Delphinium (Delphinium) is a flowering herbaceous annual or perennial plant from the Buttercup family, combining about 450 different species in its genus. The people call the flower spur or larkspur. The culture has become widespread in tropical regions of Africa, in China and practically throughout Southeast Asia. The name of the plant comes from the Greek city of Delphi, where flowers grew in great numbers. But most flower growers believe that the culture in the buds resembles the head of a dolphin, hence the "name".
Without certain knowledge and skills in floriculture, it will not be very easy to grow beautiful delphinium flowers. It is necessary to take into account all the preferences of a flowering crop when planting, growing and caring for. Fulfilling exactly all the "whims" of the plant, you can enjoy long and lush flowering throughout the summer season.
To get dense and high-quality shoots of the delphinium, it is necessary to properly store the planting material or sow freshly harvested seeds. It is recommended to store seed only in a humid and cool environment (for example, in a refrigerator). Germination is significantly reduced if the seeds were stored in a dry and warm place.
Seeds require a little preparation before sowing. For disinfection, they are placed in a gauze bag and soaked in a manganese solution (or in any fungicide) for 20-25 minutes, after which they are washed under cold running water and placed in another solution (based on "Epin") for a day. A glass of water will require 3-4 drops of the drug. After all procedures, the seeds are dried and sown. A favorable time for sowing is the last week of February.
The soil mixture, consisting of equal parts of peat, compost, garden soil, river sand (half part), perlite (5 liters - 1/2 cup), must also be disinfected before planting the seeds. To do this, it is kept in a water bath for one hour, and then allowed to cool and the landing containers are filled.
The soil in the planting boxes should be lightly tamped. Delphinium seeds are randomly distributed over the surface, sprinkled with a thin layer of earth (no more than 3 mm) and slightly compacted. After sowing, it is recommended to spray the surface from a fine spray with boiled water at room temperature and build a cover of glass and black opaque material on top. Dark conditions contribute to the faster emergence of seedlings. It is important to regularly moisten the soil and ventilate the plantings.
Planting containers can be placed on the windowsill. Stratification will help speed up the emergence of delphinium seedlings by 1-2 weeks. To do this, you need to put boxes with seeds for 3-4 days in a cold place - a refrigerator, a glazed balcony, a veranda. After emergence, the black film must be removed immediately. The main care is watering, spraying and airing.
When 2-3 true leaves are formed on young delphinium plants, a dive can be carried out. Flowers are transplanted into individual containers with a volume of 200-300 ml and kept at a temperature of about 20 degrees. During the period of seedling growth, it is necessary to strictly observe moderation in watering, since the delicate stems of the delphinium can become infected with a black leg. This disease will destroy immature crops.
The soil in the flower pot should always be loose and allow air and water to pass through well. After warm weather (in early May), it is recommended to gradually accustom the seedlings to fresh air and direct sunlight.
To strengthen immunity, young seedlings are fed 2 times with an interval of 15 days before transplanting to an open area. Agricola or Solution can be used as fertilizer. The solution should not come into contact with the leaves of the plants.
On open ground, seedlings of delphinium are transplanted together with an earthen clod, which ensures the safety of the root part. The depth of the planting hole is about 50 cm, the diameter is 40 cm, the distance between plantings is 60-70 cm.
Each planting hole must be filled with a mixture of compost or humus (half a large bucket), complex mineral fertilizer (2 tablespoons), wood ash (1 glass). After planting the seedlings, the ground is slightly compacted and watered. For the rooting period, it is recommended to cover the seedlings with a cut plastic bottle or glass container.
The first feeding is applied when young plants grow about 10-15 cm. As a fertilizer, you can use cow dung diluted with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. One bush will require about 2 liters of fertilizer.
The second feeding of the delphinium is carried out during the formation of inflorescences. Under each bush, one liter of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer must be applied. Add 20 g of the nutrient to 10 liters of water.
Peat or humus mulch is applied immediately after weeding and loosening the soil. The thickness of the mulching layer is about three centimeters. Thinning of flowering bushes is carried out when they reach a height of 20-30 cm. It is recommended to remove all weak shoots inside the bush. There should be no more than 5 stems left on it. This procedure promotes good air circulation and the appearance of larger inflorescences. The cuttings remaining after pruning can be used for propagation.
The height of the supporting pegs or rods is at least 1.5 m. The garter of delphinium plants is carried out in two stages. The first time when the bush grows is about 50 cm, and the second time is more than 1 m.To avoid damaging the delphinium stems when tying, it is recommended to use strips of fabric or ribbons at least 1 cm wide.
Timely and regular watering of the delphinium on dry summer days, as well as during the formation of inflorescences, is very important. Watering should be done 1-2 times a week. Each flower bush will require 2-3 buckets of water. It is recommended to loosen the soil surface between waterings.
For reproduction of the delphinium flower, bushes are used at the age of three or four years. Divide the bush in early autumn with a sharp knife. The places of the cuts are sprinkled with wood ash or activated carbon, after which the cuttings are planted on the flower garden.
Delphinium is a frost-resistant culture, but it does not tolerate sudden changes in temperature. That is why for the winter period it is recommended to cover the flower garden with spruce branches or straw. Before covering, the stems of the delphinium are cut, leaving about 30 cm, and the tops of the hollow stems are covered with clay.
To get the expected results in your garden or flower garden, do not be afraid of unnecessary trouble and regret the time spent. Effort, perseverance and hard work will make the backyard blooming and colorful.
Possible diseases of the delphinium are powdery mildew, black and ring spot. Their signs are white bloom, yellow or black spots on the leaves. Fungal diseases can destroy the entire bush if the treatment is not carried out in time. For spraying use drugs "Fundazol" and "Topaz". Processing of flower plantations is carried out twice with an interval of two weeks.
At an early stage of black spot, spraying with a tetracycline solution is carried out. It is prepared from 1 liter of water and one tetracycline tablet.
Ring spot cannot be treated; all infected bushes must be completely destroyed.
Possible pests of the delphinium are aphids, slugs and delphinium fly. As a prophylaxis against the appearance of aphids, spraying with "Aktellik" or "Kabofos" is recommended. A fly that lays eggs in flower buds is destroyed with special insecticidal preparations. You can get rid of slugs using folk methods. For example, they cannot stand the smell of bleach, which can be spread out in small jars and placed between flowering bushes.
Delphinium Field (Delphinium Consolida) - a tall variety - an annual, reaching 2 m in height. The flowering period is long - from early June to September. The color palette consists of blue, lilac, pink and white shades. Some inflorescences are painted in two colors at once - for example, blue and white. Flowers are simple and double.
Delphinium Ajax - a hybrid annual variety obtained by crossing the "Vostochny" and "Doubtful" delphiniums. The average height of the stem is 40-90 cm, the length of the spike-shaped blue, red, pink, blue and purple inflorescences is about 30 cm. The flowering period lasts from the beginning of the summer season until the first autumn frosts.
Tall and large-flowered delphinium - perennials, after crossing which were bred hybrid varieties "Barlow", "Belladonna", "Beautiful" and several double varieties with shades of blue and purple.
Among the large number of varieties and varieties of delphiniums, one can find tall and dwarf, simple and semi-double crops, which still differ in flower diameters and splendor of inflorescences. According to the place of origin, hybrids are divided into New Zealand and Marfin groups with their own advantages and characteristics. They have a different level of decorativeness, frost resistance, adaptability to climatic and weather conditions, resistance to diseases and pests. Delphiniums have earned great popularity among flower bouquets and landscape designers for their durability, unpretentiousness and wide range of colors.
author Ivanova I.M., photo by author
Delphiniums are flowering, majestic and desirable plants for many gardeners.
The subtleties of seed reproduction limit the spread of delphinium in gardens, and this brings a lot of grief to flower growers.
Purchased delphinium seeds very often turn out to be dissimilar, the whole point is in the storage conditions of the seeds.
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Ornamental deciduous shrubs are pruned annually in early spring.
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Hybrid delphiniums with bright candles of human-sized inflorescences can be safely called the favorites of many gardeners. Take advantage of our dozen ideas and put stately handsome men in your garden!
1. Not many perennials are able to create such a spectacular vertical accent in a flower garden as delphiniums. And although the silhouette of different groups is different, usually the delphinium bush consists of erect, sometimes branched, peduncles ending in spike-shaped or racemose inflorescences.
Planting plants with flat horizontal inflorescences (for example, yarrow) or with a rounded bush (geranium) in front of the delphiniums will emphasize this effect and help cover the "gap" in the flower garden, formed after cutting off the faded delphinium stems.
2. Owners of large collections of delphiniums usually tie each plant (or even each peduncle) to an individual support, for example, a bamboo stick. However, such supports violate the harmony of the flower garden and look out of place. No less effective, but much less striking are the low supports that are installed around the perimeter of the bush after it reaches 30 cm in height.
These can be semicircular metal barriers with legs or prefabricated structures from a rod. English gardeners often simply stick the branches left over from pruning shrubs next to the delphinium bush - an effective technique at a minimum cost. Alternatively, you can tie the delphinium to decorative supports for vines growing nearby, for example, for sweet peas.
3. Delphinium is associated with blue. Indeed, there are not many perennials that can boast of so many pure blue, without impurities, cultivars. The famous German gardener and breeder Karl Forster wrote that "blue is the color of eternal hope, it makes people happier." In support of these words, he bred more than a hundred varieties of delphinium in all shades of blue, which are still popular - from delicate light blue ‘Sopran ' to a dark blue-violet 'renipelgong'. Blue flower beds with delphiniums, phloxes, catnips, Veronica and geraniums seem to be a real magic. You can play in contrast and plant a delphinium against the background of shrubs with golden leaves, or in combination with perennials with yellow flowers (yellow basil, buzulniks).
4. Without snowy and white with a greenish tinge varieties of delphinium (Double Innocence, ‘Dunsden Green’, ‘Moonlight’, ‘Sandpiper’, ‘Sungleam’, ‘Winnifred Tyin) it is difficult to imagine a white garden. Here partners will be white varieties of perennials and annuals: sidalese, ammonia, foxglove, veronicastrum, cleoma, kosmeya, physostegia. In addition, white delphiniums well reduce the degree of "heat" in flower beds of hot colors with red, orange and yellow flowers and perfectly smooth out color transitions in any flower beds.
5. Another interesting color theme is a romantic pink flower garden with delicate lavender-purple and pink varieties of delphinium (‘Astolat’, ‘Blushing Brides’, ‘Dusky Maidens’, ‘Fanfare’, ‘Garden Party’, ‘Rosemary Brock’, ‘Summerfield Diana’). Thousands of combinations are possible here, because there are a lot of plants in this color range - from the fashionable thistle commissioned by Atropurpureurn to the classic lavender and roses.
6. Speaking of roses. Being an item of luxury garden, delphinium is perfectly combined with other plants of a "regal" appearance: roses, clematis, lilies. And here it is still not clear who is the retinue and who is the king - rather, it is an equal partnership.
7. Delphinium is a significant plant for the British. Since the days of the famous gardener and designer Gertrude Jackie, no English mixborder has done without them. And a traditional cottage garden necessarily includes at least one delphinium variety. A few is better! Higher varieties are planted in the background, less tall ones can decorate the middle one.
8. The delphinium will be its own in the village flower garden among thickets of mallow, valerian, angelica, poppies, irises, daisies, cuffs. Here he can even be allowed to look slightly disheveled - this will only add charm to the overall picture.
9. What about modern nature-style meadow flower beds? It would seem that such pretentious flowers as delphiniums will look defiant and even flashy among partners of a more modest appearance. However, practice shows that a competent selection of neighbors allows delphiniums to be included in the landings of the "new wave". At one time, the British invited the Dutch designer Pete Udolph, famous for his meadow flower gardens, to set up mixborders in the garden of the Royal Society of Gardeners Wisley, but at the same time they asked to plant delphiniums so beloved by the British. Udolph masterfully coped with this task, choosing as partners the volatile highlander, aconites, sage, phlox, astrantia and ornamental cereals.
10. Delphiniums can be grown in "bouquet" flower beds. For bouquets, flower stalks with half-opened flowers are chosen, cut off early in the morning or in the evening, while it is cool, and immediately put into water. Some series of varieties - Aurora, Guardian, Clear Springs - were specially bred as cut flowers.
Important: do not forget that delphiniums are poisonous and can irritate the skin, therefore it is better to work with them with gloves. Never decorate food with delphinium flowers!
11. You can collect all the delphiniums of your garden in one flower bed, making a real color explosion. Dahlias or chrysanthemums can be planted between them, which will give the next wave of explosion after the delphiniums have faded.
12. Breeders do not give up their attempts to breed high red varieties of delphiniums, using a miniature American species in hybridization - holosteel delphinium with bright scarlet flowers. As a result of experiments, the Dutch breeder Ruis introduced the compact first commercially successful pink variety in 1936 Pink sensation... It's not so long to wait for its centenary, but the variety is back in vogue - it can often be seen in flower beds at the Chelsea Flower Show.
The place for growing delphiniums should be calm, sunny until lunchtime and slightly shaded at noon (the flowers quickly fade under the hot rays). Does not like culture and cold, damp lowlands. The best soil for a delphinium is moderately moist loam, rich in humus. Excessively acidic soil is preliminarily lime. Shortly before planting, the site is dug up with the introduction of humus (10-15 kg / m²) and complex fertilizer (40-50 g / m²).
The landing technology is as follows:
Until the plants take root, it is recommended to keep them under transparent plastic bottle caps or under glass jars of a suitable size.
For sowing, do not choose too large containers. The fact is that seedlings have a small volume of roots. Roots cannot fill a large volume of land, and soil without roots begins to sour, which contributes to the development of all kinds of pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
Disposable salad containers work well. They are not deep, which is good for seedlings. It is very important that the containers are washed thoroughly if they are not new. There should be no food debris. No traces of fat.
Disposable Seedling Containers
In a well-washed container, make holes in the bottom to drain the water. The holes must be large enough. Small holes can become clogged with dirt and water will stagnate in the container.
Delphiniums are very often used in landscape design. Groups planted by the veranda or gazebo or on the lawn in the center of the meadow look very beautiful. In mixed plantings of perennials, the delphinium is planted in the background. Delphinium goes very well with lilies, phlox and roses.
Cut delphinium inflorescences are very interesting in independent bouquets and retain their freshness until the inflorescence is cut, when only half of the flowers have blossomed in it.
All parts of delphiniums are poisonous! Therefore, if the family has small children or people with allergic diseases, then, alas, delphiniums will have to be abandoned.
Delphiniums have relatively few "enemies", practically there are only two of them.
It hibernates in the roots of the plant, then, under favorable conditions, lays eggs on the leaves and in the buds. The most effective control measure is preventive spraying with an appropriate insecticide during the budding period.
They are either collected by hand, wearing gloves, or special traps are placed.
As you can see from a brief introduction to the plant, caring for such a fabulous beauty, such as is characteristic of fully flowering delphiniums, is not so difficult. As a result, a sea of royal flowers of various shades and shapes will appear on your site.