agricultural crops and preserving the environment" (Belgorod , 2012) of the international scientific and practical Internet conference - "Scientific support for the development of personal, suburban and farm gardening" (Sochi, 2013), "Perennial flower crops in scientific collections and urban greening" (Sochi, 2014).

Publications. Based on the materials of the dissertation, 12 works were published, including 4 articles in journals from the list of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Russian Federation.

The structure and scope of the thesis. The dissertation consists of an introduction, five chapters, conclusions, recommendations for production and breeding, a bibliographic list, including 231 titles, including 71 in foreign languages, and four appendices. The work is presented on 150 pages, includes 37 figures, 25 tables. All drawings in the work are made by the author.

CHAPTER 1. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FAMILY AM AR YLLIDA CE A E JAUME ST. - HIL.

1.1. Systematic position of some species of the subfamily

The Amaiyllidoideae subfamily is one of three subfamilies of the Amaryllidaceae family Jaume St. - Hil.along with the subfamilies Agapanthoideae and Allioideae. The Amaryllidaceae family belongs to the order Amaiyllidales (amaryllidaceae), the superorder Lilianae (liliaceae), the subclass Liliidae (liliaceae), the class Liliopsida, or Monocotyledones (liliopsida, or monocots), the division Magnoliophyta, Angiospennae (flowering), angiosperms. Previously, this family was usually included in the order Liliales (lily-colored) in the APG II classification system; the family is included in the order Asparagales (asparagus-colored) [Takhgadzhyan, 1987 Meerow, 1999].

Continental division of the Amaryllidaceae (classification by area of ​​distribution) and classification by taxonomic ranks of biological systematics - tribes were proposed by A.W. Meerow [1999]. There are only 15 tribes in the Amaryllidaceae classification. Some tribes are especially extensive and include subtribes, and then genera and species. African Amaiyllidaceae include tribes - Amaryllideae (4 subtypes), Cyrthanteae (1 genus), Haemantheae (3 subtypes) Australo-Asian - Calostemmateae (2 genera), Lycorideae (2 genera) Eurasian - Narcisseae (2 genera), Galantheae (6 genera ), Pancratieae (1 genus) and to American Amaryllidaceae - Griffineae (2 genera), Hippeastreae (2 subtypes), Eucharideae (4 genera), Stenomesseae (5 genera), Eustephieae (3 genera), Hymenocallideae (3 genera), Clinantheae ( 3 kinds) [Schekotov, Talantova, 2014].

Our attention was attracted by such representatives of the Amaryllis as Galanthus L. (snowdrop), Narcissus L. (daffodil), Leucojum L. (white flower) - the most beautiful spring-summer bulbous plants, universal as far as possible, which are distinguished by their unpretentiousness to growing conditions. The studied representatives belong to three tribes (Table 1) [Genera. 2013].

Table 1 - Classification of the genera Narcissus, Galanthus, Leucojum

Subfamily Tribe Genus Species

Amaiyllidoideae Galantheae Galanthus L. Galanthus nivalis L.

Leucojum L. Leucojum aestivum L.

Narcisseae Narcissus L. Narcissus poeticus L. subsp. radiiflorus (Salisb.) Baker

N. minor var. pumilus Salisb.

N. papyraceus subsp. panizzianus (Pari.) Arcang.

Genus Narcissus. Until the 70s of the last century, taxonomists in the genus Narcissus numbered up to 150 species [Grossheim, 1940 Karyagin, 1952 Kharkevich, 1960]. In the 70s, according to the data of various scientists, the genus included from 25-30 [Artyushenko, 1970 Webb, 1980] to 60 species [Artyushenko, 1979]. At present, taking into account genetic research, the genus includes 83 species and 33 subspecies [Genera. 2013].

Narcissus species, according to the magnoliophyte system, A.J1. Takhtadzhyan [1987] traditionally belongs to the genus daffodils, a subfamily of daffodils

In the ornamental horticulture of the world and Russia, mainly Narcissus varieties are used, obtained on the basis of interspecific hybridization, taking into account a large number of species. Of the species in culture, Narcissus poeticus L. subsp. radiiflorus (Salisb.) Baker, since this species naturally occurs in the Caucasus [Gorshkova, 1935 Ippolitova, 2000 Zavadskaya, 2005]. Sino-

nims Narcissus poeticus L. subsp. radiiflorus (Salisb.) Baker: N. angustifolius Curtis, N. radiiflorus Salisb., N. stellaris Haworth, N. poeticus var. angustifolius Herb., N. poeticus subsp. angustifolius (Curtis) Asch. & Graebn., N. poeticus race radiiflorus Rouy.

According to morphological characteristics, N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus is very close to the daffodil N. poeticus L. (poetic). The N. poeticus group includes the single-flowered daffodil species with white perianth and a short, flat crown. For a long time, botanists have considered N. poeticus as one species. W. Curtis [1793] proposed to divide it into three species, one of which was N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus. Since N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus is characterized by wide variability of most morphological characters; difficulties arose in determining its systematic position within the genus. In 1796 N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus has been described by R. Salisbury as N. radiiflorus Salisb. (radiant-flowered daffodil) [Pugsley, 1915]. A. Haworth [1819, 1831] reviewed the genus system in a new way, distinguishing from it as a separate species N. stellaris Haworth (star-shaped daffodil), including three variations. D. Herbert [1837] combined 10 forms into the N. poeticus group, considering them varieties, and described N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus as a variant of N. poeticus

E. Boissier [1884], P. Ascherson, P. Graebner [1906] and G. Rouy [1912], when characterizing the N. poeticus group, basically followed their predecessors, making only minor changes in their genus system. Thus, P. Ascherson and P. Graebner [1906] from the analyzed group raised only N. poeticus to the rank of species and isolated N. poeticus subsp. angustifolius (Curtis) Asch. & Graebn., Including three forms described by other

by the authors as separate species. G. Rouy [1912] modified the subspecies identified by the authors into the race - N. poeticus race radiiflorus Rouy. H. Pugsley [1915] critically analyzed the data of previous researchers concerning the taxonomy of daffodils, and proposed his own system of this genus. N. Pugsley singled out as a separate species only N. radiiflorus Salisb., Considering all its other names as synonyms.

Depending on the interpretation of the taxonomic position of N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus taxonomists can be divided into two groups. Some botanists [Hegi, 1939 Fernandes, 1951 Isepy, Priszter, 1972 Webb, 1978, 1980] believe that N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus - subspecies N. poeticus.However, most taxonomists recognize N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus as an independent species [Szafer, 1919 Javorka, 1925 Domin et al., 1928 Fomsch, Borzshovsky, 1950 Kuznetsova, 1965, 1977 Zahariadf, 1966 Artyushenko, 1970, 1979 Soo, 1973 Javorka, Csapodi, 1975, etc.]. According to GRIN Taxonomy for Plants [2014] N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus - subspecies N. angustifolius and N. radiiflorus are synonymous with N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus.

In the works of S.S. Kharkevich [1960] and Z.T. Artyushenko [1970] noted a wide variety of morphological types of flowers in N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus. The authors provide descriptions of the most strikingly different forms of this species. Unfortunately, their research is limited to only one population [Komendar, Krichfalushiy, 1990].

Genus Leucojum. Systematically, the genus Leucojum L. (white flower) belongs to the subfamily Galantheae (snowdrops) of the Amaiyllidaceae (amaryllis) family. Within the genus, four sub-genera and from 10 to 15 species are distinguished [Artyushenko, 1970]. According to GRIN Taxonomy for Plants [2014], Leucojum belongs to the subfamily Amaryllidoideae, tribe Galantheae.

K. Linnaeus attributed two species to the genus Leucojum: L. vernum and L. autumnale (Linnaeus, 1753). Later he described another species - L. aestivum (Linnaeus, 1759). R. Salisbury [1805] considered it necessary to recognize L. autumnale as a type

a special new genus Acis. R. Sweet [1829] adopted the genus Acis and included 3 more species in it: L. roseum Martin, L. grandiflorum DC. and L. trichophyllum Shousb. W. Herbert [1837] established a new genus Erinosma for two species of Leucojum: L. vemum and L. carpathicum, removing them from the genus Leucojum and leaving only L. aestivum for the latter.

F. Pariatore [1854] identified one more genus - Ruminia with one species R. ni-caeense, described by H. Ardoino [1867] as Leucojum nicaeense. J. Baker [1888], processing Sem. Amaryllidaceae, all of the listed genera were transferred to the rank of subgenera of the genus Leucojum. This system by J. Baker was adopted by many botanists when analyzing the genus Leucojum for various flora.

Since the time of the system of the genus Leucojum presented by J. Baker, a number of new species have been described. F. Stern [1956] gave a new description of this genus. In contrast to J. Baker, he quite correctly considered the species L. vemum L. as a type of this genus. In the flora of the former USSR, only two species of the genus Leucojum are found: L. vemum and L. aestivum [Artyushenko, 1970].

In the modern system of the genus Leucojum, the species Leucojum aestivum is a type of the subgenus Aerosperma Stern [Stern, 1956]. Leucojum aestivum consists of two varieties: L. aestivum var. aestivutn, L. aestivum var. pulchelium (Salisb.) Fiori [Stern, 1956 Schulze, 1933]. Sometimes they are considered as subspecies [Webb, 1980], and earlier [Baker, 1888 Ascherson. Graebner, 1907 Rouy, 1912] they were considered separate species. And now often in regional floras under the name Leucojum aestivum they mean only L. aestivum subsp. aestivum [Komendar, Krichfalushiy, 1990].

Genus Galanthus. The tribe Galantheae (Snowdrop) is represented by four genera and about 40 species, common in Central Europe, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia. The largest genus of the tribe is Galanthus (snowdrop), which includes 27 species [Artyushenko, 1970 Tkhazaplizheva, 2006].

Description of the genus Galanthus A.C. Lozina-Lozinskaya [1935] for the flora of the former USSR is now outdated. Of the seven species of Galanthus,

conducted by her, five are attributed to the Caucasus, one to the Crimea and one to Ukraine. In 1947, J1.M. Kemulyarzhia Natadze published a work on the Caucasian Galanthus, which lists 9 species (4 of them are new). In 1951, Yu.I. Kos described three more new species of Galanthus growing in North. The Caucasus. In 1963 A.P. Khokhryakov and Sh.I. Kutateladze was described by one more species, Galanthus. Although at one time J. Baker [1891] described one species - G. alleni, which does not appear either in the Flora of the USSR [1950], or in the Flora of the Caucasus [1936] by Grossheim, as well as in any of the regional Caucasian flora. The main center of species diversity of the genus Galanthus is located in the Caucasus [Artyushenko, 1970]. However, some Caucasian species grow in Turkey, and some Turkish species very close to the Transcaucasian ones have been described as new (Stern, 1956). Currently, taking into account genetic studies, the genus Galanthus includes 24 species and 4 subspecies [Genera. 2013].

1.2. Garden classification of the genus Narcissus

The English Royal Horticultural Society first proposed the classification of daffodils in 1908 [Stefien, 1987]. In January 1950, a classification list and an international catalog of daffodil varieties were created. In 1975, some additions were made [Classifier of the genus Narcissus L., 1981 Zaitseva, 1986]. The modern classification is based on the division into groups, subgroups. Each group has a numerical designation from 1 to 12, combining varieties with a certain ratio of the length of the crown and tepals. In addition to the official classification, a color code for the perianth and crown has been introduced. In the case of a heterogeneous multicolor color, it is given in three zones, starting from the center of the flower to its edges, first for the perianth, and then for the crown (tube). It is customary to distinguish six colors: white - B, yellow - F, green -

3, red - K, orange - O, pink - P (in English spelling: W, Y, G, R, O, P, respectively) [Mankevich, 1981 Mukhina, 2004].

Garden forms and varieties of narcissus, united under the general name N. X hybridus hört., Occurred as a result of distant hybridization of various wild-growing species: N. pceudonarc issus L., N. bulbocodium L., N. tazetta L., N. jonquilia L. , N. poeticus L., N. odorus L., N. cyclamineus DC., N. triandrus L., etc.

In the International Directory of Daffodil Varieties Registration in 2007, more than 27,000 varieties and species were registered, which are divided into 12 groups. In 2012, the number of daffodil varieties increased to 28,000 [The International Daffodil Register and Classified List, 2012].

Each classification group has subgroups that differ in the color of the perianth, tube or crown lobes:

1.coloration of perianth lobes and tube or crown yellow

2.the color of the perianth lobes is white, the color of the crown or tube is yellow

3.the color of the perianth lobes of the tube or crown is white

4. the color of the perianth lobes is yellow, the color of the tube or crown is white [Eremin, 1975].

According to the modern classification, all varieties of daffodils of hybrid origin are included in the following groups.

1st group - Trumpet Daffodil Cultivars. This group includes varieties in which the flowers have a tube equal to or longer than the perianth lobes. The varieties of tubular daffodils account for 22% of the world's assortment. Bright yellow tubular daffodils descended from N. pseudonarcissus L. and N. nobilis (Haw.) Schul., Varieties with fluent tube color and perianth lobes were created with the participation of N. moshatus L., N. alpes tris Pugsley, N. albescens Pugsley ...

As you know, wild forms appeared in culture in the 17th century (about 100 varieties). From which triploid forms were selected

with larger flowers than wild species. Most varieties of this group are suitable for forcing [Fisher, 1974 Matveeva, 1980].

2nd group - Large-cupped Daffodil Cultivars. The varieties of this group are distinguished by flowers with a large crown, which is somewhat shorter than the perianth lobes, but longer than their length. Large-crowned daffodils were obtained from crosses of tubular daffodils with N. poeticus L. Within this group, cultivars with pink, red crown coloration were obtained.

Large-crowned daffodils are represented in the global assortment by the largest number of varieties - about 50% of the total assortment. All varieties of this group are suitable for forcing.

3rd group - Small-cupped Daffodil Cultivars. This group includes varieties in which the flower crown is no more than 1/3 of the length of the perianth lobes (often much shorter).

The cultivars are obtained by crossing N. poeticus with tubular cultivars of garden origin. In the world assortment, varieties of small-crowned daffodils account for 12%. Modern varieties of this group are recommended for forcing on a large scale [Danilina, 2009].

4th group - Double Daffodil Cultivars. The varieties of this group are distinguished by double flowers. In the world assortment, they make up only about 1.5% of the total amount [Chub, 2007]. Some varieties are suitable for forcing.

5th group - Triandrus daffodils (Triandrus Daffodil Cultivars). The varieties of this group are characterized by the traits of N. triandrus L. (n. Three-stalked), from which they were obtained. Not suitable for mass distillation.

6th group - Cyclamineus daffodils (Cyclamineus Daffodil Cultivars). The cultivars were obtained from N. cyclaminens DC. (N. cyclamen). Single varieties can be used for forcing.

7th group - Jonquilla and Apodanthus Daffodil Cultivars. The cultivars are characterized by the characteristics of N. jongnilla L. (n. Jonquilla). Some of them are used for forcing.

8th group - Tazetta Daffodil Cultivars. The cultivars are characterized by the characteristics of N. tazetta L. (N. tazetta). Many of them can be used for forcing.

9th group - Poetic daffodils (Poeticus Daffodil Cultivars). The cultivars are characterized by the characteristics of N. poeticus L. (n. Poetic), suitable for forcing (Fig. 1).

Figure 1 - Groups of narcissus varieties [according to Artyushenko, 1970]: 1 - tubular, 2 - large-crowned, 3 - small-crowned, 4 - terry, 5 - triandruous, 6 - cyclamen-like, 7 - jonkillia, 8 - tacettoid,

10th group - Wild species and forms [Bylov, 1974], although in the international garden classification, according to the Royal Horticultural Society, the 10th group is called Bulbocodium Daffodil Cultivars.

The cultivars are characterized by the characteristics of N. bulbocodhim [The International Daffodil Register. 2012].

11th group - Split-corona Daffodil Cultivars. They are characterized by the presence of separate lobes at the crown or tube of the flower. Many varieties are suitable for forcing [Bylov, 1974 Zavadskaya, 2003 Popova, 2010]. However, in the international garden classification, varieties of daffodils of hybrid origin are divided into 13 groups, resulting in:

12th group - Other Daffodil Cultivars. Varieties that do not fit the definition of other sections.

Group 13 - Daffodils Distinguished Solely by Botanical Name [The International Daffodil Register. 2012].

1.3. Areas of some representatives of the Amaryllidoideae subfamily

Genus Narcissus. The general range of the genus Narcissus L. covers the Mediterranean region of Europe, as well as Africa and Asia. Most of the species are concentrated in southern Spain and Morocco [Fernandes, 1951]. The most numerous in this respect is the Iberian Peninsula, where 26 species grow [Meusel et al., 1965].

By the nature of their habitats, daffodils are divided into two groups. Most of them are confined to the lowland and foothill regions of the Mediterranean. Approximately one third of the species are found in the mountain systems of Southern and Central Europe [Isepy, Priszter, 1972]. Alpine species are confined to areas with high precipitation and lower temperatures. Thus, N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus in the Alps is distributed up to 2060 m above sea level. Some species rise even higher in the mountains - up to 1350-2600 m above sea level. [Rikli, 1946].

The genus Narcissus belongs to the group of plants of the subtropical temperate zone. The largest area of ​​its distribution lies in the Mediterranean.

Despite the noticeable length of the range from west to east and the absence of any significant barriers (seas, mountain systems, etc.), the plants of the genus do not spread either south or east of the subtropical region of Ancient Middle Earth. Only some of its species enter Western Europe, and therefore, they can be attributed to the Atlantic element of the flora.

The Mediterranean region, which includes low-lying and foothill areas, is characterized by a typical subtropical climate with mild, humid winters and hot, very dry summers. Annual precipitation varies from 27 to 875 mm and averages 500-600 mm [Walter, 1974 Evdokimov, 1986].

Narcissus species inhabits the territory and near the borders of the Russian Federation N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus. The general distribution of N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus is associated with the mountain systems of Southern and Central Europe: the Alps, Balkans and Carpathians [Hegi, 1939 Webb, 1980, etc.]. The species is found from southeastern France (Provence) to the eastern Carpathians (Transcarpathia). Based on the chorological analysis, K.D. Malinovsky [1980] assigns this species to the group of the Alpine flora element. Some authors believe that N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus belongs to the group of mountain Eurasian-Carpathian-Balkan plants [Kotov and Chopik, 1960].

The northeastern border of the range of N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus, like the genus Narcissus in general, occurs in the Carpathians. On the territory of the former USSR, the species is found only in Transcarpathia [Chopik, 1977].

Information on the distribution of the species is given in the publications of Soviet botanists - S.S. Kharkevich [1951, 1960], S.S. Fodor [1956], Z.T. Artyushen-ko and S.S. Kharkevich [1956], V.I. Komendara [1964], V.I. Chopika [1976]. In more detail, the history of chorological research N. poeticus subsp. radiiflorus is considered in the works of V.I. Komendara, V.V. Krichfalushego [1984].

Z.T. Artyushenko and S.S. Kharkevich [1956] suggested that N. roeist euchsp. ruff / lorini is a native of the Mediterranean flora and, in terms of its biology, is not typical of forest and meadow types of vegetation. It is a plant, mainly in open areas of lowlands or foothills, adapted to the Mediterranean climate with its autumn-winter-spring period of rains and dry summers.


Natural and economic principles of regulation of rural areas of the Non-Black Earth Region Text of a scientific article in the specialty "Social and Economic Geography»

The end of the 20th century required taking into account the side effects associated with the destruction of ecosystems. Troubles come to our world when the natural and economic principles of territorial regulation begin to be violated. Their knowledge is especially important for agriculture, which is characterized by a huge invasion of the biosphere balance. The article proves the existence of natural and economic principles for the regulation of rural areas and substantiates their reflection in settlement on the example of the historical peasant landscape of the Non-Black Earth Region. The fatal role of not taking them into account is substantiated by the example of a modern rural industrial landscape.A new organization of rural areas is needed based on the symbiosis between the natural environment and anthropogenic objects for the future survival of mankind.


Methods for performing control works and test tasks in the disciplines of the ecological cycle (p. 4)

Due to the large volume, this material is located on several pages:
1 2 3 4 5 6

Test Questions Ecology and environmental protection Tests Methods Ecology Test papers Ecology Execution of works Control works on ecology

165. The forest cover of our planet ...

166. The total arable land on the Earth is ... ..

167. The area of ​​arable land in the Republic of Tatarstan is:

168. What part of the area of ​​the Republic of Tatarstan is occupied by forests?

169. Which of the forest groups is the main supplier of timber?

1.has a protective and limited operational value

2.performing protective ecological functions

4.with developed transport routes

170. Non-forest function:

4.carbon dioxide supplier

171. Mineral resources are….

172. Which of the natural resources are not inexhaustible?

2.cosmic (solar radiation)

173. Production is considered waste-free if the zero-waste ratio exceeds:

2.production and consumption

3.production and disposal

4.production and destruction

PartIV... Environmental problems of agricultural

4.1. Soil-biotic complex as the basis of agroecosystems

175. The main resource-saving technologies:

2.the introduction of crop rotations, and the sowing of green manure

3.High-quality performance of mechanized technological operations

176. Secondary, human-modified ecosystems, artificial elementary units of the biosphere are called …….

177. The global ecosystem, which unites the entire territory of the Earth, transformed by agriculture. human activity is called …….

178. Examples of farm biogeocenosis are:

179. Examples of agrobiogeocenosis are:

180.The similarity of the agroecosystem of the garden to the ecosystem of the forest is that:

1.man applies fertilizers

2.they have a tiered arrangement of plants

3.Large variety of animals

4.Man fights against plants - weeds

181. Agroecosystems with a predominance of perennial grasses exist no more than ... ..

182. What is the percentage of natural ecosystems in relation to agroecosystems and urban industrial systems?

183. The main role of microorganisms in the cycle of substances is ...

2.the formation of ash organic substances from inorganic

3.degradation of organic matter to mineral

4.Using solar energy

184. What does an integrated plant protection system include?

1.chemical measures to control pests

2.physical pest control measures

3.biological control measures for pests

4.A set of available measures to suppress the pest

185. What degree of danger of pesticides does not exist?

186. Most of all pesticides enter the human body ... (see fig. 9)

1.with products of plant and animal origin

Fig. 9. Ways of entry of pesticides into the human body

187. There are ______ pesticides per 1 inhabitant in Russia

188. An artificial ecosystem is:

189. To combat the increased acidity of the soil, the following should be introduced:

190. Optimal pH medium:

191. A plant that grows in the agroecosystem of a field is ...

192. To prevent the occurrence of water erosion on slope lands, technological operations for the cultivation of agricultural crops must be carried out in the direction of …… ..

193. The process of destruction of the upper fertile soil layer under the influence of water or air flows is called ...

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194. What types of soil erosion do you know?

195. What do you mean by "eutrophication" of water bodies?

1.increase in the biological productivity of water bodies as a result of the accumulation of biogenic elements (nitrates and phosphates) in the water

2.a decrease in the biological productivity of water bodies as a result of a decrease in nutrients in the water (nitrates and phosphates)

3.increase in the biological productivity of water bodies as a result of the accumulation of suspended particles in the water

4.increase in the biological productivity of reservoirs as a result of an increase in water temperature

196. What types of fertilizers pollute the environment more?

197. Which pesticides in terms of toxicity are more beneficial to use from an environmental point of view:

198. What type of pesticides according to the degree of decomposition, in your opinion, should be used to prevent their accumulation in nature?

199. What can be the source of secondary land salinization?

200. One of the most dangerous consequences of soil irrigation:

4.enrichment of mineralogical composition

201. Action not related to drainage:

1.construction of open canals

4.regulation of river beds

202. At what number of cows in livestock
in the complex, the distance of the sanitary zone to residential premises should be at least 300 m?

203. Technical pollution of soils is caused by:

1.repeated tillage

3.high number of breakdowns of agricultural machinery directly in the fields

204. At what time of the year in the Republic of Tatarstan conditions are created for the occurrence of wind erosion?

205. Soil - biotic complex (PBK) includes:

1.plants, microorganisms

2.soil, plants, microorganisms, soil fauna

3.microorganisms, soil fauna

4.plants, microorganisms, soil fauna

206. The complex of specific reactions of a living organism or its element to external influences is:

207. Microorganisms - indicators of contaminated soils:

208. Which of the functions is not suitable for the soil?

1. habitat, nurse and physical support for organisms

2.deposit of the most important nutrients

3.converts the transformation of inorganic substances into organic

4.accumulates moisture, regulates the composition of the atmosphere and hydrosphere

209. Which of the measures is not included in the fight against soil fatigue:

1.cultivation of the same crop

2.application of crop rotation

3. application of organic fertilizers

210. The body of information on the natural, economic and legal status of lands is:

211. What is not typical for natural ecosystems (Fig. 10)?

1.large variety of species

3.the net product (crop) is removed from the ecosystem

4.resistance and ability to self-regulate

Fig. 10. Natural ecosystem

212. What factor is the mechanical composition of the soil?

213. What factors does the relief refer to?

214. Which of the functions does the forest not perform?

1.is an oxygen supplier

2.accumulates heavy metals

3.Protects the soil from erosion

4.has recreational value

215. Which of the directions does not belong to the main directions of intensification?

216. Optimal density of the arable soil horizon ...

217. How many hectares of arable land are there per inhabitant of the planet?

218. How many hectares of arable land are there for one inhabitant of Tatarstan?

219. In Tatarstan, the most prevalent are:

1.bottom wind erosion

2.country wind erosion

3.combined wind erosion

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4.Tatarstan has no wind erosion

220. The main measures to combat wind erosion:

1.reducing wind force and retaining moisture

2.increase in soil fertility + 1

3.planting circular forest belts

4.planting windbreaking forest belts

221. What is called backstage farming?

1.alternation of perennial grasses with spring cereals

2.the alternation of high crops with low

3. alternation of the remaining stubble with smooth tillage

222. Types of water erosion ...

4.linear + surface

223. What type of water erosion prevails in Tatarstan?

224. Indicative economy of the Vysokogorsk municipal district in terms of adaptive landscape, anti-erosion organization of its territory ...

225. Measures to combat technical soil erosion ...

1.complete rejection of large energy-intensive machines

2.Using only crawler tractors

3.use of complex units with twin wheels

4. transition to the "No-Till" system

226. Consequences of technical erosion ...

1.destruction of soil structure and air displacement

3.decrease in water permeability due to the destruction of soil structure and air displacement

4.wind erosion begins with this

227. Which country has completely switched to drip irrigation?

228. Measures to combat soil loosening ...

1.different depth processing

2.permanent deepening of the arable layer

3.surface treatment

4.2. Agroecosystems in the conditions of technogenesis

229. The process of changing natural complexes under the influence of human production activities is called:

230. Reddish-brown color of leaves in plants is observed when polluted by emissions:

231. MPC per day for nitrates for humans

232. What percentage (%) of a pollutant enters the human body with food?

233. Distinguish ________ effects of pollution on plants

234. Which of the agricultural zones of ecological well-being is characterized by the production of environmentally friendly products without the use of special protection measures?

1.ecological well-being

235. Inadmissible measures in the conditions of technogenesis ...

1.implementation of biological farming technologies

2.planting protective forest belts

3.Sowing grain crops along the roads

4.reduction to a reasonable minimum of all additional impacts on agrocenoses

236. Classifications of methods of agroecological research:

4.3. Sustainability of agroecosystems.

The essence of the adaptive landscape farming system

237. A territory that is homogeneous in origin and development history, having a single geological base, a single-type relief, a uniform combination of soils, vegetation and a structure that differs from other territories, as well as the nature of the relationship between the individual components of this territory is called ...

238. Agroecosystem sustainability is:

2.the property to preserve and maintain the value of its parameters and structure in space and time, without qualitatively changing the nature of functioning

3.Property to maintain the nutrient content of the system

4.the property to preserve and maintain the value of its parameters and structure in space and time, changing the nature of functioning

239. Adaptive landscape agriculture aims to ... ..

1.Achievement of a harmonious impact of man and nature in the process of agricultural production

2. achieving a harmonious impact of man and nature

3.agricultural production process

4.reasonable ratio of natural and artificial ecosystems

240. A landscape, the structures and functions of which correspond as much as possible to the possibilities and needs of the normal balanced development of its individual components or certain purposes of its use are called ... ..

241. Which of the principles of building agricultural landscapes does not exist?

3.spatial and species diversity

242. The ability of a natural system within certain limits to withstand the action of external factors without changing its state is ... ..

4.4. Alternative farming systems.

Vermicultivation.

243. Vermiculture is the generic name for mass-rearing biotechnology….

244. Composting is:

1.multi-stage manure cleaning

2.anaerobic processing or fermentation

3.exothermic biological oxidation process

4.processing for feed additives

245. Alternative farming is ……

1.conservation agriculture

2.biological farming

3.organo-mineral farming

246. Alternative farming systems in which direction not develop?

1.organic farming

2.biodynamic farming

4.organobiological farming

247. What kind of vermicompost does not exist?

1.Product of processing organic substrate by worms

2.vermiculture in organic substrate

4.recovered organic waste

249. Highly responsive agricultural crops for the introduction of vermicompost

250. The most valuable microbiological fertilizer ...

251. What not characteristic of the agro-ecological properties of biohumus ...

1. superior to traditional organic fertilizers

2.accessibility of batteries

3.availability of heavy metals

4.optimal response of the environment

4.5. Environmentally friendly production problems

agricultural products

252. Nitrates accumulate more in ...

253. In what part of the beet is the maximum content of nitrates and heavy metals (fig.)?

Fig. 11. Content of heavy metals (mg / kg dry matter) and nitrates in canteen beets - figures in circles (NO3, mg / kg wet weight)

254. Products that comply with organoleptic, general hygienic, technological and toxicological standards and do not have a harmful effect on human health and the environment are….

1.pure agricultural products

2.ecological agricultural products

3.Environmentally friendly agricultural products

4.Nitrate-free agricultural products

255. The optimal ratio of fertilizers applied to the soil - NPK:

1.nitrates recovered in the course of chemical reactions or the action of microorganisms

2.transition of nitrates during storage of vegetables at room temperature

3.form of nitrogen fertilizers

4.form of organic fertilizers

257. Diseases of the blood caused by nitrates:

258. High moisture content of grain contributes to the defeat of it:

259. Which of the drugs can contaminate food?

2.sulfanilamide drugs

3. hormonal drugs

4.all the listed medicines

260. The number of food product groups subject to mandatory certification:

261. What is not included in the objectives of environmental certification?

1.Ensuring product safety at all stages of the life cycle

2.the termination of the sale of products that do not meet the established environmental requirements

3.supporting a foreign manufacturer and promoting the sale of its goods, which are of poor quality from an environmental point of view

4.Preventing the entry of substandard goods into the country

262. Which of the indicators does not constitute product quality?

2.organoleptic properties

4.content of prollutants

263. The maximum intake of organochlorine compounds enters the human body with food (see diagram) ...

Fig. 12. The chlorine cycle in nature

Environmental protection

5.1. Sources of environmental pollution

264. Types of environmental pollution:

Fig. 13. Types of environmental pollution

265. Which of the types of pollution does not belong to the physical ?:

266. Local pollution is:

1.pollution of a small area around an industrial plant

2.pollution within large areas

267. What are the consequences of using freons?

1.pollute the environment

2.lead to the formation of a greenhouse effect

3.lead to the formation of ozone holes

4.Promote acid rain

268. Who is the record holder for the total emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere?

2.metallurgical plants

3. oil refineries

269. Basic requirements for atmospheric air:

2.constant temperature and composition

3.no solid particles

4.purity and consistent composition

270. What methods of water purification do not exist?

Fig. 14. Major water pollutants

271. Sources of biological soil contamination are:

1.waste of oil refineries

2.waste of livestock complexes

4.exhaust gases from vehicles

272. The content of a substance in the environment, determined by the sum of natural and anthropogenic contributions, is called ... ..

2.admissible residual quantity

3.minimum one-time concentration

4.the average daily concentration

273. Green spaces in cities fulfill the functions of ...

3.increase in dustiness

4.the release of toxic substances

274. The release into the natural environment of any solid, liquid and gaseous substances, microorganisms or energies (in the form of sounds, noises, radiation) in quantities harmful to human health, animals, the state of plants and ecosystems is ...

3.substances exceeding maximum permissible concentration

275. Environmentally hazardous types of industries and facilities are ...

1.nuclear industry and energy

2.Petrochemical
and gas processing industry

276. Pollution of the territory around an industrial enterprise is called:

1.toxic mixture of smoke, mist and dust

3.carbon monoxide emissions

4.exhaust gases from cars

278. The negative impact of acid rain:

1.eutrophication of water bodies

279. The set of chemical and technical processes caused by human economic activity, which results in the redistribution of chemical elements on the surface of the earth is called ……

280. The intense influx of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, observed over the past century, is associated with ...

1.combustion of fossil fuel by humans

3.volcanic activity

281. Environmentally friendly, inexhaustible sources of energy are….

282. The main suppliers of freons:

283. Freons are a mixture….

2.chlorine, fluorine, carbon dioxide

3.Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, ammonia

4.water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone

284. Ozonation is ...

1.the way of cultivating land in agriculture

2.participation of ozone in photochemical smog

3.the process of destruction of the ozone layer of the earth

4.the way to disinfect water or air

285. Photochemical smog is manifested:

286. What animals are included in the Red Book?

1.all species of animals that are endangered by humans

2.the extinct species of animals

3.Rare and endangered animal species

4.Animals with only remains

287. A territory completely withdrawn from ordinary economic use for the purpose of preserving and studying the natural objects and processes existing there, as well as serving as a standard of biogeocenoses and a scientific laboratory in nature, is ...

288. Who in Russia issued the first decree on nature protection?

290. Where are the main reserves of fresh water in Russia concentrated?

3.in the internal rivers of Russia

4.in large through rivers of Russia

291. Which water source is renewed the fastest?

292. The main consumer of fresh water ...

293. In what forests is sanitary felling permitted?

1.in soil-protective forest plantations

4.in all the forested forests

294. In which forests is commercial felling permitted?

1.in the forests of the European part of the Russian Federation

2.in the forests of the Central part of the Russian Federation

3.in the forests of the many-wooded regions of the Russian Federation

4.at the discretion of the Ministry of Forestry of the Russian Federation

295. In what forests is felling permitted within the increment?

4.in the forests of regions with a high population density

296.The greatest losses of forest resources occur:

2.in case of forest fires

3.when damaged by diseases and pests

4.in the construction of artificial reservoirs

297. What type of felling is used in the forests of Tatarstan?

2.cutting within the increment

4.determined by the cabinet

298. At what time of the year is the probability of forest fires in Tatarstan high?

1.spring before green leaves appear

3.in autumn when harvesting

299. The most dangerous pest of forest plantations….

300. For what purposes can the waters of Lake Kaban be used?

4.1 + 2 + for watering vegetable gardens

301. In what cases is the SDEN for water resources used?

1.when heavily soiled

2.whatever pollution

4.when determining the purposes of use

302. What does the excess of MPC of harmful substances for water resources mean?

1.water cannot be used for any purpose

2.Water can only be used in industry

3.water can only be used in agriculture

303. The division of animals into harmful and useful depends on:

3.level of human development

304. Is it possible to increase the number of wild animals by completely banning hunting?

3.depends on the type of animal

4.depends on habitats

305. Animals that have disappeared through the fault of man ...

306. What are the main signs of poaching

1.Hunting without a license for prohibited animals

2.hunting in forbidden places +1

3.hunting in violation of equal conditions +2

4.hunting at forbidden times +3

307. The objects of protection in the Chatyr-Tau reserve are:

308. Responsibility for poaching ...

3.fine + seizure of loot and mining tools

5.2. Measures for protection, assessment of damage from pollution

environment. Ecological disasters

309. The duty of the state to guarantee environmental organizations and other public associations performing environmental functions, citizens, the possibility of exercising the rights granted to them in the field of environmental protection is provided for by laws ....

one."On ecological expertise" dated 01.01.01

2. "On environmental protection" (2001)

3. "On the protection of the natural environment" dated 01.01.01

4. "Land Code" of August 15, 1998

310. Which of the payments for the use of natural resources does not exist?

4.for the use of forest resources

311. What is the significance of pollution charges?

312. Quantitative levels (values) regulating the degree of anthropogenic impact on nature and habitat are called ……

1.environmental regulations

3.Background concentrations

4.critical exposure levels

313. For areas of high social value (reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, resort and recreational zones, health-improving and recreational zones, health-improving areas), the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and maximum permissible discharge (MPD) standards are established .......

2.Similar with industrial facilities

4.Similar with urban ecosystems

314. Scientific, legal and administrative activities to establish the maximum permissible norms of environmental impact, ensuring the preservation of ecosystems and human ecological safety, is called ………

1.environmental regulation

2.ecological monitoring

3.Environmental expertise

315. Specially authorized state bodies in the field of environmental expertise are ……

1.regional and regional committees for environmental protection

2. Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation

4.international intergovernmental organizations

316. Public ecological expertise is being carried out ……

1.together with state expertise

2. instead of state expertise

3.after receiving the results of the state examination

4.before state examination

317. Application of measures of state coercion to individuals, officials and legal entities
violating environmental legislation is ……………. a form of control

4. stimulating environmental protection

318. The standards of payment for the emission of pollutants into the environment and the disposal of waste to specific enterprises should be indicated in ………….

2.conclusion of the environmental audit

3.Licenses for integrated nature management

4.conclusion of environmental impact assessment

319. When standardizing the quality of the environment (soil, air, water), the quality of the environment should be established ……….

1.based on economic feasibility

3.by the reaction of the most sensitive species of organisms

4.based on climatic conditions

320. The average daily maximum permissible concentration of a harmful substance in the air is:

1.concentration, which should not cause if inhaled within 30 minutes. reflex reactions in the body

2.concentration, which should not have a direct or indirect effect on a person with indefinitely long exposure

3.concentration that does not affect human health and does not cause adverse effects in his offspring

4.concentration that does not induce mutagenesis

321. In what cases is the SDEN used for water resources?

1.when heavily soiled

2.whatever pollution

4.when determining the purposes of use

322. The tasks of monitoring are ...

2.assessment and forecast of the state of the environment

3.ecological education

4. rationing the quality of the environment

323. According to the coverage of the territory, an ecological forecast is distinguished:

324. Monitoring methods include:

325. The monitoring system includes….

1.Gas and dust collection equipment

2.stationary observations

3.calculation of economic damage

4.ecological expertise

326. Which of the standards are not the main environmental quality and environmental impact standards?

327. An observation system that allows assessing the processes on the planet as a whole, covering the entire biosphere, is called monitoring at the ____________ level

Fig. 15. State Scheme for Environmental Monitoring

328.Scientific, legal and administrative activities to establish the maximum permissible norms of environmental impact, ensuring the preservation of ecosystems and the ecological safety of humans, is called ...


Devices and methods in an adaptive landscape farming system - garden and vegetable garden

International scientific and technical conference of young scientists
"Innovation Materials and Technologies", IMT-2021

January 19-21, 2021, BSTU, Minsk

International scientific conference "Problems of Experimental Botany: XIII Kuprevich Readings"

International scientific conference "Problems of Experimental Botany: XIII Kuprevich Lectures"

XVII International Scientific and Practical Conference "Technological aspects of cultivation of agricultural crops", dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the Faculty of Agronomy and the 180th anniversary of the training of specialists in the agrarian profile

International scientific and practical conference "Technological Aspects of Crop Cultivation"

January 28-29, 2021, Belarusian State Agricultural Academy, Gorki

Collection of articles based on the materials of the XVII International Scientific and Practical Conference dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the Faculty of Agronomy and the 180th anniversary of the training of specialists in the agrarian profile (Gorki, January 28-29, 2021)
"Technological aspects of the cultivation of agricultural crops" (electronic version)

FEBRUARY 2021

I International scientific-practical conference of students, undergraduates and young scientists "Veterinary medicine in the XXI century: the role of biotechnology and digital technologies" (remote)

I International scientific and practical conference of students, undergraduates and young scientists
"Veterinary Medicine in the 21st Century: the Role of Biotechnology and Digital Technologies"

February 2, 2021, VGAVM, Vitebsk

85th scientific and technical conference of the teaching staff, research workers and graduate students of the Belarusian State Technological University (with international participation)

The 85th scientific and technical conference of the teaching staff, researchers and graduate students of the Belarusian State Technological University

February 1-13, 2021, BSTU, Minsk

Materials of reports of the 85th scientific and technical conference of the teaching staff, researchers and graduate students of the Belarusian State Technological University:

  • Organic matter technology (electronic version)
  • Economics and production management (electronic version)

    VII Eurasian Scientific and Practical Student Forum "Analytical Economics and Forecasting until 2030"

    VII Eurasian scientific-practical student forum on Analytical Economics and Forecasting up to 2030

    February 15 - May 25, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    Academic readings dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Professor Igor Stanislavovich Nagorsky and the 80th anniversary of the birth of Professor Stepuk Leonid Yakovlevich

    Academic readings dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of professor Igor Nagorsky and the 80th anniversary of the birth of professor Leonid Stepuk

    February 18, 2021, Scientific and Production Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Agricultural Mechanization, Minsk

    19th international specialized exhibition of educational services "Education and Career" for schoolchildren, applicants, students, university graduates, parents

    "Education & Career" 19th International specialized exhibition for schoolchildren, applicants, students, university graduates, and parents

    18-20 February 2021, Palace of Art, st. Kozlova, 3, Minsk

    12th international specialized exhibition of technologies and solutions for education "Educational technologies"

    12th International specialized exhibition of technologies and solutions for education "Educational Technologies"

    February 18-20, 2021, Palace of Art, st. Kozlova, 3, Minsk

    Republican scientific conference "Botanical Readings"

    Republican scientific conference "Botanical Readings"

    February 25, 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    II International Scientific and Methodological Conference "Environmental education and sustainable development. State, goals, problems and prospects" (remote)

    II International scientific and methodological conference on Environmental Education and Sustainable Development: Status, Goals, Problems and Prospects

    February 25-26, 2021, Moscow State Power Engineering Institute. HELL. Sakharov BSU, Minsk

    MARCH 2021

    III International Scientific and Practical Conference "Trends in Economic Development in the XXI Century"

    III International scientific-practical conference on Trends in Economic Development in the XXI Century

    VI Regional Consultation on the Work of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (PESC / IPBES / UN)

    VI Pan-European stakeholder consultation for IPBES meeting (PESC / IPBES / UN)

    March 9-11, 2021, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Domzheritsy village, Vitebsk region

    73 Regional Scientific and Practical Conference of Teachers, Researchers and Postgraduate Students "Science - education, production, economy"

    73 regional scientific and practical conference of teachers, researchers and postgraduate students
    "Science for Education, Production, Economy"

    March 11, 2021, VSU im. P.M. Masherova, Vitebsk

    International scientific and practical seminar "Preparing datasets for the Global Biodiversity Database"

    International scientific and practical seminar "The dataset preparation in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility"

    March 14-18, 2021, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Minsk

    IX International Scientific and Practical Conference of Students and Undergraduates "Actual problems of theory and practice of modern economic science"

    IX International scientific-practical conference of students and undergraduates
    "Actual Problems of Theory and Practice of Modern Economic Science"

    March 17, 2021, GSU ​​im. F. Skaryna, Gomel

    X International Scientific Student Conference "Market economy: today and tomorrow"

    X International scientific student conference "Market Economy: Today and Tomorrow"

    March 18-19, 2021, BSTU, Minsk

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production", dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Agronomy, plant protection"

    XXIV International scientific and practical conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production".
    Section "Agronomy, Plant Protection"

    March 23, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Agronomy, plant protection"

    XXII international student scientific conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Agronomy, Plant Protection"

    March 24, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    Republican scientific conference of students and undergraduates "Topical issues of agricultural mechanization"

    Republican scientific conference of students and undergraduates
    "Topical Issues of Mechanization of Agricultural Production"

    March 24-25, 2021, Belarusian State Agricultural Academy, Gorki

    International scientific and practical conference "Zoological Readings - 2021"

    International scientific and practical conference "Zoological Readings - 2021"

    March 24-25, 2021, GrSU im. Yanka Kupala, Grodno

    V International Scientific and Practical Conference "Processing and quality management of agricultural products"

    V International scientific and practical conference "Processing and Quality Management of Agricultural Products"

    March 25-26, 2021, BSTU, Minsk

    VII International Scientific Conference of Students, Undergraduates and Postgraduates "Advanced equipment and technologies in the agro-industrial complex"

    VII international scientific conference of students, undergraduates and postgraduates
    "Advanced Equipment and Technologies in the Agro-Industrial Complex"

    March 25-26, 2021, BSTU, Minsk

    International specialized exhibition-fair "Hunting and Fishing. Spring - 2021"

    International Exhibition-Fair "Hunting and Fishing. Spring - 2021"

    March 25-28, 2021, Football arena, Minsk

    VIII Republican Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists "Nature, Man and Ecology" (intramural-extramural)

    VIII Republican Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists "Nature, Man and Ecology"

    March 31, 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    Interuniversity scientific and methodological seminar "Environmental and engineering aspects of environmental protection and ensuring the safety of human life"

    Interuniversity scientific and methodological seminar "Environmental and Engineering Aspects of Environmental Protection and Ensuring the Safety of Human Life"

    March 2021, BrSTU, Brest

    Republican scientific and practical conference of students, undergraduates, postgraduates "Monitoring and Environmental Protection"

    Republican scientific and practical conference of students, undergraduates, postgraduates
    "Monitoring and Environmental Protection"

    March 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    APRIL 2021

    XV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Scientific potential of youth for the future of Belarus" (online)

    XV International scientific and practical conference "Scientific Potential of Youth for the Future of Belarus"

    April 3, 2021, PolesGU, Pinsk

    VI International tournament among students and undergraduates of European countries "Student Tournament of Scientific Perspectives - 2021"

    VI International tournament among students and masters of European countries "Sciteen Tournament - 2021"

    April 5-11, 2021, Minsk

    XIV International Scientific and Practical Student Conference "National Economy of the Republic of Belarus: Problems and Development Prospects"

    XIV International student scientific and practical conference
    "National Economy of the Republic of Belarus: Challenges and Prospects of Development"

    April 5-16, 2021, BSEU, Minsk

    International specialized exhibition "Flowers. Seeds. Garden. Vegetable garden 2021"

    International specialized exhibition "Flowers. Seed. Garden 2021"

    XXVII Godnev Readings

    72nd scientific and technical conference of pupils, students and undergraduates of the Belarusian State Technological University (BSTU)

    72nd scientific and technical conference of pupils, students and undergraduates of the Belarusian State Technological University

    April 12-23, 2021, BSTU, Minsk

    III Scientific and Practical Round Table of Teachers, Postgraduates and Students "Main tendencies of economic development of the Republic of Belarus"

    III Scientific-practical roundtable of leactures, postgraduate students and students on the Main Trends in the Economic Development of the Republic of Belarus

    April 15, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    XVI International Scientific Conference of Students, Undergraduates and Postgraduates SRWS FEU-2021 "Economics and Management of the XXI Century"

    XVI International scientific conference of students, undergraduates and postgraduates
    "Economics and Management of the XXI Century"

    April 15-16, 2021, GrSU im. Yanka Kupala, Grodno

    International scientific and practical conference "Actual problems of soil fertility and cultivation of agricultural crops", dedicated to the memory of the outstanding scientist, teacher, academician Ya.N. Afanasyeva

    International scientific and practical conference
    "Actual Problems of Soil Fertility and Cultivation of Agricultural Crops", dedicated to the memory of the outstanding scientist, teacher, academician Ya.N. Afanasyev

    April 20-21, 2021, Belarusian State Agricultural Academy, Gorki

    Regional scientific and practical conference"Young Science - 2021"

    Regional scientific and practical conference "Young Science - 2021"

    April 22, 2021, Moscow State University named after A.A. Kuleshova, Mogilev

    XIV International Scientific and Technical Conference "Technique and technology of food production"

    XII International scientific and technical conference "Engineering and Technology of Food Production"

    April 22-23, 2021, MGUP, Mogilev

    XXI International Scientific and Technical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists "Research and development in the field of mechanical engineering, energy and management"

    XXI International scientific and technical conference of students, postgraduates and young scientists
    "Research and Development in the Field of Mechanical Engineering, Energy and Management"

    April 22-23, 2021, GGTU im. P.O. Sukhoi, Gomel

    International scientific and practical seminar "DNA barcoding: deposition and analysis of DNA sequences in the BOLD database"

    International scientific and practical seminar "DNA barcoding: storage and analysis of DNA barcods in BOLD database"

    April 29-30, 2021, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Minsk

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Accounting"

    XXII International student scientific sonference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Accounting"

    April 29, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production", dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Accounting"

    XXIV International scientific and practical Conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production"
    Section "Accounting"

    April 30, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XIII International Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists "Sustainable Development: Regional Aspects"

    XIII International scientific and practical conference of young scientists "Sustainable Development: Regional Aspects"

    April 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    MAY 2021

    Republican scientific and practical conference of students, undergraduates and young scientists "Chernobyl: 35"

    Republican scientific and practical conference of students, undergraduates and young scientists "Chernobyl: 35"

    May 6, 2021, VGAVM, Vitebsk

    78th Scientific Conference of BSU Students and Postgraduates

    78th scientific conference of BSU students and postgraduates

    May 10-21, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    Republican Youth Forum "Intellectual Belarus"

    Republican youth forum "Belarus Intellectual"

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Veterinary Medicine"

    XXII International student scientific sonference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Veterinary Medicine"

    May 13, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Technology of storage and processing of agricultural products"

    XXII international student scientific sonference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Technology for Storage and Processing of Agricultural Products"

    May 13, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    II International Scientific and Practical Conference "Science - Practice"

    II International scientific and practical Conference "Science for Practice"

    May 13, 2021, BarSU, Baranovichi

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production", dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Veterinary Medicine"

    XXIV International scientific and practical conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production".
    Section "Veterinary Medicine"

    May 14, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production" dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Social Sciences and Humanities"

    XXIV International scientific and practical conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production".
    Section "Social and Human Sciences"

    May 14, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Social Sciences and Humanities"

    XXII International student scientific sonference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Social and Human Sciences"

    May 14, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production" dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Technology of storage and processing of agricultural products"

    XXIV International scientific and practical conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production".
    Section "Technology for Storage and Processing of Agricultural Products"

    May 14, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XI International scientific, practical and training seminar for students, undergraduates, postgraduates, teachers and workers of the specialty "Forestry" ("Forestry") on the topic "Dynamics, condition and monitoring of forest ecosystems in specially protected natural areas"

    XI International scientific-practical and educational seminar for students, undergraduates, graduate students, teachers and workers of the specialty "Forestry"
    "Dynamics, State and Monitoring of Forest Ecosystems in Specially Protected Natural Areas"

    V Congress of the Council of Botanical Gardens of the CIS countries at the International Association of Academies of Sciences with an international scientific conference "Modern directions of conservation and rational use of biodiversity of the plant world"

    V Congress of the CIS Council of botanical gardens of the International Association of Academies of Sciences and
    International scientific conference "Modern Trends of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Biodiversity"

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Zootechnics"

    XXII International student scientific sonference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Zootechny"

    May 19, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    III Forum of Scientists of the CIS Member States - 2021

    III Forum of scientists of the CIS member states - 2021

    International scientific conference "Topical issues of modern beekeeping"

    International scientific conference "Actual Questions of Modern Beekeeping"

    May 20, 2021, ag. Samokhvalovichi

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production", dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Zootechnics"

    XXIV international scientific and practical conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production".
    Section "Zootechny"

    May 20, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    XXII International Student Scientific Conference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University Section "Economics of the agro-industrial complex"

    XXII international student scientific sonference dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the University
    Section "Economy of the Agro-Industrial Complex"

    May 20, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    21st International Scientific Conference "Sakharov Readings of 2021: Environmental Problems of the XXI Century" (online)

    XXI International scientific conference "Sakharov Readings 2021: Environmental Problems of the XXI-st Century"

    X International Scientific and Practical Conference "Problems of the Modern Economy: Global, National and Regional Context"

    X International scientific and practical conference
    "Problems of the Modern Economy: Global, National and Regional Context"

    May 20-21, 2021, GrSU im. Yanka Kupala, Grodno

    Open communications platform"Native Nature Week"

    Platform for open communications "Native Nature Week"

    May 20-28, 2020, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Minsk

    19th international specialized exhibition "Lesdrevtech-2021"

    The XIX International specialized exhibition "Lesdrevtech - 2021"
    May 20-23, 2021, Chizhovka-arena, Minsk

    XXIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Modern technologies of agricultural production", dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the university Section "Economics of the agro-industrial complex"

    XXIV International scientific and practical conference "Modern Technologies of Agricultural Production".
    Section "Economy of the Agro-Industrial Complex"

    May 21, 2021, GGAU, Grodno

    III International Scientific and Practical Conference "Cell biology and plant biotechnology"

    III International conference on Plant Cell Biology and Biotechnology

    May 26-28, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    XIII International Scientific and Practical Conference "Formation of organizational and economic conditions for the effective functioning of the agro-industrial complex"

    XIII International scientific and practical conference
    "Formation of Organizational and Economic Conditions for the Effective Functioning of the Agro-Industrial Complex"

    III international scientific and practical conference "Actual problems of studying and preserving phyto- and mycobiota"

    3rd International scientific and practical conference "Current Problems of Studying and Preservation of Phytobiota and Mycobiota"

    XIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Economic growth of the Republic of Belarus: globalization, innovation, sustainability"

    XIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "The Economic Growth of the Republic of Belarus: Globalization, Innovation, Sustainability"

    X International Scientific and Practical Internet Conference "Problems of sustainable development of the regions of the Republic of Belarus and neighboring countries"

    X International scientific and practical internet conference
    "Problems of Sustainable Development of the Regions of the Republic of Belarus and Neighboring Countries"

    May 2021, Moscow State University named after A.A. Kuleshova, Mogilev

    XI International Scientific and Practical Conference "Perspective directions of development of the regional economy"

    XI International scientific and practical conference "Perspective Directions of Development of the Regional Economy"

    May 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    XIV International Scientific Conference of Students, Undergraduates and Postgraduates "Belarus in the modern world"

    XIV International scientific conference of students, undergraduates and postgraduates "Belarus in the Modern World"

    May 2021, GSTU im. BY. Sukhoi, Gomel

    JUNE 2021

    31st International Specialized Exhibition "BELAGRO - 2021"

    The 31st International specialized exhibition "BELAGRO - 2021"

    International specialized exhibition "BELFERM - 2021"

    International specialized exhibition "BELFARM - 2021"

    Specialized Exhibition of Food Products of Domestic Producers "BELPRODUCT - 2021"

    Specialized exhibition of food products of domestic producers "BELPRODUCT - 2021"

    17th International Specialized Exhibition "Food Industry - 2021"

    The 17th International specialized exhibition "FOOD INDUSTRY - 2021"

    12th International Specialized Exhibition "PRODMASH.KHOLOD.UPAK-2021"

    The 12th International specialized exhibition "PRODMASH.HOLOD.UPAK"
    (Equipment and Technologies for Food Industry. Cold and Ventilation. Interpack)

    V International Scientific and Practical Conference "Vermicomposting and vermicultivation - as the basis of ecological farming in the XXI century - achievements, problems, prospects"

    5th International scientific and practical conference
    "Vermicomposting and Vermiculture as Basis of Ecological Landownership in XXI century - achievements, problems, outlooks"

    June 3-7, 2021, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Minsk

    International specialized ecological exhibition-forum "Ecology Expo - 2021"

    International specialized ecological exhibition-forum "Ecology Expo - 2021"

    XII International Scientific Conference "Microbial Biotechnologies: Fundamental and Applied Aspects"

    XII International scientific conference "Microbial Biotechnologies: Fundamental and Applied Aspects"

    June 7-11, 2021, Institute of Microbiology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk

    International scientific seminar "Strategies and methods of botanical gardens for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of natural flora - VII"

    International scientific seminar "Strategy and methods of botanical gardens on conservation and sustainable use of a biological diversity of natural flora - VII"

    International scientific and practical conference, dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, "Soil fertility and effective use of fertilizers" and the VI Congress of the Belarusian Society of Soil Scientists and Agrochemists

    International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus,
    "Soil Fertility and Effective Use of Fertilizers" and the VI Congress of the Belarusian Society of Soil Scientists and Agrochemists

    June 22-25, 2021, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk

    III International Congress "Science, Nutrition and Health"

    III Congress "Science, Nutrition and Health"

    June 24-25, 2021, Scientific and Production Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Food, Minsk

    JULY 2021

    II International School-Conference of Young Scientists "Forest Science, Youth, Future - 2021"

    II International school-conference of young scientists "Forest Science, Youth, Future - 2021"

    July 6-9, 2021, Forest Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Gomel, Belarus

    International scientific and practical conference "Strategy and priorities for the development of agriculture and breeding in Belarus. Achievements of science - production", dedicated to the 15th anniversary of the foundation of the Scientific and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Agriculture

    International scientific and practical conference "Strategy and Priorities of the Development of Arable Farming and Breeding in Belarus. Achievements of Science to Production"

    July 8-9, 2011, SPC NAS of Belarus for Agriculture, Zhodino, Belarus

    International scientific and practical conference "State and prospects of protection of potatoes from pests, diseases and weeds in the system of innovative potato growing" (dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the birth of Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus V. G. Ivanyuk)

    International research and practical conference
    "State and Prospects of Protecting Potatoes from Pests, Diseases and Weeds in the System of Innovative Potato Growing"
    (dedicated to the 80th anniversary of correspondent-member of NAS of Belarus V.G. Ivanyuk)

    July 14-15, 2021, ag. Samokhvalovichi

    XI Youth Summer School "Sylvan"

    Youth summer school "Sylvan"

    July 18-24, 2021, V.F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Voytov Most village, Grodno region.

    International scientific conference "Plant protection in the context of the transition to precision farming"

    International scientific conference "Plant Protection in the Transition to Precision Farming"

    July 27-29, 2021, Plant Protection Institute, ag. Priluki

    AUGUST 2021

    International scientific and practical seminar "Experience and prospects of growing non-traditional berry plants in Belarus and neighboring countries"

    International scientific and practical seminar "Experience and Prospects of Growing of Unconventional Berry Plants in Belarus and Neighboring Countries"

    August 3-6, 2021, Minsk

    International scientific conference "Fruit growing in Belarus: from traditions to innovations"

    International scientific conference "Fruit Growing in Belarus: from Traditions to Innovations"

    August 18-20, 2021, ag. Samokhvalovichi

    XVII International Scientific Conference "Diatoms: morphology, biology, taxonomy, floristry, ecology, paleogeography, biostratigraphy" XVII International scientific conference "Diatoms: Morphology, Biology, Systematics, Floristics, Ecology, Paleogeography, Biostratigraphy"

    August 23-28, 2021, V.F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk

    SEPTEMBER 2021

    Science Festival - 2021

    September 4-5, 2021, Minsk

    International specialized exhibition "Flowers. Seeds. Garden. Vegetable garden 2021"

    International specialized exhibition "Flowers. Seed. Garden 2021"

    September 14-17, 2021, Minsk

    International Scientific and Technical Conference "Innovations in Mechanical Engineering - 2021"

    International scientific-technical conference "Innovation in Mechanical Engineering-2021"

    September 16-17, 2021, Minsk

    XVIII International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists "Youth in Science - 2021"

    XVIII International scientific conference of young ycientists "The Youth in Science - 2021"

    September 21-24, 2021, Minsk

    IV International Scientific Seminar "Bog vegetation: modern problems of classification, mapping, use and protection"

    IV International scientific seminar "Wetlands Vegetation: Modern Problems of Classification, Mapping, Use and Protection"

    September 22-24, 2021, V.F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk VSU named after V.F. P.M. Masherova, Vitebsk

    International scientific conference "Modern problems of radiobiology - 2021"

    International scientific conference "Contemporary Issues of Radiobiology - 2021"

    September 23-24, 2021, Gomel

    International scientific and practical conference "Actual problems of ecology - 2021"

    International scientific and practical conference "Actual Problems of Ecology - 2021"

    September 28-30, 2021, GrSU im. Yanka Kupala, Grodno

    International scientific and practical seminar "Biodiversity of mushrooms and lichens of specially protected natural areas"

    International scientific-practical seminar "Biodiversity of Fungi and Lichens of Specially Protected Natural Areas"

    September 29 - October 1, 2021, settlement Domzheritsy, Vitebsk region

    International specialized exhibition-fair "Hunting and Fishing. Autumn - 2021"

    International Exhibition-Fair "Hunting and Fishing. Autumn - 2021"

    September 30 - October 3, 2021, Football arena, Minsk

    V International Scientific and Practical Conference "Actual problems of earth sciences: the use of natural resources and preservation of the environment"

    V International scientific and practical conference "Actual Problems of Earth Sciences: the Use of Natural Resources and Preservation of the Environment"

    September 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    OCTOBER 2021

    International scientific and practical conference "Strategy for the Development of the Economy of Belarus: Challenges, Implementation Tools and Prospects"

    International scientific-practical conference "Strategy of Development of Economy of Belarus: Challenges, Tools, Prospects"

    October 7-8, 2021, Institute of Economics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk

    Startup Forum for Young Researchers of the Faculty of Economics "Innovative development of the organization in modern economic conditions"

    Startup forum of young researchers of the Faculty of Economics on Innovative Development of the Organization in Modern Economic Conditions

    October 11 - December 10, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    XXVI Belarusian Energy and Environmental Forum

    XXVI Belarusian Energy and Ecology Forum

    October 12-15, 2021, Football arena, Minsk

    XXVIII International Scientific and Practical Conference "An innovative way of developing pig breeding in the CIS countries"

    XXVIII International research and practical conference "Innovative Way for Pig Breeding Development in the CIS countries"

    October 14-15, 2021, SPC NAS of Belarus for animal husbandry, Zhodino

    XIV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Increasing the efficiency of large-scale production and entrepreneurship in the new economic conditions", dedicated to the 65th anniversary of the Institute

    XIV International research and practical conference
    "Increasing the efficiency of Large-Scale Production and Entrepreneurship in the New Economic Conditions", dedicated to the 65th anniversary of the Institute

    October 15-16, 2021, Minsk

    Republican Festival "Belarusian Autumn: Potatoes, Fruits, Vegetables - 2021"

    Republican festival "Belarusian Autumn: Potatoes, Fruits, Vegetables - 2021"

    October 17, 2021, ag. Samokhvalovichi

    II International Scientific and Practical Conference "Conservation and sustainable use of European pollinators"

    II International scientific and practical conference "Conservation and Sustainable Use of European Pollinators"

    October 19-21, 2021, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Minsk

    International Scientific and Technical Conference "Scientific and technical progress in agricultural production" (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of the scientist MM Severnev)

    International scientific and technical conference "Scientific-Technical Progress in Agricultural Production" (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of the scientist M.M. Severnev)

    October 21-22, 2021, Minsk

    27th International Specialized Exhibition "Woodworking 2021"

    XXVII International specialized exhibition "Woodworking 2021"

    October 26-29, 2021, Football arena, Minsk

    International scientific conference "Transformation of Genomes", "X Zhebrakov Readings - 2021" and XII Congress of the Belarusian Society of Geneticists and Breeders

    International scientific Conference "Genome Transformation", "X Zhebrak Readings - 2021"
    XII Congress of the Belarusian Society of Geneticists and Breeders

    October 27-29, 2021, Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk

    II International Conference of Young Scientists "Digital transformation - a step into the future"

    II International conference of young scientists "Digital Transformation - Step into the Future"

    October 27, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    International Scientific and Practical Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists "XV Masherov Readings"

    International scientific and practical conference of students, postgraduates and young scientists "XV Masherov Readings"
    October 2021, VSU im. P.M. Masherova, Vitebsk

    IV International Scientific and Practical Conference "Actual scientific, technical and environmental problems of preserving the environment"

    IV International scientific and practical conference
    "Actual Scientific, Technical and Environmental Problems of Preserving the Environment"

    October 2021, BrSTU, Brest, Belarus

    XIV International Economic Forum of Young Scientists "Economy through the eyes of the young"

    XIV International economic forum of young scientists "Economics: the Young Insight"

    NOVEMBER 2021

    International scientific and practical conference "Actual problems of treatment and prevention of diseases of young animals"

    International scientific and practical conference "Actual Problems of Treatment and Prevention of Diseases of Young Animals"

    3-5 November 2021, Vitebsk

    27th International Specialized Wholesale Exhibition-Fair "PRODEXPO - 2021"

    27th International specialized wholesale exhibition "ProdExpo - 2021"

    November 9-12, 2021, Football arena, Minsk

    XIII National Scientific and Practical Conference "Agroecotourism in the period of modern challenges: national experience"

    XIII International conference on Agroecotourism at the Time of Modern Challenges: National Experience

    November 25, 2021, BSU, Minsk

    Republican scientific and practical seminar for students and young scientists "GIS Technologies in Geosciences-2021"

    Republican scientific-practical seminar of students and young scientists "GIS Technologies in Earth Sciences-2021"

    November 17, 2021, BSU, Minsk, st. Leningradskaya, 16

    International scientific and practical conference "Problems of transboundary invasions in the border region Latvia-Lithuania-Belarus"

    International scientific and practical conference "Problems of Transboundary Invasions in the Border Region Latvia-Lithuania-Belarus"

    November 23-25, 2021, National Park "Braslav Lakes", Braslav, Vitebsk region

    Scientific and practical conference "Actual problems of modern economic systems - 2021"

    Scientific and practical conference "Actual Problems of Modern Economic Systems - 2021"

    November 2021, BrSTU, Brest, Belarus

    International scientific and practical conference "Economics and Management: Social, Economic and Engineering Aspects"

    International scientific and practical conference "Economics and Management: Social, Economic and Engineering Aspects"

    November 2021, BrSTU, Brest, Belarus

    V International Scientific and Practical Conference "Biotechnology: Achievements and Development Prospects"

    V International scientific and practical conference "Biotechnology: Achievements and Development Prospects"

    November 2021, PolesGU, Pinsk

    XI International Student Scientific and Practical Conference "Peace in the XXI century: economic, political and socio-cultural aspects" (in foreign languages)

    XI International research and practical student conference "The World in the XXI Century: Economic, Political, Social and Cultural Issues" (in foreign languages)

    November 2021, BSEU, Minsk

    IV Republican Scientific and Practical Environmental Conference "Problems of assessment, monitoring and conservation of biodiversity"

    IV Republican scientific and practical ecological conference "Problems of Assessment, Monitoring and Conservation of Biodiversity"

    November 2021, BrSU named after A.S. Pushkin, Brest

    DECEMBER 2021

    11th International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists, Postgraduates, Students "Actual ecological problems"

    XI International scientific conference of young scientists, graduates, master and PhD students on Actual Environmental Problems

    December 2-3, 2021, Moscow State Power Engineering Institute. HELL. Sakharov BSU, Minsk

    International scientific and practical conference "Problems of biological safety of the transboundary region Belarus-Latvia"

    International scientific and practical conference "Biosafety Problems of the Transboundary Region of Belarus-Latvia"

    December 8-9, 2021, Scientific Research Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Bioresources, Minsk


    Similar dissertations in the specialty "Breeding and Seed Growing", 06.01.05 code VAK

    Methodological foundations of selection and seed production of heterotic cucumber hybrids 1999, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Gorokhovsky, Vitaly Fedorovich

    Remote hybridization of pepper in breeding for heterosis and adaptability in the Central Region of Russia 2009, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Bukharova, Almira Rakhmetovna

    Improvement of the main elements of industrial technology for the production of tomato for fresh consumption and processing in the conditions of the right-bank forest-steppe and Polesye of the Ukrainian SSR 1984, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Maslo, Andrey Vasilievich

    Selection and seed production of beans in the southern forest-steppe of Western Siberia 2013, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Kazydub, Nina Grigorievna

    Remote hybridization of vegetable nightshade crops: Methodological approaches and promising directions 2001, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Bukharov, Alexander Fedorovich


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