The paganoslavian-russian environment
by Aldo C. Marturano
Pages 1 -2-3
Migrations were a fairly frequent event still in the VII-VIII centuries AD, but, while the West was impressed by the Germanic ones to such an extent as to label them as Barbarian Invasions in a much more frightened than derogatory tone, the later Slavic ones were suffered and endured. in their progressive impacts only from the Eastern Empire and completely underestimated in the rest of Europe. The voices of the Eastern Roman Empire (Procopius, Jordanes and others) inform that the Slavs at the time of their appearance (in the V-VI century AD) are mainly farmers-gatherers drawn by leaders-adventurers (usually not Slavs: Goths, Huns, Avars etc.) in raids and military campaigns directed towards the Balkan territories, these lands being the richest in the Empire. Typical behavior of the Slavic gangs seems to be the sudden looting and their rapid retreat into the forest beyond the Danube. From other sources, this time "Latin", it is also known that it was not the adventure or the prospect of looting that caused the Slav movements, but more contingent reasons. S. Runciman, speaking of the Bulgarians, judges their penetration into the Balkans in the 9th century. peaceful in general with respect to those of the Huns or the Avars and stresses that the reason for sending the Slavic subjugated to press on the borders of the Empire was not so much the occasional enterprise as instead the fact that the earth could not feed these people in continuous growth.
However, we know the so-called “Slavic nomadism” also for the following centuries and, then, can this example alone serve to explain it? In reality, the "frequent transfers" (every 8-10 years!) Were temporary and necessary when the crops from a piece of cultivated land were no longer sufficient for survival and entire villages set out in search of new virgin land. Be careful though! Village here means about sixty people on the way, at most.
It is contradictory, however, that the number of people alive increases while the earth provides fewer resources. Evidently, despite the fact that the soil of Central Europe from where the Slavs radiated was largely fertile and easily arable loess, the fall in yields occurred due to the superficial exhaustion of the soil or to having been worked too long or to primitive techniques such as for example insufficient animal manure and unsuitable agricultural tools. In conditions of insufficient agricultural techniques, it is also logical that any climate change made itself felt early and heavily, so much so as to push people to change headquarters and to look for new land.
Yet, as a rule, food shortages were made up for with the collection of berries and fruits, with small hunting and abundant fishing in the dense regions ofthe trees. In the chronicles of "Latin" origin Germans, Slavs and Balts (the three great ethnos of Central Europe) are called (even with a certain disgust) sylvan (from the Latin silva, forest) just because they live in or close to the margins of forests and do not practice intensive agriculture (as was done in the West) and therefore live like beasts.
If this is topical, why do we find Slavic peoples settled at great distances from the point of radiation, apart from the preference for living "with" the forest? It is possible that the so-called warm period of the Middle Ages favored a greater yield of the land already deforested and therefore improved the living conditions of those who lived on (and from) the vast southern estates. On the other hand, those who, in order to have new arable land, had to abandon the old settlements and found new ones in the virgin forest, knew well that they had to cut down thousands of plants just to build new homes and to heat them. It is therefore logical that he would look beyond his forest in search of the easiest corners to reach, without necessarily being involved in a massive migration.
On the other hand, he knew very well that the abandoned fields became a new forest in about ten years and it was once again possible to successfully cultivate them. In short, it is likely that it would be more attractive to take over other people's fields instead of destroying their own precious forest and therefore the choices were there and there were also many. The problem was the difficulties to be faced in moving: Going north-east, the immense swamps of Pripyat and the dense Belarusian forest constituted a considerable obstacle to overcome and here the Slavs would have pressed on Balti and Ugro-Finni. Going north, we stopped on the Baltic Sea and to the west there were the Franks who stirred up the Germans against the Slavs. The choice of the south was almost without escape, if you wanted to migrate permanently.
From what has been said so far, we begin to perceive two different ways of thinking that confront each other: One consolidated in the idea of a sedentary and urban civilization and another on the idea of always being "on the frontier". Today we know that it was the Western way of seeing that prevailed, but the concept of being inextricably linked to nature and its whims never declined among the Slavs. We must emphasize this point because it is the "pagan" aspect that explains to us how a place made up of trees, animals and men living together is a sacred environment in the true sense of the word.
On reflection, it is the same thought that circulated for centuries in a Celtic environment and that the Church was well aware of. Yet since the fourth century. A.D. it was precisely the Irish monks who undertook the policy of extensive deforestation along the Rhine basin. The aim was to eliminate the Druidic or other pagan temples, and to make Christ triumph with the work of the fields, but in truth looking at the Cistercian Order especially and its intense activity in Central Europe it is clear that extending the area of arable land meant binding firmly the peasants to the land so that they would provide food and anything else necessary for the subsistence of the upper classes.
Institutionally, medieval people were divided in the West into three classes on top of which were the Oratores, that is the Church of abbeys and monastic orders, followed by the Bellatores, that is, the feudal lords in arms. These two classes by divine order had to be maintained by the third, namely by the Laboratores or peasants. Was it possible to transfer the same conceptions among the Pagans, together with the involvements necessary for a reorganization of society in the aforementioned sense? We will talk about it later while here we add that the choice of having more hands in the fields with the passage of time had caused, in addition to increase in population, of the serious distortions in the social field that now afflicted Western Christian society. In other words, the farmer found himself working on the cleared land of which the lord declared himself the owner and, having no longer available the forest from which to get everything he needed in products and raw materials, he had lost all economic and productive independence.
Now he was forced to spend more time on more work to produce the surplus to be given to the gentleman who demanded a reward for having made the field to be cultivated available. Not only! The farmer had to depend for almost all capital goods on the same gentleman who supplied him with the raw materials to make them!
Lto forest which natural deposit was therefore primary and people began to look with greater insistence on Europe still covered with trees in order to seize it. The first attempts in this direction made themselves felt as early as the 9th century. in the Polish area, then along the shores of the Baltic Sea and finally on the borders with Novgorod and Polozk. And it was precisely the need to obtain more territories to exploit that suggested to the Baltic Variagian bands the idea of creating a state in the north of the Russian Plain where state organizations had never existed before, but there was a lot of forest.
Even in the Carpathian Mountains on the western borders of the city of Kiev, there were Slavic tribes that had long had close relations with Western Europe. It seems that among these, in 568, the heavy plow capable of turning over the clods and aerating them in depth was seen for the first time. It was only a sporadic appearance, because the agricultural revolution that the new tool started in the West, in the heart of the Russian Plain, on the contrary, the new technique did not find application! Evidently the desire to deforest to improve agricultural yields was not in the economic plans of the ruling elite of the new state which, coincidentally, grew better in Kiev ...
Nor can we forget the ideological aspects of the question, also in this case opposite.
In Christian cosmology it was proclaimed that God had created the world by making every resource available on earth available to the superior living being, that is to say, to man, so that all possible well-being could be derived from it and in full justification of the deforestation implemented!
For the Slavs, on the contrary, that the administration or ownership of these "earthly goods" fell to divine ministers was absolutely unacceptable. The forest was part of the world and the world was a god so it was necessary to be cautious and humble in moving in this environment! Looking closely at plants, animals and other living things, the pagan contemplated a harmonious unicum of which he was even able (if he wanted to) to perceive breaths and feelings. Man was only a part of living society and not even the higher one!
If he was "forced" to take or use anything he needed from the surrounding nature, in any case he would have asked the permission and favor of the divine forces so that they would not show him any hostility to the exploitation of resources. Those who "withdrew" would have repaid the master god with a commensurate offering! Other than seizing it tout-court! In the Slavic tradition it was said that the first men (the ancestors who, when they died, lived in the stars and who were now in direct contact with the gods) had imposed on everyone the respect of the living community including plants and animals, before anything else !
Here they had located the places of worship and aberrant behavior would have unleashed the divine wrath that would be poured out not only on those who voluntarily violated, but on the entire community to which the violator belonged. In short, with these rules that have always been in force (and not only among the Slavs, but throughout Nordic society), deforestation represented a highly sacrilegious act, as can even be deduced from the Lives of the Saints where the hostility of the pagans on this point is very clear!
Fortunately, the western destructive action did not go beyond the territories, it stopped on the right bank of the Elbe and the rest of the Nordic forest was saved. In later history it was further shown that, by trafficking what the sacred and precious resource remained intact it provided, whoever exploited it properly could prosper with the blessing of the pagan gods and the Christian god.
The forest is a diverse biocenosis of plants, animals and other less conspicuous living species that nature has invented to colonize the mainland in the most complete and cheapest way possible. It always adapts to the (edaphic) composition of the soil and to local climatic fluctuations, nor is it alien to man since it is here that the species Homo sapiens sapiens has differentiated (today we are scientifically convinced of it) and, apart from sporadic and adventurous sorties in the territories on the edge, for millennia and millennia man has never strayed too far from it.
Pages 1 -2-3
(1) Original photograph courtesy by Gary Kramer / Natural Resources Conservation Service
(2) Public domain image source "Andrees Handatlas" page 26, Velhagen & Klasing, 1901.
(3) Original photograph courtesy of by Hillebrand Steve / U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
(4) Original photograph courtesy National Park Service
(5) Original photograph courtesy NOOA
(6) Original photograph courtesy of Tischer Gary / U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
(7) Original photograph courtesy of by Goldmann Jo / U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
The Pagan Religion, in recent years, has been defined through writings, practices, videos and conferences.
A series of pages have been included on the site that illustrate the Pagan Religion even in specific moments of existence.
This is the case of the art present at the Venice Biennale. Although the last Venice Biennale (2013) was characterized by the massive presence of Catholic ideology conveyed in various forms, an edition characterized by a desire for violence against civil society, art nevertheless represents the expression of an emotional state that asks for and claims liberation from the coercion that the individual suffers from Christian education. It is therefore easy to find expressions of the Pagan Religion among artists who express emotions in their art than among philosophers who are prisoners of the categories of the absolute to which they have submitted.
Ever since I wrote "The Book of the Antichrist" in 1985, every effort I have made has been aimed at understanding the divine reality of what surrounds us. An effort that has been conveyed in various environments and in various writings.
The attempt I am making now, to bring order to the religious, ethical and moral ideas and principles of the Pagan Religion, has the aim of making Pagan thinking coherent both to the same people who call themselves Pagans and to people who try to understand that what Paganism is and what religious principles it is inspired by.
The Pagan Religion site is enriched with a new path entitled "the Pagan Religion in 2017".
This path begins with Plato's commentary on the One by Parmenides and, as always happens, will attempt to order the sequence of principles proper to the Pagan Religion. There will be posted material that has only been partially read on the Internet and new material linked to often neglected reflections on life and men.
A few insights into the Slavic-Russian peasant economy
Summary - Summary
This article is part of a broader work, still in progress, about the many realities that existed in the Russian Plain between the VIII and the XV century. The Author investigates primarily the ethnographic aspects of the life in the Slav villages, partly or still not yet converted to Christianity. The focus is on the kinship's system and the consequent societal order in the everyday life, with particular attention to the different people which inhabited, with the Slavs, the vast European Northern Forest. This latter ecosystem plays a very important role in the Middle Ages as it was considered (and still is) a huge reservoir of raw materials for the whole European West and the newly established kingdoms and bishoprics. In all the documents of that period, the conquest of this European area is always hinted at and even planned. An important role plays information coming from Christianity, either from Catholic Rome and from orthodox Constantinople. Here and there, the new states popping up are mentioned in their efforts to dominate the whole picture of such a vast region which remained unknown to the elites down to the XV-XVI centuries. Therefore, up to then, it remained neglected and autonomous. A few hypotheses are laid as to the Slavs' origins. Those hypotheses require more criticism and further investigation. Since the work is addressed to the Italian readership, the language is very plain and free of technical jargon. The transcription of the Russian terms is in accordance with the ILS but sometimes simplified. There are not footnotes to make the text lighter.
The article is part of a research in which the author is still working on the multi-ethnic reality of the Russian Plain between the eighth and fifteenth centuries. A.D. Here the author is interested in the Slavs and their life in the villages when they were partly or not yet converted to Christianity and especially in the ethnographic aspects. The kinship system and the consequent societal order reflected in daily life is examined, especially in the frequent encounters with other neighboring ethnic groups who lived together with the Slavs in the great European boreal forest. This ecosystem has a great role in the European Middle Ages as it was (and still is) considered the largest source of raw materials for the entire West and for the brand new courts of the new realms and new archbishops. In all the documents of the period in question there is constant talk of conquest and sometimes even plans are made to implement it. An important part must be attributed to the information that comes both from the Catholic world of Rome on the Tiber and from the Orthodox world of Rome on the Bosphorus. Here and there are mentioned the new states emerging in the Russian Plain in their efforts to dominate such a vast region that it remained unknown to the elites until the 15th-16th centuries. A.D. and therefore abandoned and not subjected. Some hypotheses about the origins of the Slavs are exposed which of course require more criticism and further research as well. Since the work is aimed at an Italian reader, the language used is flat, often without technicalities and transcriptions of Russian words. Footnotes were avoided.
From the documents that describe them at the end of the 7th century. A.D.when the great migrations from the south of the Ukrainian steppes had now ceased, we know that the Slavs were recognized by their neighbors (Avars, Germans) as good farmers and above all because they knew how to adapt (and no one better than them!) to live in the full European boreal forest of malaria deadly swamps along the shores of vast lakes and enormous rivers. From the point of view of the fairly harsh climate, after all, drawing food from the environment inevitably pushed us to combine harvesting and hunting with agriculture. In spite of what Slavs and Baltoslavs living on the edge of the thickest forest, excavations carried out in the Polish area and in eastern Germany had not brought much new to local agricultural techniques and therefore the yields threatened to be insufficient whenever the population to be fed exceeded a number of people. So it is logical to note that due to the abundance of fish in rivers and lakes, hunting became mainly fishing and that it yielded very well even on the shores of the Arctic Ocean where walruses and sea lions lived and where Ugro-Finni, Slavs and Baltoslavs met! In conclusion, although the clues suggest that in the Nordic ecosystem of the Russian plain the Slavs maintained for a long time the use and exploitation of the territory by gatherers-hunters as had been their prevailing way of life in the south, adopting some customs of the natives was also useful for a better life.
Apart from that, in the formation of the first Slavic-Russian states, the Kievan Rus' before others, in a team of vast territories that wanted to be managed by small armed elites, the exploitation of resources was the primary issue and clearly when it was a question of subsistence it was play-force to include agriculture among the productive resources. Nonetheless, since the industrial idea of mass production and the idea of constant economic growth did not yet exist, the peasant villages were in practice the producers of whatever was necessary for the life of society besides food. The question of the Slavic-Russian elites, however, was: How to imagine taxes and levies to be imposed on trade / production, if the inhabited places where they were located were not identified and they were not subjected to them? Unfortunately the disorganization is very evident for us since among the elites they boasted of owning territories with men and things, but it was not possible to build a state budget and, if we add insufficient communications and almost absent recognition means, stimulate a production with surplus from exchanging remained an unfulfilled desire for a long time kleptocracy (a perfectly fitting term by J. Diamond, v. bibl.) Variago-Slavic.
In the period VII-IX century. A.D. under consideration it is even a favorable moment in an economic-commercial sense: all the large buyer centers concentrated in the big cities in southern Europe and Central Asia looked with interest to northern Europe and its forest. The Northern European biocenosis represented the largest deposit of raw materials in existence and, coincidentally, not yet under the control of a single large state, any enterprising conqueror dreamed of being able to take it over. Surely a similar project was in the plans of both the Kingdom of the Franks (which later became the Western Roman Empire) and the Eastern Roman Empire, so much so that the first self-styled Slavic state that will rise around the Carpathians around 600 AD. it will be headed by a Frankish merchant in the name of Samo and whose auspicious and complacent will be Constantinople (the other Rome of the East). In the thirteenth century. A.D. the Teutonic Order, returning from Palestine with the same intentions of conquest, will then arrive in the Baltic Sea sent from Rome to the Tiber.
In any case, the raw materials must be transformed and craftsmen who know how to work them are needed and, we repeat, there was no such industrial activity. There were also forestry products of great value that with a minimum of processing were ready for exchange as long as there were the right contacts with merchants capable of creating and maintaining trading relationships between buyers who were very distant geographically and with diversified economic demand. In addition to this, the artisans must be fed, the power must be fed, the merchants as well and is it possible to think that the scattered presence of the Slavs in the forest was enough to cover this list of varied needs without incorporating them together with the other ethnic groups in the state that one wants to organize? And what role would each of the ethnic groups that lived, yes !, have in the same forest, but with different economic and cultural choices anyway?
Unfortunately, although the Russian Church was in theory the structure that conveyed an experimented model of society and organic state and that therefore should have been interested in the "pagan" Slavs and other pagan ethnic groups and write about them, in its chronicle production of the Slavs says a lot little or nothing and the same of the Ugro-Finns and the Turkic speakers. In the end, we must obtain the best information from archeology which remains a non-secondary source of the Russian Middle Ages. However, some reflection, to understand what went wrong in this regard in the Russian Church, must be done. Concretely, it began to operate around 1100 AD. when the first editions of the CTP (Chronicles of Past Time), but the active parishes that should have been in close contact with the peasants arrived on the territory much later. Not only! Rather than in the forest, the parishes were distributed on its margins, that is, in the vicinity of the city-fortresses of the Varangians and only in the 14th-15th century. A.D. began a more systematic penetration of the forests by daring Russian Orthodox monks and in competition with the armed Catholic monks, the Teutonics, who on the contrary had been colonizing the Baltic shores for some centuries in a savage way.
The ruling elite of the first Slavic-Russian states were (we have already understood) the Swedish Variags who, however, until they were legitimized by the Russian Church, kept a bad reputation. In Russian plain like their Viking congeners they constantly spread terror when, having located a village, they threatened to assault and plunder it mercilessly. The strategy then changed when from a seasonal passage across the Russian Plain heading south, their final goal became the permanent settlement. Some more enterprising bands began to think about how to impose themselves on the numerous Variegated presences on site for some time and to deal with the exploitation rather than the annihilation of material and human resources. The most imaginative gang of others thus adopted the tactic of announcing the arrival of other Varangians carrying worse threats to the unfortunate peasants with all the related terrorist myths. The other gangs, the "good guys" announced, would not hesitate to destroy houses and take young people and women hostage, but, they warned, all this could be avoided by agreeing to keep their gang for life. a bulwark on the river armed to defend against every enemy.
In the tenth century. A.D. the situation evolves and centers of power are noticeable in more than one city-fortress (gòrod) along the major waterways. Even Kiev and the Variant power, secured the food and economic support of the immediate hinterland (handed down in the Russian legal concept kormlènie), after careful reflection he allies himself with Constantinople and derives from it the ecclesiastical organization that will now take care of using the most subtle way of dominating by supporting himself on the Christian myths of the divine mission, of the holy obedience to the Lord, of the perfect human society et sim.
Not everything went smoothly since the ministers of the Christian religion at this point with the announcement of the doctrine of sin aroused new fears and mistrust among the common people and we can imagine the reactions of those who frequenting the markets were attacked by priests who were foreign by language and culture who claimed to change the conscience of every man, woman and child and dared to ask for information on how to reach the villages inside. On the other hand, having heard that the parish priest assigned to a village should have lived there all his life and that the village should have granted the intruder land to cultivate and one of their women in marriage, one can imagine the alarm created in the community that had strict rules on the land ownership and family ties. The newcomer, moreover, with his outrageous doctrine aimed to destroy the institutions handed down by the ancestors on which the village founded its existence. Those entirely new words baptize or evangelize in reality they hid the strange and mysterious rites feared by the Slavs who considered the Christians to be very powerful shamans and astrologers!
On the other hand, as long as the Patriarchate that managed the operations from Constantinople did not provide quality Slavic-speaking clergymen, but unemployed Greeks sent to the fray, the Russian Church had a shortage of well-trained personnel willing to "penetrate" the forest to bring the "word of God ”in Slavic-Russian (Bulgarian-Slavic) language. Only with the foundation of a school in Kiev ad hoc in Monastery of the Caves the mandate was fully initiated.
The communications between the powers at the edge of the forest and the alleged subjects who lived somewhere in the interior were however difficult and the most immediate policy of the self-styled princes of the Slavic-Russian city-states, instigated by the Church, was to invest heavily in monuments and festivities in the city environment so that people were attracted to the sumptuous festivals, the colorful markets and the chanting processions and flocked out of the forest to participate in some way and consequently fall into the net of evangelization.
The situation did not change much until the fifteenth century. A.D. not even with the "daring Orthodox monks" we mentioned above and the Christianized power did not have a major political impact on the settlements in the forest, apart from the area around Kiev and some other cities. A proof of the separation between the peasant environment and the state that boasts of governing it is a trial of 1492 (!!) where I. Onisimov, a farmer, declared that he had worked in the area around Moscow for 12 years and that «. his ax had never met another (sic!) ".
At this point the historian, wishing to talk about economy and peasant life, must undertake his research without expecting sensational results. It would also be naive to write about history and economics in the Middle Ages without taking into account the atmosphere of religiosity that reigned throughout Europe at that time and it would be equally naïve if we address the Russian Middle Ages and the Slavs with the same intentions. On the other hand, man is a cultural product and his freedom must move within the limits that his culture has imposed on him and therefore the ethnographic aspects should not be neglected since they permeate every human action in any practical and vital context. It is even necessary to resort to the "oral history" of folk tales (byliny) collected carefully and with great effort in the nineteenth-twentieth century. since these stories (at least those of the so-called Kievano cycle - v. S. A. Zenkovsky in bibl. - which speak of St. Vladimir and the first Slavic-Russian state) could reflect ancient habits, hide ancient interesting crafts to be known in order to penetrate the legal uses and ethical customs of the Slavic-Russian past even before the introduction of Christianity and it would also be right to think that they refer to events that really happened with characters that really existed. On the other hand, the compiler of the CTP himself had resorted to popular sagas and had inserted them in the Chronicles to embellish the memories of the most famous people. And therefore, if the examination of these texts should not be neglected, it is necessary to avoid (and we will do) too many speculative and imaginative comparisons and instead engage more with the historical reality known from past and recent archaeological excavations beyond the Vistula and south of the Carpathians. as well as in the far north or along the Volga.
Archeology has shown us that the first contacts established around the eighth century. A.D. among the Swedish Varangians and the Finno-Ugric and Balto-Slavic populations they began on the Baltic Sea, in Lake Ladoga and in other places in the north, but never too far from the coast given the seasonal (!) nature of the visits. We said how the Varangians presented themselves to the elders of the villages they managed to locate and how they imposed taxes on them through the "mafia" procedure that we have also described. We add now that the Russian Church gave them a hand, although only around the fourteenth-fifteenth century. A.D., when they spread the legend by a certain Riurik variago in which it is said that the natives would have offered the entire Russian land and its riches to this character with great liberality. to put an end to their constant internal quarrels!
Logically Riurik and its exploits are a fairy tale and it is necessary to imagine a colonization carried out by force by the Varangians, but lacking effective plans, and which we know was still in progress in the 10th century. A.D. by Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (and not only by him!). The Emperor in his writings (De Administrando Imperio) informs that the Varangians of Kiev every winter left the city and headed upstream of the Dnieper and its tributaries to collect blessed taxes. Round (poljudie) ended around April when the collected stuff was enough to be profitable for sale in Kiev. We know that to make the poljudie Olga, Varigian regent of Kiev in the second half of the 10th century. A.D., by virtue of a treaty drawn up with the newly appointed Roman Emperor, he even thought of fixing in a few and defined localities Russian plain meeting places (pogosty) intended to collect the "taxes due" since the encounters (and clashes) with the locals had evidently been so far unsafe because they were passed on by intermediaries and guides who were not entirely reliable. Olga also entered into a contract with Great Novgorod just born as an autonomous state in order to ensure that part of the exports traded so far in the Baltic Sea through the Varangians of Aldeigjuborg (in Russian Ladoga that is the position on the southern shores of the homonymous lake a few hundred km north of Great Novgorod) was managed from Kiev and destined for Constantinople instead of being routed to Central Asia by the Volga Bulgarians and the Càzars.
From these facts we can deduce that the Slavs were more numerous in the south-western part of Russian plain and that, on the contrary, the other ethnic groups, Baltoslavs and Ugrofinni, were concentrated in the north and northeast. This is a point that could explain why the Varangian power wore a Slavic "ethnic garment" to assert itself in the Russian plain and cancel the presence of all other people including the Eastern Vandals, the latter perhaps now assimilated or emigrated.
Let's stop for a moment on how the village is organized in the forest in general.
The inhabited area is usually located in rather high clearings and consists of a grouping of families - which rarely exceed ten - with their houses. The fields to be cultivated are located behind the houses or sometimes downstream of the hill when the land obtained by cutting down the trees with the method of slash-and-burn (podseka) farther. The good seasons are short and the rain is scarce so the cereals that are grown are mainly barley and rye for subsistence and flax and hemp for "industrial uses". The inhabitants have in common some draft horses and also raise small animals which they allow to graze in the adjacent forest. The pig is by far the most appreciated animal as it provides meat on the peasant table as well as lard and lard for various technical uses and acts as a sweeper of the courtyards. Agriculture is carried out with few tools and, when the land runs out within a decade, they go to look for new virgin land. Once the move is urgent, it is necessary to choose between the options: 1. abandon the current village and found a new one or 2. go back and forth with the new agricultural area obtained as we said with slash-and-burn keeping the old village alive.
All this is proven as far as the Slavs are concerned, but for the Ugro-Finns?
Concentrate in the northeast of the Russian plain they have always had a more precarious existence due to the latitude of their regions and the relative climate. Villages were mostly clusters of single-family tents and hunting and fishing prevailed, albeit together with limited horticulture. As a function of this way of life they had long since become accustomed to the commercial exchanges of the products they obtained in their environment, especially with the Bulgarians of the Volga against food and tools.
Reconstruction of one of the three shrines of Greater Novgorod with a wooden idol in the center
The religious myth had a great weight for the existence of the people and, although we do not know well the different paganisms of the Russian plain, the general dominant belief was that the gods of heaven and earth had made material resources available to men from the very beginning and every human action in nature could only take into account the original divine concession made to every living being. In the paganism of the Russian plain in fact, nature imagined itself alive in every part and could never be confronted violently, but with the deference due to a relative, albeit not always human in appearance.
However, no ethnic group has ever boasted an organized church like the Christian one and the Slavs and others have venerated their gods in separate and independent sanctuaries with their own priests and which were headed by a number of villages of common stock. In the Slavic villages, for example, normal ceremonies were officiated by the elders, while in the sanctuaries the most solemn feasts were celebrated with an officiant in charge and maintained, such as those in honor of the founder of the lineage (called rod) that is, of the eponymous ancestor who lived in heaven and acted as an intermediary with the gods. The Slavic sanctuary usually (the most classic is probably in the circular design, common with those of the Vandals) was erected in isolated and well hidden places and was fortified so that the inhabitants of dependent villages could find shelter there and place themselves under divine protection in case of hostile attacks. It was accessed from a door along a single path masked by a sacred labyrinth. The entrance door is also remarkable because it is made in such a way as to look perpendicularly at the sunrise and thus allow the light of the star to enter the interior space to remain there for a good number of hours. Since at the latitudes to which we refer the sun does not rise every day in the same point of the horizon, but on points distant from each other along a fairly wide arc of circle, taking into account the phenomena of variation that rotation and terrestrial revolution undergo over time with a not very complicated calculation (M. Faccini in E. Cadelo, v. bibl.) it can be determined (think!). the date of construction of the sacred complex!
In the swamp around Great Novgorod three places of worship were found, one next to the other and identical to each other (see the figure above taken from B. Chropovský, in bibl.), and each used respectively by the three different ethnic groups who later founded the city. And is this not perhaps a proof that in the Novgorod area the collaboration between Ugro-Finni, Balto-Slavs and Slavs was peaceful enough? And what to do with the legend of Riurik? Apart from this, other holy places were considered the spaces around the oaks as well as other corners of the forest where for example the lightning had struck or there was a source of drinking water.
In addition to pagan religions, the cultural and religious role of the Muslim Volga Bulgarians from 921 AD cannot be overlooked. that with their presence in the enormous subarctic region of the Ugro-Finns they dominated the northeast and the Volga for centuries and the Bulgarians, although mixed with the locals, have left us no particular holy places, if not their cemeteries.
Returning to the Slavs, the inhabited area represented a living unit, a small universe of which the individual was part by birth or by adoption. Not only! The family (verv ' Ukrainian term, but of Scandinavian origin!) and the house (sun in Russian of masculine gender) materially they were (and still are today) the heart of time and life that passes. Here one could find assistance, tranquility, affections and defense and it is logical that in Russian mir mean at the same time village is peace why not?, world is cosmos.
Every sun had a householder with powers of life and death over his relatives and he was entrusted with the traditional task of making sure that alliances and social relationships with others sun responded to the sacred customs established by the gods in past generations. The whole village, on the other hand, was headed by an elder (starožilec) elected / chosen or surviving among the heads of families. It was he who guarded not only the sacred paraphernalia for the initiatory religious rites of young males and young females, but also for the other more intimate ceremonies: births, marriages, deaths etc. who even officiated. One went to him who personified collective memory and technological knowledge for advice on how to build a house or how to make an object, to ask for and receive certain tools etc. Due to its characteristics it is starožilec was therefore able to preside over the assembly (veče) who met to make important decisions and to judge in disputes.
Charter of consanguinity relationships in Russian and English (dashed lines indicate generations that cannot have stable and sexual relationships and continuous ones for recognized relationships). The black square is the subject. In some drawer there is also the writing removed and this refers to the fact that this denomination disappeared from today's official nomenclature with the new legislation of the USSR in 1920.
At the base of everything was the system of kinship of the gods hereditary clans invented to keep families connected with families and villages with villages. The scheme in the figure above and the other two that follow below are proposed by Genevra Gerhart (see bibl.) For Russian family ties and are quite complicated, but in particular they are indispensable to know how the Slav family can be classified into anthropological field starting from clan (in the first scheme) with its hierarchies based on seniority and with the help of the following (second and third) to observe the permitted links.
The system is first and foremost patrilineal and the women who are generated within it must be expelled from any management of authority because their potential to reproduce competing males in office disturbs the integrity of the system. clan and must therefore be controlled so that the followers do not become elements of disagreement between the different families of gods clan, if stirred up by mothers. The exogamous marriage is therefore obligatory and the woman marries out of the sun where she was born, not being able to marry any of her relatives. It will have the role of living pledge because it will preserve the cooperation between the sun and sometimes when a clan she found it convenient, she got married with males from other villages, keeping even stronger the role of living pledge.
The family of EGO (the man). The sign * indicates the marriage (covenant) allowed, the horizontal lines indicate the separated generations and the arrows the generated children considered legitimate.
The woman is traded and the male or his parents pay a price to her parents, the veno, which however is not totally the same as the selling or buying price of a slave. Later, in fact, under the Muscovite regime it will become a marriage tax that the husband or his family will pay at the wedding when the woman officially passes under the dominion of another head of the family as well as under the orders of her husband. If the marriage takes place within the same lineage (rod) there is no inter-ethnic crossbreeding, otherwise in the other cases in the popular idea to whom to blame any malformations and aberrant dispositions in the children the bad "mixing of blood" will be attributed solely to the woman. Even the simple fact that a son did not resemble his father or was imperfect in physique raised the suspicion of adultery or magical intervention. The woman, in fact, although considered a simple container of sperm, was believed capable of intervening with the spell in the formation of the fetus. However, if this intervention was absent, the male she generated was considered all the work of her husband! On the other hand, the rules established in this sense were an integral part of the education of minors and, if this were not the case, their patrilinearity would have suffered. As is natural for us today, the rules responded to the uncertainty about the role / weight of each sex in the "manufacturing" of the newborn due to the insufficient biological knowledge of that time.
HER family. Here, too, the sign × indicates the marriage (covenant) allowed, the horizontal lines indicate the separated generations and the arrows indicate the generated children considered legitimate.
Kinship in most human societies is at the same time alliance and descent, consanguinity and cultural affinity and for these reasons the sexuality of the members at least in part must be kept under control so that copulas that could endanger the order are prevented. constituted.
The speech has many and very complicated aspects and variants that we preferred to avoid also because the information on the situation of the Slavic-Russian family in the Middle Ages is extremely incomplete and, due to its ecclesiastical origin, imbued with anti-pagan hatred. Despite this, in the framework that will emerge from our discussion from the twelfth century. A.D. onwards we will see the emergence of a “Russian” model of life that in the sixteenth century. A.D. it will legally impose itself as a model on the whole territory of the Russian Empire.
Let us briefly see the most salient aspects of the ideological-religious clash conducted on the field of family relations, recalling that Christianity erased and polluted a large part of local Slavic-Russian and Finno-Ugric traditions, and that the Christian kinship system eventually won and it asserted itself, albeit partially modified and readapted. Let's say right away that Christianity fundamentally considered incestuous the Slavic organization of kinships with all the aftermath of custom and interpersonal rules that it envisaged since it did not respect the scale of prohibitions established by St. Paul and St. Augustine for copulation between consanguineous. Christian eyes in sun Slavic will only see you incest is promiscuity and will demand the revision of the schemes reproduced above (which is still in use today, at least in terms of terms!) and as an example - among others - they imposed the immediate and permanent ban on jus primae noctis of the head of the family on the bride-daughter-in-law (snohà) before copulation with the legitimate spouse to personally verify the functionality of the mother in guaranteeing him a grandson. And here it is well noted that incest that is, the major sexual offense to the Christian god does not have the same meaning throughout the world and therefore not even among the Slavs before their conversion and the idea - also new and unexpected - of sin included in the sexual act remained incomprehensible. The same thing can be said of the complained one promiscuity which actually was either the polygamy normally allowed to notables of clan or the practice of levirate always for reasons of alliances. In the latter costume, the woman now owned the clan who had "bought" it was not only her husband's wife, but also his brothers to one of whom in the event of the death of her husband she became a second or third etc. wife. In this way the covenant that the woman represented was not broken.
For an anthropological approach to a situation which is moreover distant from us in time we will refer to M. Godelier (see bibl.), Trying to summarize the research of this anthropologist on the subject without altering their meaning. Our author sees a substantial difference between the two Christian (INUIT anthropological type) and Slavic-pagan (SUDANESE anthropological type) systems of kinship. The Slavic-Russian kinship system, like any other studied in the last 20 years between the various human communities / ethnicities of the world, was based on the myth that it had been imposed by an immortal deity in order to maintain order in nature. Slavic paganism therefore justified and legitimized a series of legends and religious beliefs in which the divinity ruler of the world entrusted in the mists of time to a progenitor aided by a select few the task of preserving this order and therefore managing the life of the members of the extended family and not mononuclear in every area. In order not to subvert the universal order entrusted to the mortal descendants of the human lineage among all other living non-human lineages, men were ordered according to an immutable hierarchy with an imagined semi-divine power which, choosing the most capable heir after death, it ensured the rotation and all the contents of the tradition. Since the hierarchy in particular was based on the age of majority of the male leaders for whom a regulated sexuality reserved for them was allowed, for the younger ones who were not yet among the elect the sexual behavioral ways taught were rather different.
Apart from that, it seems that the most ancient systems of kinship among the Slavs and the Ugro-Finns were matrilineal in which it was men who were expelled to other relatives under the obedience of women-heads of families. Following some ideological and cultural revolution not well fixed in time so far, but still not much earlier than the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, power passed into the hands of men and it was women at this point who had to undergo the system now. patrilineal which has been talked about so far. In the Slav and Baltoslav case this story is largely deduced from folklore, but what we understand from this is the paramount importance in the accurate determination of sex at birth since, for the current system, the new individual could be included or respectively excluded from the group of relatives and even physically suppressed.
However, we must confess that we know little about the sex life of the Russian peasant in the Middle Ages and the more serious observations of foreign travelers who visited the Russian plain refer to the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. A.D. therefore we can only say that female promiscuity and spermatic competition, which in recent times have been confirmed for almost all living nature including man as fundamental evolutionary aspects, were immediately noticed by evangelizing or lay ministers and branded as intrinsic ugliness of the nature of the Slavs and their residual paganism. Rather! Assimilate yourself with behaviors against nature we can think that already at the moment of the first baptisms the Russian Church decided that certain customs should be eliminated by insisting on the doctrine of original sin and on the Christian definition ofincest.
In a Slavic power organized in parallel kinships that join forces, what happens when the head of the family dies? He is not succeeded by his son, but by the living brother who is immediately younger, perhaps at the head of another sun and the family of the deceased goes to dissolve into that of the new head of the family. At this point it is a decision of the latter to authorize one or more children of the deceased who already have a spouse to found new ones sun and, by emigrating, even new villages.
And the old man sun? It no longer has any (sacred) sense of being inhabited by others and traditionally should be left in flames or decay with the deceased inside and some of his closest collaborators who with the death of the head lost all his prerogatives. In the past, in fact, the corpses were cremated and usually the widow also followed her husband in the final stake. Then Christianity had fixed the burial forever in anticipation of the resurrection. It is therefore worth mentioning the abandonment ceremony officiated by the widow of the deceased, if there is one, or by the eldest woman of the house because when the head of the family dies, an economic management is closed in the crops, in the piece of land etc. and the widow or the old woman are not heirs of anything, but take care only with the proper rite that the gods are not offended. And so, after waiting for every movable object to be removed, the stove is switched on again (pečka) for the last time (extinguished when the landlord dies) and the wood is allowed to burn up. A part of the embers is taken with it as a pledge and, this done, we move away forever so that a new cycle of life can start again somewhere else with the same roots. We remember these last facts because they reconfirm us a peculiar aspect for the different peoples who there Russian plain it housed and which suggests that the Germanic world in the Swedish variant did not take much root from a cultural point of view after the separation between the two Germanic and Slavic blocks. The only trace "Swedish" was perhaps preserved in the ethnonym Rus' that the state of Kiev extended to Slavic subjects was attributed Poljani. This is another puzzle from the Russian Middle Ages.
In the long discourse on the Slavic family, the thesis is that the economy is established internally according to the distribution of the members according to age and sex since the situation is right in the framework (the schemes of Gerhart!) Which assigns not only the hierarchical position of each member, but also the practical and working (and therefore economic) functions that belong to him / her. In other words, the responsibilities in the budget of the dom / clan they are prefixed and lowered from the top by the hierarchy. Not only! The concept that prevailed among the Slavs (but also throughout the medieval Christian world) was that the past was the golden age and that the present was its decay.In short, there was much fear for the future, if the elites of the ruling bloodlines were not allowed to act, who alone could defend status quo against any harmful innovation and thus the kind of life that was led in mir it was founded on deliberate and imposed ignorance and what happened in the world outside the village was ignored for practical reasons of communication, but also feared and marked with uselessness.
So let's take stock. First of all it is good to dispel the erroneous view of a forest environment full of peasant villages and absolutely devoid of contact with the surrounding territory outside the dense, given that from the number of inhabited areas envisaged by archaeologists in the examination of the necropolis, the demographic density that is deduced must have been very low, but those few people, moreover, do not seem to have produced a surplus to be exchanged since there is no diversification of the village's productions and therefore not only food. If one lived by consuming almost entirely what was produced without aspiring to possible improvements in techniques and needs, what was the use of the local market and the circulation of goods and men? The market itself was transformed into an opportunity for recreation and sacred entertainment without, however, a minimum economic significance and the conservative attitudes of the mir, albeit conditioned by intricate geographical realities that are difficult to interpenetrate with each other, they were the only reasons that tradition recognized in the peasant world.
And this while we note a city dynamism that grows, albeit slowly, in the Russian plain.
The few urban realities with the need to procure food in large quantities immediately required better contacts with the hinterland (we have said it) albeit hidden and unknown and in addition they began to allow the birth of an agricultural class that operated in their proximity, but that it worked on the basis of buying and selling a good part of what it produced. And this is already a starting point for the urban reality to change from a closed and threatening fortress-city to a place of innovation and positive progress. The same variago Saint Vladimir, the true founder of the first Slavic-Russian state and "evangelizer of the Russians", when he decides to make Kiev the capital of his state after having abandoned Great Novgorod to its administrative and political autonomy, it has to face the first problem of subsistence for the many people it has decided to welcome in the perimeter of the kievane walls. He solves this by transplanting people of all lineages - and therefore technically unprepared farmers - to the south from the far north. He gives them land to cultivate on the border with the steppe to supply his Kiev since he will have learned that here, just to the south, the land is very fertile due to the presence of the loess (a clay of acid soils) and that the Russians call for the color Black Lands (Cernozjòm). They will produce to serve Kiev and will be compensated in various ways. It is these "orbiting" farmers between forest and steppe who integrate with the nomadic world and the ancient Hellenistic civilization to improve techniques and methods in working the fields and in raising new domestic animals and thus making the Kievan (later also Russian) society grow hitherto unknown economic personalities willingly aggregated to the service of the Slavic-Variago lord.
Transports? The logistics? The use of waterways will be implemented and optimized.
There are many kievani projects in this 12th century A.D. and the main example is that the so-called Via dell'Okà which starts from the Okà River just below Moscow and crosses the forest in about 20 well-equipped stages to end in the southwest of Kiev, it was the route along which, despite the Vladimir measure, Volga Bulgaria - also located in the Black Lands, but in those of the Middle Volga - continued to dominate the grain market in the whole Russian plain. It will continue to serve Kiev for centuries, but also Great Novgorod and then Moscow, with its own cereals on the basis of sales relations. In particular the traffic with Great Novgorod will unfold away New Market (in Russian Novyi Torg or Toržòk), a small town-warehouse founded in the vicinity of Tver 'by the Novgorodians to collect goods here that travel from the north to the Lower Volga, again with Bulgarian international intermediaries.
Therefore the agricultural-food product in the first place, but, if good or bad food is compensated with the cereals that the climate and the soil allow to grow: barley and rye in the first place and then millet and oats (the wheat will arrive towards the XVI century AD), what else does the peasant economy produce so remarkable that it can end up in a trade beyond the borders?
Returning to the distribution of the Slavs, schematically we note that, if the concentration is maximum in the southwest up to the Carpathians, as we move towards the northeast, the Finno-Ugric populations increase instead, dominating almost totally at the end in the tundra towards and beyond the Circle. Arctic polar. For centuries, as we have said, in the favorable conjuncture of international markets, hunters-gatherers were able more than the Slavs to offer the highly sought-after high value-added forest products, namely precious furs, honey and wax, iron ore and semi-precious stones and even silver from the Urals. It was the Ugro-Finns who established centuries-old contacts (with mestizo) with the Bulgarians of the Volga. We insist on this point since the state of Kiev had a marked agricultural imprint based on its own economy (10th-11th century AD) while the Bulgarians of the Volga and Great Novgorod instead they had an absolutely mercantile one. In other words, if Kiev impersonated the holy and absolute monarchy, Great Novgorod it was a republic Sui generis.
Bolgar by contrast was a Muslim emirate (from 921 AD) as well Sui generis whose elite, however, did not need external food supplies, not even in the form of compulsory taxation like Kiev. The Bulgarians (we said it) cultivated the Black Lands and the emir himself participated directly in the cultivation and production and intervened in the agricultural sale.
On the other hand, we have seen how the peasant economy, with very few contacts with other villages and with city-fortresses, must still be able to manufacture and supply all that was needed for the standard life that was led. Not only! If a village was big enough, in the end a certain self-sufficiency in all the material necessities of life acquired it. However, bartering - and in fact we must talk about this - existed and worked in many areas of the Russian Plain, while we note the practically absolute absence of hard cash. The coined metallic money that is often found by archaeologists buried in pits in the ground (safes?) Or that we find in tombs turns out to be almost totally imported from Central Asia and does not accumulate or spend, but is incorporated exclusively in clothing as a feminine ornament. !
Bartering is based above all on the obligatory trust between the members of the clan and related families, if it occurs within the system and in other words, agreements such as: I offer you some food and you repair this tool for me. Not only that, where the reciprocity of economic ties becomes a fixed-term commitment still with very simple terms, the agreement will be: I do you a favor today, but you can also return it to me in a few days, months or years.
Apart from this, in certain barters there are problems of convenience if the object-offer to be exchanged is bulky or impossible to transfer / transport or even if the exchange-of-favor is to be carried out outside the village and can force the trip. The moving away from mir for any reason it is not well received both because a journey is long and fraught with deadly obstacles and because it breaks the traditional obligation of the presence of all the members in the collective activities at all times. Traveling is a servile activity worthy of a slave, as in fact the merchants without a fixed abode and without family coverage are considered.
Author's drawing of a dirhem from a specimen exhibited in the City Museum of Gdansk.
We have already said that, if there was a specialist in a trade or an art, he could not carry out his activity full time since, without thinking of being able to count on fixed emoluments to be received from relatives or others in the village such as compensation, he himself had to get food and a living and therefore his work was also the object of bartering and without the need to circulate hard cash. In spite of this, if the Slavic cultural situation was the one we have described so far, from where the artist-craftsmen emerged that we find mentioned several times in the documents of the XII and XIII centuries. A.D.? We have mentioned the archaeological discovery made in Great Novgorod of a real workshop where sacred objects were produced by specialists as well as we mention in the same city the Canton of Carpenters (it would be worth calling it better Canton of Shipyards. ) which represented a permanent woodworking school. Here inviolable technological secrets were kept so that access was forbidden to any stranger. That said, the circumstances of the immediate past and the political and mercantile ties of the city do not allow us to think that instituting internships in certain professions was an industrial adaptation to the demand raised by the logistical needs of navigation along the city's river, the Volhov, to Lake Ladoga in the north or other rivers in the south. The Nordic republic confirms its singularity in this area and its past history explains how its commercial and economic history was connected, but in contrast, with the foundation of the first Slavic-Russian state. The idea that Greater Novgorod could dominate the Russian plain if united with Kiev it already flashed in the time of Olga and her supposed "riurikide" spouse, Igor, and then to her son, Sviatoslav, father of St. Vladimir who finally partly concretized it. Due to his acquaintances with the Bulgarians of the Danube and therefore in direct contact with the Roman imperial civilization, it was clear to Sviatoslav that it was necessary to eliminate the Càzari with their commercial network in order to have substantial assets. He undertook military campaigns trying to disrupt the traffic of the Novgorodians with the Bulgarians of the Volga in the regions of the upper Urals, then moved on to the Càzari in the Volga delta and the Black Sea, but it is not clear that he was fully successful in the intent to weaken this ancient empire of Jewish religion. We know on the contrary that the attempt to subdue Great Novgorod using Vladimir to a large extent failed. It was probably the Bulgarians of the Volga who favored the foundation and supported the independence of the Nordic republic from Kiev and, even though the Bulgarians, albeit Slavised, ruled there with their own ruling caste which seems to have retained the ancient corrupt ethnonym in the Old Russian word boljarin or ital. boyars. In conclusion in the twelfth century. A.D. the republic is now one of the key links in the Baltic-Central-Asian merchant chain while Kiev remains excluded.
The most remarkable thing is that the Ugro-Finns of the far north constituted just the other link - and the most important - of the said economic chain. In the long and dark winter these ethnic groups hunted small carnivores with precious fur and had developed a whole series of processing protocols to obtain a quality product. They gladly resorted, for example, to traps and snares rather than bow and arrows (even if they were blunt) which would have caused holes in the fur. They were very skilled in skinning the captured animal without too many and unnecessary cuts. The fur, after having carefully scraped off the subcutaneous fat, was cleaned and combed and finally salted to prevent the attack by insects. At this point it was presented to the buyer.
In our view, due to the economic importance that this forest product had for centuries, the "furrier" was one of the first trades in the Russian Plain. True experimental schools headed by expert teachers already existed in the seventh century. A.D. among the different Finno-Ugric ethnic groups of the northern Urals and certainly in Bolgar-sul-Volga where, in addition to hunting techniques, biology, zoology and animal ethology were taught.
Who bought the furs? And how did the exchange take place? And where and when?
Central Asia, Baghdad, Constantinople etc. they were the major buyers of such luxury items that usually formed part of the attire of court dignitaries, but bishops and popes also flaunted them with great profusion. It was then the Vulgo-Bulgarian organization that kept in touch with Finno-Ugric suppliers especially in the area of White Lake (Belo Ozero).
Here a special type of exchange intervened: the "silent barter" which is worth reconstructing as the type of negotiation is fundamental for the progress of trade and constituted the historical reason in the same way that led to found Great Novgorod. The "silent barter" operation took place in a clearing of a wood selected by the buyer and the seller on the shore of the lake, who normally had never seen each other. The vendor would display a part of what he had brought to exchange and retreat into the trees, hiding. The buyer, also hidden in the rent, came out from the opposite side of the wood, looked at and appreciated what was on display and offered the goods he intended to offer in countervalue and withdrew into the rent. At this point it was up to the seller to appreciate. If the buyer's offer was good, he took it and left his. Otherwise he would leave things as they were, giving the buyer the option to increase the offer. This to-and-fro could last too long, usually annoying the salesman who had his days numbered. In fact, once the deal was concluded, he left Lake Bianco to head north, that is, towards the southern shores of Lake Onego. From there it crossed the Svir River which connected Lake Onego with Lake Ladoga (in Finno-Ugric called Njevo) and reached the Swedes who were waiting at the mouth of the Volhov while the days of summer flowed inexorably and the temperature began to drop. If it hadn't been all over in a certain time, the snow would have fallen, the ground and the rivers would have frozen over and everything would have frozen over.
Who received in exchange for expensive furs the Ugro-Finns (in particular in the documents the Jugri and i Vepsi or Visu)? We said it: i dirhem of the Abbasid Caliphate which, let us repeat, were not willingly used as a sound coin, but considered talismans against the evil eye to be worn as well as ornaments on the forehead of women.
And this was practically the work of the Volga Bulgarians since they settled on the Middle Volga in the 7th-8th centuries. A.D. divided from their Danube congeners and close collaborators of the Càzari.
Because then we preferred to refer to the farmer Slavic-Russian with more details?
The answer is that from our position as moderns we know that Moscow took over from Kiev and others Great Novgorod (partly also to the Bulgars of the Volga, however, which became the Kazan Tatars) in the domain of the whole Russian plain in the fifteenth century. A.D., he began to take an interest in the hitherto unknown and neglected peasant "class" and towards the second half of the 16th century. A.D., when the power of his dynasty increased and was confirmed, it was clearly perceived that the interest of every imperial effort for the acquisition of new territories and more subjects-inhabitants had to take on a colonial imprint. More or less the same point of view was also in vogue in contemporary Western Europe, but for Moscow the attitude was for a subjection without half measures and with the spread and affirmation of the myth of the sacred and Roman Empire, it was not no ethnic or religious distinction allowed among the subjects, with very few exceptions. This situation of total and flattening egalitarianism was fomented by the Russian Church - from Kiev and then from Moscow - which had an obsessive role in imposing it in every way with its well-equipped bureaucracy. Unfortunately with the means of the time in the end we must say that she showed herself more than anything else capable of exhibiting a faculty of consoler Sui generis to the imperial political setbacks. Yet it attracted bequests and inheritances that increased the ecclesiastical estates out of all proportion almost to constitute a state within a state. The archbishops overwhelmed the authority of the Muscovite sovereign from their convents which had become very important ideological centers. Little by little, in short, the Russian Church penetrated so intimately into imperial power as to sanctify it. And the subjects? If they were pagans wandering in the forest they were to be considered foreigners - this is the semantics of the Russian word jazyčnyi for they pay - and consequently they were temporarily ignored, otherwise, if Christians, they accepted enslavement.
Around the thirteenth century. the Catholics arrived on the Baltic Sea on the other hand with more or less the same ideological project of the Russian Church and colonized at first glance the Baltic territory where in 1209 they founded Riga. Immediately afterwards the Teutonic Knights arrived and it was an unequal struggle without half measures and without pity with the local ethnic groups, so much so that an entire Baltic Slavic people, the Prussians, will be exterminated and erased from history. Fortunately, this did not affect the Slavic-Russians still out of the reach of the fierce armed Catholic monks, but pushed the surviving Baltoslavs, especially the Lithuanians, to join forces with the almost congeners and neighboring Slavs Krivici and with other Slavic peoples (Poles, Ukrainians) against Catholic abuse. For the Lithuanian-Russian elites this implied a choice of religious field which, however, they delayed to make until the 14th century. A.D.
In the south, in the Ukrainian steppes, new oriental ethnic groups arrived which, although they did not penetrate into the interior, willy-nilly contributed to the increase of the Russian plain. The great wave will come caused by Cinghiz Khan in the thirteenth century. A.D. and the stabilization of the new Tatar state ofGolden Horde in the following centuries it will make the situation a little calmer allowing in the most remote corners of the Russian plain the intensification of inter-ethnic ties and, coincidentally, the spread of a "Slavic model" of life boasted as a great-Russian or Muscovite.
One notable aspect of the Moscow model that is most striking is the standardization of the concept of working activity which transpires from the writings of famous Russian monks according to quite peculiar criteria and in which the administration of individual time must be entrusted to power in the context of the imperial divine myth that Moscow is promoting. Put simply theworking activity it cannot be reduced to a single occupation of cultivating fields to satisfy the basic need for food, but must be diversified and increased as is normal to satisfy all the varied needs of a Slavic family that Moscow considers as an ideal. It is therefore necessary to see the question here a little better since between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. A.D. the word work was acquiring surprising philosophical and juridical contents and preparing what would later be called the serfdom or in Russian krepostničestvo. In the documents drawn up in the convents it is established that the subjects are obliged to contribute to the well-being of their congeners, but without also excluding the need to preserve the power that defends and governs them. And here it is symptomatic of the Christian misogyny which is observed, again in the juridical-ecclesiastical language, when the subjects are first called indiscriminately liudi, but then moving on to the topic work for the male the older term is used trud, that is the fatigue that is felt in working and which is praiseworthy because it is spent in honor of the established authority, while the verb is used robit '/ rubit', Russian for to work, indicating the slave labor for the woman: this work is in Russian rabòta where is it rab / rob it is slave-object. We note these semantics since the USSR, despite having inherited them from the discredited Muscovite empire in 1917, held them for good when it raised the work a material symbol of popular political strength using for worker the official derivative trudjaščiisja from trud and abandoning the other terms to common language. However, we will not go to bother Marx to define work as we understand it, but we report what a pure Marxist US trade unionist of the 1970s said about work in unequivocally modern terms (H. Braverman v. Bibl.): "Each form of life finds its sustenance in its natural environment and therefore all carry out activities aimed at appropriating natural products for their own use. […] But appropriating ready-made materials in nature is not work, work is an activity that modifies these materials with respect to their natural state to increase their use. […] Thus the human species shares with the others (species) the activity of acting on nature in order to change its forms and make them more suitable to satisfy its needs. " In ergonomic terms, moreover, work translates into an expenditure of energy subtracted from the human body for utilitarian purposes and already from this it would require at least the full personal choice of what to do and for how long, if not forced by momentary convenience. Work imposed without freedom of choice becomes compulsion and in this case it arouses rejection and revolt, while fatigue is the most complex sensation that follows and depends on psychic and somatic factors which, in the opinion of those who hear it, give satisfaction if the intended purpose of the activity itself has been achieved consciously aimed . All this is obvious to us who “understand” how work must even be linked to a remuneration which, according to our logic, must be adequate in terms of money value with the effort spent. On the contrary, a similar reasoning is absolutely inconceivable for the peasant in the Russian Middle Ages who sees himself as the member of an organized community of relatives linked to each other according to rules "descended from pagan gods" and where work is one of the natural vital activities on the same level. of the time and energy spent on eating, walking etc. Transform nature? Not even as a joke. Man must help to keep order in the universe as the gods created it and fatigue is moreover the sign of subjection to their will, since the gods are the "givers of life and strength". It follows that work and fatigue are part of an operation donation / corvée, almost paying off the debt to the triumphant deities. Be remunerated? Give the gods with luck and good health that only they master and bestow.
This is pagan-Christian syncretism (just replace gods with Christian god). But the practice?
The changing of the seasons at the latitudes of Kiev and Great Novgorod logically affects the work that needs lighting and the presence of the sun dominates the active times so that in summer you can do many more jobs than in winter. Furthermore, it is unthinkable to carry out closed works in the house where the only source of light is the fire of the stove or a fire lit in a stone basin placed on the ground and therefore almost everything takes place outside. Not only! There are no clocks nor the obligation to work and not to stop until a bell rings and when the worker is tired or has lost the desire he stops and rests. Not forgetting moreover that work in the fields, for example, keeps him away from home from the moment he wakes up with the sunrise and that he will return home at sunset so he must bring with him something to eat for a snack in addition to necessary tools. This does not mean that agricultural work is fundamental for existence and, since in practice it is not always and only hoeing, plowing, etc., when the long and dark winter arrives, the cycle of obligations it has towards the gods and towards the community living everything closes up and in the great fear that the world will end he willingly devotes himself to celebrations and propitiatory rites which he concentrates just in winter. It is the season of being together in the most intimate way, telling, discussing, educating the minors, who knows having fun and making love, but above all making great collective and orgiastic eating that in this season last a long time in the light of the ritual fire.
Apart from this picture of family life, the farmer does not oppose, as we would do today, the work to the free time since for him the free time it is useless and harmful idleness towards the gods and must be filled with the prescribed rites.
This is in short the life of the farmer who uses the natural environment for the riches he finds there to be used by adapting them to his material and immaterial needs, but always taking into account that he kills, mutilates or spoils what already exists created by the gods and who must have recourse to the ritual prescribed in tradition, if he does not want to err in acting and be struck by the disease. He cannot take from nature, if it is not just what he needs and nothing more. In the immediate reality, still uncontaminated by Christianity, he moves guided by his pagan philosophy that the elderly have passed on to him, that is, that his first reference for setting up a job, whatever it is, is dialogue with the divine forces that govern the universe perhaps with the intercession of the ancestors through the elite that governs the clan and kinship.
It is clear that in such a conceptual space it is not even imaginable the craftsman / worker who works for someone for a fee and that the "employer", a man like the others, has the right to make a person work and can be enriched by it. And that's not all: What sense would it make to pass on one's abilities to others, if it is not allowed by customs to improve and innovate a profession through daily practice and comparison?
On the other hand, in nature there are repetitive cycles of events, although never exactly the same, in which man is involved precisely because he is working and because he is part of it. To these cycles measured according to the lunar rhythms he will grant the works to be performed which he will fix in the Slavic names of the months, today almost everywhere in the Slavic world replaced by conventional ones of Latin origin.
We know well that the composition of the year of 12 lunar periods or months (Latin mensis or Russian mesjac they both mean both moon that month) had already been developed in Mesopotamia millennia before the appearance of the Slavs and which had been directly inherited with the biblical story from Christianity and Islam. For this reason it is interesting to read in Genesis (3, 17) about agricultural work: "IS (the lord god) he said to Adam. cursed is the earth because of you. In pain you will feed from it for all the days of your life. " prefiguring in the activity of working the fields a sentence to be served rather than the need to obtain a more pleasant survival. An aberrant concept of labor for the Slavic agricultural reality. In the following myth of Cain and Abel (Genesis 4: 1-15), the first, a farmer, kills his brother, a shepherd, and for the fratricide he is sent cursed and wandering around the world by the creator god and the dose of curses on the agricultural work. However, in partial contradiction, Christianity had already modified that biblical judgment on agriculture and had stigmatized this activity as human and "holy", but. performed in "atonement for original sin". Another aberrant concept for the Slav. The Church had recommended and spread the peasant activity and the Kievan Rus' Christianized at the end of the 10th century. A.D. he had quietly accepted this way of seeing and had marked instead of "wild" every other way of existing and living as that of the nomadic shepherds (evident descendants of Abel!) so much so that the place they had occupied since ancient times, the steppe, was always said in a derogatory tone CTP of the Russian Church Wild Field Why not cultivated (Russian Dìkoe Polje).
The "Christian" peasant activity then passed through a whole series of festivities sponsored by an infinite swarm of saints to whom one could turn in the prescribed rites and through the priest to obtain protection, but never forgetting that work is suffering and atonement.
Even Slavic paganism, knowing that every day or every month is the scene of a different natural event to justify its reality and to understand its evolution as far as possible anthropomorphized the event itself and interpreted and explained it in the form of continuous struggles between invisible superhuman forces. Tradition warned, let us repeat it, the active man to be very careful not to be a disturber, but to act as an actor / collaborator who contributes to the victory of the divine forces favorable to him and thus keeps the universe in order. At this point, why abandon the old pagan way of marking the passing of the seasons with their own rites? At the limit they would have given themselves the names of Christian saints in the face of the same cyclical phenomena and the divine forces involved would have continued to be venerated according to ancient custom. Hence the Slavic religious syncretism that Russian historiography calls Double Faith or in Russian Dvoeverie.
In the Nordic calendar, however, there are in the latitudes of Moscow (except in Kiev), Novgorod and Bolgar-sul-Volga some aspects of the sky in front of which Christianity (X-XI century AD) and Islam (921 AD) found themselves for the first time in their history and were impressed by the spectacular: the very long night of the winter solstice (24-25 December) and the very long day of the summer solstice (24-25 June). Not only! The transition from one season to another was also much sharper here as the sun at its zenith was quite inclined on the Nordic farmer's head compared to near-perpendicularity at Mediterranean latitudes.
On these celestial events was based much of pagan mythology and the practical references of life. The two monotheisms they were colonizing with their ideologies never took this into account Russian plain and the rest of the Slavia? We do not know for sure, but we must emphasize that the way in which the Nordic Paganism perceived natural phenomena was different and the fateful questions that people were worried about every end of the year were: What if the sun never came back? Or worse: Who guaranteed that the cool of the night would return and that instead everything would not burn under the torrid summer sun (temperatures around 40 ° C are still reached today with the many hours of sunshine)? In short, it was necessary to ask for help / advice from the ancestors that these events had overcome in their time with their wisdom and not from the Holy Scriptures or the Koran which on the contrary did not give such explanations. For these reasons, for example, the year began not before we made sure that the sun would return to the sky. The priests in the whole Russian plain therefore they waited for the light to return to the firmament from the moment of the winter solstice and they were entrusted with the task of containing the collective fear by imploring the intervention of the eponyms with the gods so that the world would not perish. And so, after seven magical days (in Russian koljady) or more or less on January 1st, if all went well, the sunlight would return. Other than the Birth of Christ.
In short, the elements of thought in the Slavic and Finno-Ugric culture are never to be overlooked since they denounce a large cultural baggage brought into the Slavic-Russian tradition that make us imagine how difficult and laborious it was for the institutionalized religions, Christian or Islamic, which they admitted no exceptions and despised the pagans in principle, to enter, interpenetrate and eliminate every “diabolical” (for Christians) and “idolatrous” (for Muslims) traditions.
Unfortunately we know Christianity and Islam quite well and we know the Paganism of the Great North quite poorly and, although the comparisons between the respective mythologies are uncertain and ambiguous, we note to our advantage that Paganism survived in Russian plain at least in the folkloristic corpus better than in other Slavic and non-Slavic regions of Europe and this is fundamental for our assumption. Rather! Paganism is still found today in an official capacity in the Republic of the Seas (Mari El) so much so that the elected President, Vladislav Zotin, was consecrated in 1992 by the local Orthodox Bishop and by the National Pagan High Priest of the Seas.
But here is the omnipresent return tradition in the discourse that should explain and clarify every vision of the world. Despite everything the tradition it is not a series of immutable rules and concepts, nor is it generically opposed to technical evolution or new scientific experiences derived from some study of anthropic reality. Tradition is the invention of a series of myths necessary for the education of young people so that a certain order founded in a certain time is not excessively disturbed. It periodically changes its name and turns into science and knowledge, always to be taught to young people (science, education, subject matter and the like are updated aspects of tradition), and in the end it is naïve to speak of congenital backwardness or stubborn opposition to smierd (more generic and somewhat derogatory name of the Russian peasant) to the new Christian ideology that does nothing but replace a series of myths with another new series of myths. Moving and acting in reality is difficult always and everywhere. Obstacles must not simply be eliminated, but understood and studied and, if there are any, we do not allow ourselves to judge negative. in toto the holistic-pagan principles that affirm that the gods wanted to place them where they are. In short, the comparison with nature must be cautious and attentive and whatever tradition is fine, if it consoles the painful doubt and suggests which rites to celebrate to overcome them.
Let's see some rites that Christianity was unable to eradicate.
Before introducing a seed into the ground, permission from the goddess is required Moist Mother Earth? Tradition indicated how it could be obtained. Should we thank the goddess by giving her the last sheaf that was in fact left in the field at the end of the harvest? It was done with pleasure and joy. The same respect was shown towards the goddess in deciding when to start working the fields since, if she transgressed and went to the countryside before Radunicy (pagan anniversary that fell shortly before Easter and remembered the ancestors), it would have responded with drought and a famine for the community of mir.
Against Christian individualism, no member of the pagan community could incur in rash acts of offense to the gods and answer personally for them since the mir it is made up of alliances of kinship and, if there is one who is wrong, it is the mir whole to have to repair.Even the word can do harm if it is spoken with evil intentions! Surely after some time the outrageous words return in the form of horrible and avenging ghosts and roam the village not only in search of theizba (generic name of the typical Slavic house opposite the sun indicating the complex also of izby separated) of the transgressor, but they torment everyone until the offense is washed away from the whole community.
Another major neo-Christian was the introduction of the idea of private land ownership as opposed to the pagan concept of divine concession to a community without any owner.
A typical aspect of the tradition peasant woman who in part was reconciled with the medieval misogyny of the Christian clergy was also the exhortation to respect the division of daily physical efforts (work!) between the sexes and between the ages which, as we know, was linked to the hierarchies of the group. family-village. There was therefore a female work distinct from that male. For this reason, the young person was educated not to be male or female at all costs, but to see their predetermined destiny from a social and economic point of view in the difference in sex. On the one hand, this is logical given that mass production that responded to market logic had not yet been reached and on the other it was essential that anyone knew how to do anything since versatility in work remained the most esteemed virtue.
The specialist instead opposite and higher because of his ability in principle it could not exist and on this last point it has not been proven even today in our societal system that a person apparently endowed with particular and exceptional faculties exists by his genetic nature, but that on the contrary in favorable environmental conditions in a large number of people who are stimulated to express the best of themselves and consequently can give rise to an innovation useful for all. In the pagan vision those who knew how to do something better than others were not exalted or "commodified" as is done today, but simply a particular look on him was recognized by the gods and. solely for the time he spent in the skill for which he stood out! In short, an exceptional personal / physical ability was an anomaly and was suppressed where and as soon as possible.
Yet despite what has been said we know that the artisans were important for the city realities of the Russian plain. In Bolgar-sul-Volga (it is better to call this the first capital of the Bulgarians) from the beginning of the 10th century. A.D. a part of the city had been reserved for artisans near the market square and with the dividing streets between specialties and specialties. The Podil of Kiev or of the capital of Càzara, Itil, not to mention the republic of Great Novgorod. When the Tatar-Mongols arrived in the 13th century. A.D., wherever artisans were found the invaders picked them up and sent them to Qara Qorum at the service of the Great Khan, upsetting "artisanal" situations that had long been consolidated in the Slavic-Russian cities, so much so that the Russian princes began to fear that their best specialists might attract the greed of the Tatars and that sooner or later they would have deported them without time in between for which it was worth hiding or masking them by bragging about their inability to produce good stuff. This situation will last until the emancipation of Moscow in the 15th century. A.D. from the Tatar yoke and became accustomed to passing on certain strange information in which the rumor spread that having a certain object made was a very complicated business or that the craftsman was not available or that he lived far away or that he was a prisoner of a monster. Of similar other fantastic tales about artisans the echo still remains in Russian fables (byliny) today.
And where did the artisans come from, if the peasant world denied them?
We have no knowledge of craft schools, apart from the one that must have existed in Kiev in the Monastery of the Caves in the eleventh century. A.D. and that found by archaeologists a Great Novgorod for the packaging and painting of sacred icons and other objects for ecclesiastical use to be dated around the fourteenth century. A.D. We can therefore think that the artisans were practitioners who came out here and there in the villages and passed to the service of the princes' courts in the city-fortresses for various reasons. Before art, however, comes the raw material on which this art materializes and therefore we can fully speak of wood craftsmen in the first place, of professional weavers and of leather workers and furriers.
Clearly the range of professions is wider and the industrial production it is only just beginning and serious organizational problems arose in this regard. A craftsman, if he is given something to produce, how to control him in the progress of his work? What if he was entrusted with a very expensive raw material to transform? He had already been torn by force or blackmail from the reality of his mir and gives all guarantees that the mir it provided by putting him in an awkward situation with a surly riurikide prince. The overall solution was to tie the craftsman with a lifetime contract or holopstvo to the prince (or whoever else used it) who last took charge, even almost as a hostage, the family and children of the worker who were also torn from the traditional environment. Yet A. Guagnini, an Italian-Polish visitor of the seventeenth century. A.D. in Moscow he wrote: "The work of the craftsmen usually pays for little money. When the price of bread increases, it is difficult for them to buy it with what they earn by working for a whole day. " Is this the appreciation of imperial Moscow for the craftsman? However, we are in the seventeenth century. and by now the use of the craftsman has already become a real and harsh slavery against which even the Russian Church (which, however, used it) complained loudly.
Craftsman, manual dexterity, trade. Topics which we will need to talk more about later given the Slavic-Russian cultural situation that is supposed to be the model of the new imperial subjection of the sixteenth century. A.D. At the moment we will turn our gaze on the work tools and on the most important and widespread raw material both at home and in the countryside of those times which is wood. Meanwhile, it must be complained that wood constitutes an embarrassing archaeological problem as it leaves very few traces in the excavation field and even disappears, if it is a question of non-voluminous objects such as furnishings and the smallest tools which are in fact very rare finds. Archaeologists, on the other hand, have excavated many types of iron tools for working wood, known between the 11th and 13th centuries. A.D. and manufactured in the Russian plain with local iron ore.
In the figures above (from M. Semjònova, v. Bibl.) Some of them are drawn. On the left there are two types of ax / hatchet (Russian topor): above is the one that with the long handle can become a deadly weapon and under the “carpenter's” one with reduced dimensions and so common that it has been used as a bargaining chip. As for saws (Russian stack) were found both over 2 m long with triangular teeth cut into the blade and with small zig-zag folds (easier to do, for the blacksmith!). Even small ones were found with fine, toothed band blades stretched between a wooden arch, as seen in the other figure on the right, and then chisels and other pointed tools.
Of course, the collections designed here and others that are seen in museums does not mean that they were the kit of a single carpenter as we would see today when entering a workshop since in any case the tools available in every izba they were very few and often borrowed from the village chief or exchanged with neighbors, avoiding unnecessary expensive duplication.
But let's make one more consideration. The gods were the guardians of science and technology and therefore the worker in using his skills actually became a divine agent and, since the tools and tools had been manufactured according to divine designs, they also had to be defended from the invisible forces of the hostile gods. that is from the so-called nečistye sily hence the obligation of those who had them in charge to keep them in a secluded, safe and sacred place.
Therefore, the winter man, not working the fields, dedicates himself to a whole series of other maintenance, repairs etc. as much as possible by working with touch rather than sight, given the lack of sufficient lighting. At home the environment is certainly protected and people feel pure in body and heart because the gods here look at him and assist him in greater intimacy.
The metal paraphernalia is rarely made of copper and, if for some time some iron tools came from the Baltic Sea and Central Asia, subsequently the iron was of local origin, that is from the Urals and when people began to look for and find it in good quantities even in the swamps (meteoric iron). It was exchanged rough, this "black stone", in standard forged shapes that vaguely resembled the axes of the figures above. For a long time in the meantime it was not known (or dared) to work it since forging etc. it was a mysterious and dangerous activity for the farmer and they feared the men who folded, melted and formed a stone with the action of fire, so much so that the blacksmith (usually Finno-Ugric) remained a stranger on the edge of the village. This does not mean that in the Russian plain there were no blacksmiths before the 13th century. A.D. since in the far north, on the shores of Lake Ilmen 2 km from Great Novgorod, there was the Variago-Swedish settlement, the fort Riurikovo Gorodišče, where blacksmith tools connected with the military world and dating back to the eighth century were found. A.D.! A little later and this time a Gnjòzdovo near Smolensk, at the headwaters of the Dnieper River, there was another Variago-Swedish workshop dedicated to the processing of sword blades imported from the Rhine. Yet the Slavic-Russian peasant society, as opposed to the West Slavic one who lived at the foot of rich mountains of minerals, did not go beyond the great "social" achievement of accepting in mir the presence of the blacksmith as long as he undertakes to carry out his work only "to order" and operates isolated in a tent used for this purpose like the one in the drawing below. Tent, ger, (jurta as we call it) of the blacksmith of the Ukrainian steppes (in the figure on the right) is, warned the German P. S. Pallas still in the 18th century, forbidden to women because. disturb the fire! On the contrary, the fire reigned in the female culinary activity and this time it was forbidden for the male to access when it was a question of cooking.
Above on the left (from V.V. Aleksandrov, v. Bibl.) There is also the drawing of a sacralized workshop as an environment reserved for the male of the sun we talked about above. Note the sled, the trough where, when necessary, a fire is lit to illuminate the environment. Then there is the step staircase, the rotating millstone and little else.
We who have visited many wood museums in northern Europe would like to make an observation. In the exhibitions we admire sculptures, paintings, embroideries and we consider them objects embellished by artistic desire while generally we ignore the true meaning of that “extra work” that makes the objects on display “beautiful” in our eyes. In fact, embellishment is a magical-religious element that served to protect the artefact by loading it with signs that effectively and for a long time guaranteed its "functionality" against the actions of the said impure invisible forces that usually tended to deteriorate it (rust was an example!) and to destroy it (woodworm, mold) and consequently there could not be a freedom of choice of the subjects to be portrayed or of the symbols or materials and colors with which to cover it because everything responded to pre-established rules.
If a Great Novgorod as we know there were famous iconography schools that produced excellent artists such as Andrei Rubljòv applying these stylistic criteria, it is no coincidence, we add, that the art of working wood was the queen industry of Canton of Carpenters on Market Shore. Excellent carpenters certainly came from here, but not only those involved in naval maintenance for the merchants' boats, but also in the manufacture and supply of furnishing elements, tools, containers, frames, plows, oars, pegole etc. together with statues to be incorporated in the hull or in the pillar of the house door of first quality. If Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus informs us that i Rus' were renowned for the construction of dismountable boats made from a single and entire mast (monoxyloi calls them) and who were able to navigate very fast in the countless waterways of the Russian plain, on the other hand the contacts with the Teutonic Knights and German Hansa certainly had refined the art of the carpenter already ancient among the Slavs, in the Baltic Sea for certain wooden objects executed with skill in Great Novgorod by now they had an excellent reputation.
Whatever the case may be, wood becomes beautiful if polished and painted and painting in peasant civilization was appreciated right on home furnishings that were not lacking in any izba.
Without going into other details, we note that the subjects to be painted undoubtedly remained the still lifes with beasts and flowers and certainly depicted various magical pagan elements such as nymphs and imaginary beings, while the landscapes were avoided considering it ridiculous to reproduce them when it was possible to look at them for oneself. in reality nor being able to imagine any other than those created by the gods.
Looking at theizba from the outside, one immediately noticed the sculpture of a horse or (more rarely) rooster head on the tip of the roof facing the road. The horse was the animal of the Sun, but also the cock was considered a family member and thanks to him who was the first to see the sun return to the sky, those who slept would wake up and come back to life. Rather! Since the nečistye sily they acted in the dark and at night, the rooster with its crow immediately chased them away in the morning. In short, the sun through these sculptures he was well protected! Inside the walls, the lavka, the door leaves were always painted, but not there pečka perhaps for technical reasons and in the museum postcards of a Russian house (Ural region) you can admire the colorful atmosphere of the 19th century above. A.D. and the rich collection of wooden furnishings that certainly follow the tastes and fashions of many centuries ago.
Many objects depicted above (on the left are taken from ON Selegina, v. Bibl., And those on the right from LV Belovinskii, v. Bibl.) Are mainly made of wood or with birch and lime peel and even with leather ( especially the wineskins used in the steppe). Among the materials there is also iron (cast iron and forged) which, we repeat, is a late contribution from the 14th century. A.D. and we note it anyway for the pot (a) for cooking soups and stews called čugunka which, filled with the ingredients, was placed in the pečka placed on the tripod or tagan / taganka. In the past, however, instead of the tripod and the cast iron (or bronze) pot, a beautiful earthenware pot with three feet on the bottom was used. The wooden bucket o I'll see is intended to draw water from the well, while the barrels are used for ritual alcoholic beverages (mead or mjod). In these articles we note the technique of the staves held together by the wicker and not by the iron bands as it will happen later.
The chest o sunduk which you see below was used to store the trousseau and other fabrics and the spoon o kovš / kuvšin at the same time it served as a bowl from which the soup was sipped and held by the large handle. There were no dishes and usually, if it was sometimes a question of having to cut meat, it was done on the lavka or on the reduced platform in front of the mouth of the pečka and in the dinners outside on the stumps / remains of well-smoothed trunks.
If cattle horns are lacking for drinking, it is because they were used exclusively for libations and because the cattle were very few and small in size.
Remarkable is still the lučina or svetec that is a sprig of birch that soaked as it was with resin (djogot) burned with a good scent and shed as much light as needed.
And let's move on to some activities planned for each sex.
Let's say right away that with some exceptions, the same izba Slavic or the čum Finno-Ugric were divided into two sections: male and female, but in any case it was the woman who dominated the interior space.
A male work outside the home was for a long time the collection of honey and wax, almost a monopoly of the Baškiri and in general of Ugro-finni. Honey and wax were obtained from the periodic looting of wild hives that formed in the hollows of the trees and that had to be emptied before a fearsome and voracious competitor: the bear! It is the embryo of an organized industry of forest products since the two products were in great demand throughout medieval Europe for which regular supplies and quality were required.
Nor can we fail to mention the natural extraction of rock salt by hand which was concentrated in the elevated region west of Kiev: Podolia and Volynia where the sources of the Vistula and Bug (southern and northern) were located and therefore in a very favorable position for transport. north and south. The Riurikids of the Rostislavids branch took over this salt industry and, since salt was essential not only for the preservation of precious furs, but also for the salting of meat and fish and vegetables, it became a weapon to bend relatives Riurikidi of Kiev when it was needed. If we talk about fish, smoked or salted, this was a product that circulated in large quantities in the markets of Russian plain. In those days there were still large fish such as sturgeons which, caught near the mouth of the great rivers, reached large docks to feed an entire family for weeks.And with Christianity and periodic prohibitions on meat food, fish remained popular on the table.
However, it is the "women's jobs" that interest us now because from an economic point of view they are the only ones that often produce that surplus which we lamented the lack. Let's start with an ancient female job: weaving. Appeared at the beginning of the invention of agriculture and sedentarization, it began with the cultivation of the plant best known for this use in the north: the linen (Linum usitatissimum in Russian ljòn).
The cultivation reserved for women took place in separate land near the river and the textile plants in addition to flax were hemp (Cannabis sp. in Russian konopljà) and some others. Flax and hemp do not require particular soils and grow almost everywhere in the north as long as constant care is given to them, ensuring that the stems grow straight and high enough to give long and tenacious fibers.
A little before it begins to bear fruit, the plant is pulled out of the ground with all the roots by hand. It can never be cut (the scythe is a male tool!) And the fibers will thus be undamaged from bending and breaking. Then the stems are left to macerate for some time until the long fibers detach from each other, freeing themselves from collagen. To separate and discard the remaining collagen, the fibers are broken down and combed and finally given to spin with traditional vertical spindles.
Punching, carding, twisting, spinning with the spindle etc. they were the most troublesome jobs before moving on to the loom. The spindle with the clay counterweight was a sacred instrument and could only be used by its first mistress, so much so that the counterweight bore the sign of the latter's name. Finally, the thread was curled up on the spinning wheel. If a previous coloring was required, various plants were found in the forest to do this and the preparation and obtaining of the vegetable colors in which the yarn had to be immersed was a complicated, very long and smelly job.
It sometimes happened that the number of plants to be harvested and then worked produced so much thread that woven and transformed gave cloths in greater quantities than necessary for the uses of the family and this because in a good year the extra stems could not be allowed to rot and they went all used until exhaustion and here is the surplus: extra yarn and sheets!
Finally we passed on the frame that each izba, as is natural, small or large he had one (the Ugro-Finns appear to have preferred tanned leathers and furs for their clothes).
The most widespread in the Slavia appears to have been the vertical one (left above). It was the man's job, immediately after the threshing (largely female operation!), To repair it, clean it and tidy it up after pulling it down from the attic (čerdak) and finally mount it. Once ready, the hostess went to work together with the other women. The device (the drawings above are taken from a museum postcard) was under the patronage of the Slavic-Russian goddess Mokoš or Mokošà, later equated by Christians to saint Parascheva or saint of Friday and in reverence to it the weaving was interrupted on Friday and resumed on the following Monday.
Each thread in a different color was placed on its own spinning wheel and in fixed cut lengths and with a weight tied to a band (there are many weights in archaeological excavations!) A certain number of them were hung on the upper beam of the loom and acted as a warp. . The rest of the thread wound around its shuttle and made up the weft (or wefts in different colors). Shuttle and shuttle, although in the figure the weft can be seen collected on the side without a shuttle, they were usually handled by young girls since the adult woman was the responsible operator of the loom.
In the form of embroidery (although rarely with topstitching as this was too long a work to be done without sufficient light) with threads of different colors between weft and warp, the woman of the house was able to draw stylized mythological figures on the sheets depending on the destination of the fabric itself ( dress? tablecloth? sheets? etc.) as in the figure on the right where you can see the apotropaic embroideries dominant in the Russian countryside. Spinning, weaving and putting together clothes to make a dress, a cloak or a mat were time-consuming jobs and so was sewing using needle and thread so, in the latter case, it was easier to resort to buttons and ties or, if you could get them, metal buckles and pins to hold more sheets together. The CTP they record the clear difference in quality, for example, of the "Russian" sheets compared to the Greek ones of Constantinople, but it is not possible to understand to whom this better quality is due. Of course, let's imagine that, since the parish priest arrived and there was a church, the work on the loom had actually increased in private homes to offer decorations to the priest and in some cases the collaboration of the entire village was needed. With the Church, however, the designs on the sheets had changed as well as the colors allowed because numerous and complicated "Christian" prohibitions on weaving, textile fibers and colors had been introduced. Not only! Certain fabrics were woven exclusively by the monks in the few convents so as not to profane their sanctity with female hands.
An example? The weaving and embroidery ofantimension (Russian antimìns or holy tablecloth used for the Orthodox altar) were made entirely by the monks.
We focused on this domestic industry and especially on linen since the demand for this fiber was enormous in every class for underwear. Hemp fabrics were also in demand and the equipment was the same, but it was for humbler uses or for ropes. On the other hand, such a complicated chain of activity did not take place in the city-fortresses and sheets, semi-made clothes and the like represented for a long time one of the primary taxes that the secular and ecclesiastical elites demanded from the peasant world. Having a weaver or a weaver in one's palace was one of the greatest aspirations of the princes and notables, who did not look kindly on "their" women employed at the loom. Nonetheless, with the Tatar-Mongols, for a long time it was preferred to continue to import cotton and silk sheets from Central Asia.
Another very important female activity, this time however not entirely "extractable from theizba and transferable to the public good ”was and remains to prepare food. However, the “cuisine” topic is too vast and articulated to dare to summarize it here. We only add that the woman was reserved in the first place to manage the home garden to grow herbs and spices and secondly to search for medicinal plants (in addition to dyeing plants). Towards autumn, starting as early as the summer solstice, it was customary to see old women together with girls bending down along the ditches to tear off a stem or cut a bush to put in the sack over the shoulder. The herbs were placed to dry behind the pečka at home and once chopped, various infusions were made since herbal medicine and pharmacognosy were exclusive female prerogatives, as they still are in the countryside of northern Europe. Usually the collection of herbs was the turn of the elderly widows who benefited from them in the name of medichesse (in Russian see'my), although everyone knew that ailments were spells caused by envious enemies. The infusions etc. in the end they were palliatives and to eliminate the hostile forces that penetrated through the evil eye into the body of the sufferer, a counter-evil eye was needed. The curious aspect was the belief that those who had inflamed or swollen or red eyes as it happened with the ailments of old age could successfully operate the counter-evil eye.
And the pots? For a long time they were a female work that they made in terracotta without the potter's wheel, but by hand with typical decorations probably handed down as labels of the clan to which you belonged.
A surplus of “peasant agricultural” production that should not be forgotten was the slaves. Just imagine the children that polygamy could provide even if practiced with the aim of fighting the high perinatal mortality and with the problems that a large offspring caused.
It must be said that the traffic of this "commodity" already known from time immemorial covered the need for servile personnel of the Muslim and European courts from the 10th to the 14th century. A.D. with young people of Slavic origin, as can be assumed with the equation Slavs = Slaves. Constantinople was the heart of these trades and used them in large numbers for various purposes, but when Islam rose and expanded against the oppression of the imperial bureaucracy, those slaves who accepted the new Muslim order were immediately declared free. Then Islam too became bureaucratized and the traffic that had never declined in Muslim society changed in demand and intensified in numbers. However, it is no longer the peasant labor that was sought. By converting to Islam there were already an abundance of all ethnic groups, but it was the staff serving in the courts that had increased.
From the documents of the Roman Empire we know that the most usual policy at the time among the Slavs still involved with the Huns and Avars in clashes and wars was not to keep a prisoner obtained as booty for a long time without ransom in a slave state. His freedom was restored after a number of years by offering him the option of being adopted into the large Slavic family in the village in case he did not know where to end his life. Evidently the slave trade with prisoners of war was in vogue when the main activities of the Slavs were the military campaigns, but when their destiny was concentrated in the villages with the way of life we have described so far, the Slavs had to deal with the mouths to feed and the production of food for too many sons and daughters reduced the portions to be divided. So what harm was there if the head of the family decided to get rid of the extra mouths by selling them? Wasn't it better to send the boys abroad where they would have a decent living instead of risking death from hardship at home? If this last part of our economic-cultural discourse responds to the reality of that time with realistic numbers that unfortunately are missing in the sources, from the demographic point of view the sale of pubescent boys because they are judged in excess can be a reason that justifies the "static nature ”Hypothesized by us for the Slavic-Russian peasant society.
On the other hand, the slave trade is witnessed in the Russian plain from the existence of a famous market inside the Belarusian forest: Dručesk (today Druzk in Belarus) which, however, escaped the control of Kiev and the tax of passage consisting in the removal of some of these young people since the merchants from Druzk they traveled by land to Thuringia and did not use the tributaries of the Dnieper. For the kievani lords, however, there was no shortage of slaves, but they were from other sources. Which? It is almost certain that the same policy in force in the Slavic peasant family for extra mouths was equally valid among the Finno-Ugric ethnic groups and a sign would be that Great Novgorod it was able to supply young people (even for Kiev) to the right south of this origin still enough until the XII-XIII century. A.D.
As for the Turkic-speaking ethnic groups of the steppes, they could find young Turks (Cumans) for sale and Genoese and Catalans in the Crimea made legitimate trade in them in the fifteenth-sixteenth century. AD, but more than servile personnel these slaves aged 15-16 years or less served as war-trained cavalrymen. They had great successes in various Islamic states in which they were chosen troops for the sovereign and, called in Arabic mamluk, the most famous dynasty with this epithet was the one that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517 AD!
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For criticisms, corrections, comments, send a message.
We have thus come to the moment to stitch together, if possible avoiding speculation, concepts previously treated by us in other works in order to bring them together in an organic path of thought. However, let us clarify certain topics better since we would not want to generalize too much by stopping at length on the reconstruction of pagan beliefs outside the Northern European cultural sphere.
Unfortunately in the Middle Ages the Christian missionaries, as we know, as they discovered the Nordic peoples and their ways of life, at the same time charged them with a wild and uncivilized thinking and, for this reason, their rites and rituals noted very little and hurried to judging them useless and harmful. If, on the other hand, one thinks that rites, being standard procedures for accessing the gods, testify to the existence of original philosophical contents belonging to a tradition that is in itself alive, we must thank those gods, that something has survived although adapted and incorporated into Russian Orthodox Christian religious writings or folklore. Although few elements that can be recognized are clear and interesting, despite everything we will focus them as far as possible and we will undertake an attempt at synthesis. We warn our reader that what we will say are not, however, our arbitrary conundrums, but ideas circulating in the Slavic-Russian context. Although to our great surprise these ideas, thanks to the inefficient communication system of the past, have been preserved "almost intact" in popular culture and, albeit in a scattered way, we found the first "indicative" elements of their consistency in the documents writings, chosen from among those that seemed to us most relevant to our task. For example in the famous Stoglav, a type of penitentiary (penance book, in Russian epithymes, to be inflicted on the faithful sinner) composed in 1551 in a synod of the Russian Church at the time of the coagulation of the Russian Empire around Moscow where it is possible to read the measures to be applied on the "still pagan subjects" investigating, after a necessary questioning, their lifestyle habits (byt). Another interesting source are the interviews released in the nineteenth century. by the referents of the self-styled Old Believers (Staroobrjadcy or Starovery) or their descendants and even the findings of archaeological excavations made in their cemeteries. Finally, we owe a particular debt to the meticulous T.A. Bernsc’tamm (contemporary historian) who tells us how the Russian Church functioned in the daily practice of the countryside, from its origins (9th century) to the immediately pre-Soviet period (19th century). These are necessary mentions on our part as it must be clear that the information is generally very stratified and that the evidence is too far from the time in which historical events took place. Starting from here and seeing that Nordic civilization is heavily based on oral tradition and on a folklore that is still largely alive (it should be borne in mind that Russian folklore is the largest preserved deposit of European traditions), we have relied mainly on ( albeit with strong hesitation) to the content of the byline Russian where certain information was more intriguing than others to describe what was going on in the minds of the pagans of that large historical period from the 10th to the 15th century. A.D. chosen by us. So let's see what we got to offer it to further research.
From certain premises drawn from the studies on religions we note a common concern of man from the very remote times of his appearance on Earth: the worry of not being able to predict the future! It is curious, but, if there is no doubt that for millennia we have learned the concept of the "after-present", the only thing we can foresee is that from our temporal and bodily path which is called life ... we won't get out alive! This is the point! And so the anguish of not being able to know on what day and at what time we will die, however, hangs over us. If we knew it, it is unimaginable how our way of existing would change! We would be able to better plan our every action to obtain and take advantage of the most favorable results ... if not for ourselves, at least for our offspring.
If this is the world where man was born and lives, the answer to the aforementioned nagging doubt must exist and here must be found. From this very ancient problem still unresolved, the curiosity to investigate nature was born, to strive in all ways to acquire through a better knowledge of the real of the clues, of the signs that to some extent gave us the possibility of "calculating" tomorrow. Basically, knowing whether to die or not to die tomorrow we would give ourselves a reason to live or not to live intoday and we would take all responsibility for what might happen to those who follow us.
We must immediately say that the investigation of nature and its phenomena was and is the object of constant observation, not by man but ... of the woman! We naturally apologize to the males, but it is the meticulous and curious females who in the reality of the distant past made numerous empirical-scientific discoveries that little by little led to the development of the first civilizations known to us. Let's see how.
Woman is a very special and peculiar being in the human universe. Already, as soon as he realizes that his body menstruates with the same rhythm of the nocturnal star and not like the female animals whose inspiration is seasonal and is rather connected to the cycles of the diurnal star, he realizes its great diversity. compared to the male. How can we deny her a particular and elevated place, if it is up to her to produce other men and bring them to maturity? If we then look at the tasks that are biologically (!?) To the mother that absorb a lot of her life, it is easy to understand why the woman tends to sedentary in order to better play the role of parent and educator. In the free time that presents itself to her from time to time, she will devote herself to observing nature first of all to satisfy that primary need which is food. It will observe other mammals, recognize edible plants and discern them from useful (or useless) or even poisonous ones. After that, choosing the most convenient for their fruits, sowing and re-sowing them, noting the slightest changes until ripening (just like she does with her little son!). It marks the seasonal rhythms and how they are connected to the solar cycles. And the diurnal star, not only sees it rise and set, but sometimes it feels warmer and sometimes colder. It is a wealth of knowledge that allows her to create her first garden-laboratory in the immediate vicinity of the house where she will produce the products she needs immediately without having to struggle to find them here and there in the nearby forest. Its first aim is thus achieved: to obtain food. Since she never left the forest, her other needs for material goods for her other needs will be satisfied by the harvest. On the other hand, the presence with her of a long-dependent offspring prevents her exploratory movements wider than those indicated and contacts with the outside become more difficult and, in certain periods, rest favors introspection and reflection. . Already his first worried observation is on what happens in his body while a new life is gestating. A unique experience that, although repeatable in the woman, the male can never have! Within her she feels the release of powerful impulses which give her many sensations, both pleasant and unpleasant, and which she must undergo anyway, without being able to do anything to guide or mitigate them. Pregnancy is a great experience, which brings with it the fundamental observation that another living person will come out of one's vagina and, flesh of her flesh (of her mother, certain, and of her father, uncertain), she will take upon himself the desires and aspirations of those who generated it and will realize them, perhaps!, making the problem and the anguish of death meaningless at this point.
And the male? The only help it gives is to contribute to the domestic economy, but not to scientific observation. The products of his hunting, fishing and gathering activities are moreover seasonal in the Nordic climate and, if there were no possibility of accumulating resources as a woman does, the male would risk succumbing since he is not even capable. to hibernate until the next good season and must be passively fed. He will be forced to offer all of himself to the woman in exchange for delicious cooked food or sexual satisfaction or the warmth of her convivial company. On the contrary, the female, once fertilized, no longer needs him around and, during the good weather, pushes him away from herself, transforming him into a dissatisfied and rebellious nomad, ready to rise to positions of power!
The events just described in summary form are examples (among many) that anthropologists confirm to us to have really repeated themselves in the distant past to infinity and that continue to occur still in the present in organized societies. Returning now to the human female that we imagine intent on accumulating experiences on the phenomena that pass before her eyes and without listing one by one the civilizing progress achieved, we need to say that the investigations are refined more and more and little by little they reach levels of philosophical-scientific analysis such that female know-how manages to fix itself in the collective memory by appearing in proverbs and idioms. There are many examples in Russian oral folklore where women are famous for being able to interpret reality better than men, although this faculty is ambiguously called in Russian hitrost ' that is, in Italian, mischief or shrewdness.
The next problem of scientific investigation is: Is it possible to intervene to modify or transform phenomena to one's advantage? It is necessary to try using the empirical, but rigorous, albeit fraught with conceptual dangers, method of trial-and-error or repeated attempts. Very useful for survival, it will always be included in the "instructions to discover the world" that the mother will give to her children: Try this! If it doesn't work, try another way ... and so on, until you get the result closest to what you wanted! In the end, after noting that the result obtained after certain experiments responds to what is desired, the result can be exploited because, by repeating the process and trend we have memorized, we know how to reproduce it whenever we want! In short, the causality according to which an event repeats itself over time, if the phases of its development (verified in the past and that we know of) are reproduced in the same order and with the same intensity.
The principle of causality roughly sketched above gives a way for human societies to intertwine and evolve and we find it now well rooted in the ancient European society in the sixth century. B.C. because we know that Thales of Miletus at that time used it to predict solar eclipses! But then the problem of predicting the future with causality is solved! It will be enough to classify all the phenomena, understand their respective causality and we will have foreseen their respective effects! If so, how do you pass this knowledge on to others? And here is an invention, also (perhaps) entirely feminine, which satisfies the need by using certain physical faculties of the body: language! Among these, the system based on sound (and on gesture) will have more success in the human species and will be called articulated language or language! Two are the most advantageous traits of the language to underline: 1. It allows you to communicate with a minimum expenditure of physical energy 2. It does not require you to interrupt what you are doing when you communicate! It is a brilliant discovery that we think suggested by the need to express pleasure or feel pain or warn of danger without having to move from where you are and, moreover, making yourself immediately recognized by the "personalized" sound of the voice. ...
In this regard, we cannot hide the fact that the regular cyclicality of celestial phenomena that the discovery of the Greek philosopher confirms is impressive, but unfortunately it is not the same thing "on earth". Indeed, there are times that while trying in every way to apply the causality it happens instead that we fail in the attempt to obtain a favorable outcome and we do not understand why. And yet we repeated the phases, one by one, as we learned ... What happened? Looking around us in search of the cause of the failure, it even seems to us that the anomaly is due to the wrong behavior of a given person or a given group! Is such a thing possible? And what about when you are faced with a sudden and unexpected event? We remain astonished and astonished in the face of earthquakes, epidemics, a flood ... Here too, is it possible that it is the negative influence of a neighbor that caused the turmoil? These are things that disconcert and frighten us even today, not having been able to foresee them nor having any means to contain them! When we realize that nature is capricious and hostile and that the universe does not seem automatic and impersonal, it is consequent to think that there are invisible (or rather, not easily recognizable) entities that arouse the exceptional, perhaps for the sole purpose of observe our reactions for some enjoyment of theirs. They, being much more powerful than us, have no problem always creating new ones beyond our desires and expectations, but precisely because we are powerless (or ignorant)! And where are these entities located? With linear logic, Slavic-Russian Paganism explains that entities exist and can only be part of nature! At most they have carved out personal territories of domination in the part of the universe where we are and from the celestial world where, on the contrary, everything flows in an unchangeable way or, better said, undisturbed, they watch us. Is it difficult to reach divine entities? Perhaps not, because birds, for example, fly there and even make it a place of visits, lasting an entire season! On the other hand, not all divine entities live so far away because we often see some of them acting in our vicinity. In short, the universe is a whole god! Sure! The pagan believer "for convenience" is able to divide him into several "different" worlds such as the undisturbed or celestial one and another "sublunar" where he lives or in others and others, but in the end any part of the world abstracted from the rest of the reality is always and in any case one theophany!
But there is something else. Despite the causality and its corollary of the reproducibility of phenomena nature is structured in such a way as to evolve (i.e. to change over time) and events therefore never repeat themselves exactly the same as they appear to an unarmed gaze of the past (we do not call that gaze naive or magical instead of scientific because this distinction is a modern category). Although to a very slow and imperceptible extent, a very small constant percentage of change ( relativistic variation gradient) always accompanies every natural process and what we observe at this moment is certainly a little different from what we have seen just before! Thus every concept of perfection, of immutable physical laws, of universal ethics, etc., decays. etc. and, if we were deluded that "in the now" there were signs of what would happen "after", with the evolutionary relativity this is no longer acceptable. Not only! If it really were a simple automatism of reality and the intervention of unknown superior forces were denied, it would cause great embarrassment because, accepting the relativity (on the other hand, at the current state of knowledge it appears to have been verified), ignorance of the future would become increasingly frightening and the little certainty of foreseeing it that had so far been scrapped using the causalitycollapses.
There is also another doubt. How come the relativity of natural processes, if already in place, was discovered only in the twentieth century. and did it not jump in the eyes of meticulous pagan observation? On the contrary, is it not true that we knew of that minimal and vaguely uncertain aspect of natural phenomena that today seems to be the great discovery of A. Einstein's relativity? It is perhaps not true that it was just from the slightest "natural inaccuracies" that the holistic view of the world proper to Paganism? Let's try to clarify the situation better since it seems to us that something has been hidden from us by an abstract and perverse dogmatism and that too many doubts remain unresolved for wishes external to Paganism itself ...
For it seems to us to have adopted a point of view which now appears to a very large extent false, our research requires a 180 ’turnaround! Why? The reason is that the documents we boasted earlier are written by Christian observers and are not contemporaries handed down by the pagans themselves so that, at this point, instead of investigating the original contents of pagan thought we are wandering exclusively about how the Christian thinkers who preceded us were able to perceive Slavic-Russian Paganism.
We just have to appeal to the big issues without ever forgetting that for Christianity we make use of a lot of bibliography while we have few and fragmentary news and without sure chronological links, for Paganism. Let us then continue on the path of comparison.
For Christianity, God is the only and evident one cause first of every earthly phenomenon and every created object acts on another object according to an order pre-established by him (causality) so that the universe appears as a harmonious whole, well ordered and well functioning, but not modifiable! And the divine machine par excellence that works regularly and will continue to function ... as long as God wills it! Of course, one can investigate to know its laws, but one must do it only to better understand how to approach the Creator and for his glory. This, from the "medieval" philosophical side! From the practical-economic side which developed at the same time, the aforementioned conception of the divine gift culminates later in the doctrine of the Marxian exploitation of nature and makes us truly believe that God created the world and "gave it" to man so that he can make it whatever he wants, as long as he exalts the Creator! Man can appropriate the fruits that spontaneously come to him or he can procure them from nature through his efforts and with the intelligence of his science, as long as he recognizes that every good achieved is always granted by God! Man does not decide the distribution of wealth in the world, but an elite (male) class to which God has entrusted the government of men and the task of distributing with equity (very ambiguous word) every resource and every science. Human life has a single meaning in itself: it is a temporal path in a "valley of tears" of a body headed towards death, under the severe gaze of the ruling elite (secular and "spiritual"). Don't worry though! There is the soul! It leaves the body and, depending on how God will judge its work in life (divine judgment is absolute, unappealable, mysterious and indefinable and outside the human sensory possibilities), it will be locked up in Paradise where it will enjoy a eternal bliss or it will be sent towards eternal fire, if the offenses against God (sins) and his earthly representatives have been too great (after Paradise, during the Middle Ages, Purgatory will also be invented as an intermediate stage).
Thus Christianity takes hold of man's future at the end and hands him over to God and whatever happens falls within the inscrutable ends of divine decisions. If this is true, what then will become of the unconditional wonder in the face of the unexpected event, the natural anomaly, the non-causal phenomenon? Here too, no fear! They are punitive (or decisive) interventions by God and, if mediated by someone's "holiness", they are called miracles and they go against nature. In this regard, it must be said that in Orthodoxy the opinion on miracles (ciudo in Russian) was that their effect on the believer was, yes, supernatural, but the miracle itself was a very natural, albeit extraordinary event. In these last statements made in the Russian land, in our opinion, the traces of the holistic pagan vision of the world are clearly seen.
Of course, despite the conceptual obstacles posed by the Church in the West, the study of nature (and its anomalies) did not stop, but the accumulated knowledge was no longer propagated as it was normally done in the classical pagan tradition and, until the Chiesa had total control of teaching, the solutions of extraordinary problems became the know-how of a few and it continued to be emphasized that every new discovery was the proof of the mystery of human destiny and of the cosmos itself, always to the glory of God.
Unfortunately, the Christian-biblical god was an angry god who had already punished the world with the famous Universal Flood when man had not followed the rules of humility towards him and tried with his weak forces to "violate nature". However, God had made peace with No with an eternal pact in which he had promised not to intervene more in a global way as long as post-Flood men had behaved in accordance with the dictates that God himself will subsequently pass in written form first to Moses. and then in oral form to Christ. The latter, in turn, will establish his own Vicariate on Earth, that is, the Church with the related hierarchies to guard that pact. Attention though! Christ will announce that God has decided to put an end to all this one day with the advent of the Last Judgment ... This is an important point for Western Christian chronography, widely used in medieval preaching to the pagans. On the threat of the destruction of the world, the Church managed to build a huge castle of fears (the aftermath of which still haunt us) of dying "in sin" and ending up in Hell, except to repent in time to avoid the terrible punishments.After the failure to verify the End of the World in the year 1000, a "true last saving doctrine" was developed based now on permanent sin, and whose only bearers were the Franciscan and Dominican friars who began to appear from the Carpathians and the Sea Baltic to attack the paganized, schismatic and heretical Russian Lands.
We apologize to our reader if we have condensed in a too simple way a huge collection of philosophical elaborations of the Christian fathers and theologians, but we hope to have clarified a view that lasted in Europe more or less until the fourteenth-seventeenth century. . A.D. when Lutheran Protestantism and Russian Orthodoxy began to develop their own philosophies, moving further and further away from the Roman monopoly of thought.
Let's go back to the pagans then.
In the few misleading "Christian" news it is known that the relations of Christianity with Nordic Paganism were based on the fact that the pagans were not real men, but wild animals of the flock of the Devil! The extinction of the Baltic people of the Pruzzi or Prussians, as we have told, was the result of the hunt conducted by the Teutonic Knights on the pagan: A hunt for wild beasts in which even kings and bishops were invited to participate with dogs and horses! Thus the Devil was annihilated ... and the poor Prussians!
In this regard, we report here a passage from the book The Great Cosmic Mother which is incisive on the subject "devil": "As it has been wisely said many times: Without the Devil, Christianity does not exist. With the "good" God always at one pole and the "bad" Demon at the opposite pole, the human mind in Christianity is forever closed in a battlefield of dualistic antagonisms, without any hope of transcendence, that is, without hope of maturity. The Christian mind remains undeveloped as an eternal spectator of a cosmic football match between Heaven and Hell defined as two irreconcilable teams. One must win and the other must lose and the spectator never knows what wholeness is. " Finding ourselves here in the "losing football team", we realize that sometimes, it is also true that the desperate man crimes, kills, wages war on his fellow man and other perverse acts in search of who has unleashed invisible forces against him , but these attitudes are not constants in human life nor do we act like this because we are in the flock of the Devil. The occult forces that Christians call diabolical the Slavs see them as invisible living beings in the world and classify them in favorable and well known or Pure forces (There is Sily) and in others that with variable and not always negative dispositions are called instead Impure Forces (Nec'istye Sily). Suffering them passively or pleading for their favor or, rather, being able to set them against each other while avoiding damage or providing an advantage for oneself is a personal choice. These forces, due to the fact that they live in the air above us or immediately on the ground we tread on, are of a lower rank than the gods of heaven, yes! And man, if he wanted to, could resort to the help of the superior gods to counter them or to attract them to himself as long as he remembers that, in such cases, his commitment becomes much more risky.
We have already said that intervention in the first instance, in the privacy of one's home, is recourse to the ancestors which, in the opinion of the Slavic people, is in any case the best and fastest way to overcome adverse forces. Not for nothing for this purpose i Ships they are always close and live with us. It is not for nothing that the use, certainly the result of contacts with the Ugro-Finns, of theubr s. What is this use? Let's describe it because it will serve us conceptually in the following. Today with ubr s a handkerchief is indicated to cover women's heads, but once it was the shroud in which the skull of the famous ancestor was wrapped. As the (pagan? Christian?) Custom required, the skull was the only part of the body that was kept in a tomb (the rest was burned, according to tradition, and the ashes scattered). It was believed that the excellent corpse after lying for 3, 5 or 7 years underground, could be exhumed and only the skull kept and placed in the "sacred" corner of the house where it remained available for requests for help. The belief in the intervention of the ancestors from the world of the dead on the living presupposes the existence of the soul as a personal vital essence of the body. After death, this essence returns to the universe that will redistribute it among other beings, born or yet to be born. And why burn the body of the dead? And why keep the skull? In Slavic-Russian Paganism, a corpse is an object of interest for Impure Forces which, if they still find it reusable, take it over and make one oboroten ' or vampire. That is why the corpse must be destroyed. But, if so, how will the Nav ' to come to us when we invoke him? Through the skull. In fact, the soul is a wandering aura in the vicinity of the ancestral house, if it belongs to a recent dead person, if instead it passes too long after death, it is possible that it may not find the way back to its ancestors ...ubr s exhumed over the years with the right number is the reliable vehicle through which the Nav ' (and only he) recognizes us and comes to us willingly.
For the rest, the transmigrations of the soul do not occur only with death, but sometimes occur in bodies that are still alive. Thus it happens that it leaves the body of a sleeper or a drunkard or of the possessed and wanders in the space where dreams usually take place, in the air above us where even the occult forces live and where the forebears make their visits to relatives left alive. Upon awakening it is legitimate to tell what your soul has experienced together with those who were at that moment in the personal dream space. If, on the other hand, there is no awakening, it means that the soul has preferred for various reasons to return to the universal soul and that, perhaps, we will later recognize in some other living being. The problem of the soul, whether it exists or not and what it really is, despite what has been said above in Slavic-Russian Paganism, is controversial. That it is not an exclusive human prerogative is already taken for granted and the pagan finds it in animals and plants. Many trees go dormant in winter and animals hibernate precisely because their souls follow and feel the seasons. So why shouldn't they dream like us meeting the souls of their ancestors? And don't the cat or the horse dream? And doesn't mimosa dream when it sleeps? If we tried to ask (and the Chronicles and the byline they tell us that there were those who knew how to do it) to these beings of their visions and their feelings during their dream rides, they would certainly tell us wonderful things ...
But there is another question: Is the soul and, especially, the human soul, something introduced from the outside into living bodies? Paganism has a very realistic philosophy and does not have the metaphysician in great sympathy for which the relative answer should be more naturalistic than the Christian "divine breath". In Russian folklore, man is generated by his mother in an autonomous and mysterious way (albeit with a natural process) and after death he must return to Mother of Mothers that is to the goddess Moist Mother Earth that will welcome him into the underground world, that is, into his womb where he will regenerate. Living beings always end up here at the end of life cycles and from them the goddess obtains the matter to generate new creatures. And then, like the Moist Mother Earth evidently gives birth to plants and animals by providing them with a soul to move, so the woman has a similar faculty within her (perhaps delegated by the same goddess) ... We are not sure that this was the most widespread pagan answer to this question because the documents are not clear, but that it was so is presumable because we note that the fearful reverence that the rural world has for the woman-mother in general has transposed into another deep reverence that the Russians have preserved for the Mother of God (Bogorodiza) Christian who generated a god while remaining a virgin.
We have seen that the pagan divides the world into parts for contingent convenience which, however, in spite of a dualism that Soviet historiography attributed to the Slavic philosophical-religious thought of the origins, as far as we know they are not opposite or opposite sides in a specular way because the dualism a concept once again alien to Paganism. Perhaps the contacts with the Iranian and Jewish world, the main bearers of dualisms, were so intense that influences penetrated Russian folklore leaving traces, but we have not found categories such as Good versus Evil, Male to Female and the like. It is also permissible that a dualism was introduced by Christianity after the Baptism of Kievan Rus'.
Be that as it may, we rejected the dualism as part of our path in the philosophy that we have tried to reconstruct here since in the Slavic-Russian universe there are no clear opposites, but only different and intermediate ones that flow from one diversity into another.
的 奥尔 多 Ç. Marturano
From the documents that describe them at the end of the seventh century. A.D. when by now the great migrations from the south of the Ukrainian steppes have now stopped, the Slavs are recognized by their neighbors as good farmers and above all as those who know how to adapt (and no one better than them!) to live in the European boreal forest full of deadly swamps, of vast lakes and enormous rivers. However, many clues suggest that the Slavs retained for a long time the use and exploitation of the territory as gatherers-hunters as was the prevailing way of life in the south (在 乌克兰 草原) from which they came. From the excavations carried out in the Polish area and in eastern Germany it also appears that the Slavs (and the Baltoslavs) 在 这里 的 茂密 森林 的 边缘 缝 在 当地 的 农业 技术 并 没有 带来 任何 新 东西.因此 ， 收益 率 是 不够 的, 如果 馈送 人口 超过 了 数, 甚至 与 农业 相 结合 ， 并 与 农民 生活 的 方式 做 的 很好 的 账户 从 食物 采集 和 狩猎 的 老 技术 仍然 得到 不可或缺.反之!对于 财富 的 河流 和 湖泊, 在 欧洲 狩猎 北部 成为 主要… fishing!
In the formation of the first Slavic and Slavic-Russian states in a group of a vast territory that was intended to be managed by a few men, the economic question was primary since, as there are no organized industries or mass production to direct or dominate, trade and earnings that were derived from it were the only source of wealth to draw on to support a "state" budget. The VIII-IX century A.D.因为 有 大型 中心 买家 集中 在 大城市 ， 欧洲 和 中亚 谁 正在 寻找 与 在 欧洲 北部 的 森林 是 原材料 和 现有 的 最大 来源 兴趣 它 甚至 一个 有利 的 时机 在 这个 意义 上, 巧合, 这 还不 是 一个单一 的 大型 国有 控制 之下.当然 ， 受 斯拉夫人 和 其他 少数民族 在 森林 出于 经济 目的 是 在 计划 和 法兰克 王国 (然后 西罗 马帝国) both of the Roman Empire, so much so that the first "Slavic" state that will arise around the Carpathians will be headed by a Frankish merchant named Samo and hopes it will be Constantinople.
In any case, the raw materials must be transformed and craftsmen who know how to work them are needed. Then we need skilled merchants who know how to create and maintain trading relationships between buyers who are sometimes very distant geographically and different in economic demand. The artisans must be nourished, the power must be nourished, the merchants too and therefore the supply of food upstream of any state economic structure - at the time of the first varied penetrations of the 普通 俄罗斯 of the VII-IX century. A.D. still in embryo - it might be covered summing up from agricultural production entrusted to the scattered presence of the Slavs? Unfortunately, although the Russian Church was in theory the organization that should have been interested in the "pagan" Slavs and other ethnic groups (even pagan) who coexisted with the latter and wrote about it in CTP (Chronicles of Past Time) which are the primary sources of the Russian Middle Ages, of the Slavs of the forest says little, if at all, and the best answers we have to get from archeology.
What went wrong in this regard in the Russian Church? Concretely, it began to operate around 1100 AD. that is, at the time when it produced the first editions of the CTP, but the active parishes in contact with the peasants in the area arrived much later.不仅! Rather than in the forest, the parishes sprang up along the great rivers near the fortress-cities of the Varangians ...
The Varangians on their own already had a bad reputation.在 普通 俄罗斯 like their Viking congeners, they only spread terror when, having located a village, they threatened to attack and plunder it mercilessly. The varied strategy, however, was not in favor of total destruction since the final goal was the exploitation and not the annihilation of material and human resources and the tactic was therefore quickly adopted of announcing the arrival of other Swedish gangs like them, but with worse troubles. for the unfortunate peasants. The other gangs in fact would not have hesitated to destroy houses and take young people and women hostage. However, they warned that all this could be avoided, if an agreement was reached on the maintenance for life (handed down with the Russian word kormlènie) of their armed company that would have settled in a bulwark on the river to defend against every enemy and would have left full autonomy to the village itself.
The situation evolves and in the tenth century. A.D. the Varangians already organize states and small states in their city-fortresses (gòrod) who have managed to build and allied with the ecclesiastical organization of the Constantinopolitan model are now seeking the most subtle way of dominating, that is, spreading the concepts of the divine mission of power, holy obedience to the lord et sim. To set up this ideological operation, the Varangians will present themselves along the rivers together with priests and monks wherever there was a trading post, a market. As a propaganda organization of the Swedish pirates, the Christian religion at this point did nothing but arouse other fears and mistrust, especially among the common people who dared to frequent the markets. Let alone the reactions of these people, when the priests strangers by language and culture announced that they wanted to evangelize every man, woman and child and asked for information on the villages of origin. The Christian priests with their strange and mysterious rites were feared by the Slavs because they were considered very powerful shamans and, if you think that a parish priest would have been destined to the village to live there all his life and that the community should even have maintained it, one can imagine the alarm that was created on a human level among the Slavs. Why grant this intruder land to cultivate or give him a woman in marriage if his outrageous doctrine was aimed precisely at destroying the institutions that his ancestors had handed down?
On the other hand, nothing will happen of what has just been said until the Patriarchate that managed the operations from Constantinople did not supply Slavic-speaking ecclesiastics, but Greeks sent to the fray, and therefore the Russian Church at the beginning of its mandate to overcome the shortage of well-trained personnel and willing to "penetrate" the forest to bring the "word of God" in the Slavic-Russian language (Bulgarian-Slavic) only with the foundation in Kiev of the Monastery of the Caves set up a school 到.在 与 内地 的 大多数 通信 ， 他们 非常 困难 的 ， 这个 城市 国家 斯拉夫 - 俄罗斯 的 自封 头 的 最 直接 的 政治 原则 (该 兜售 法院 俄) 而 由 教会 策动 是 投入 巨资 的 古迹 和 公共 假日 ， 让 人们 绘制 出 森林 哗哗 从 丰盛 的 节日 的 传闻 参与 城市, 市场 和 游行. In short, the propaganda process to assert Christian power was very slow and had little impact on the inhabitants of the forest, apart from the area around Kiev and some other growing cities. The situation did not change until the 15th century. A.D.and a testimony of this stagnant situation and its aftermath is a trial of 1492 (!!) where the defendant I. Onisimov, a farmer, stated that he had worked in the area around Moscow for 12 years and that ... his ax had never met another!
Now it will be clear why the historian in the desire to talk about peasant culture and economy must undertake research and explore various fields without expecting sensational results. First of all he has to resort to sometimes risky hypotheses when it is convenient for him to suppose for convenience (heuristics) that peasant society remained practically static for 3-4 centuries or more, but then he must even resort to the "oral history" told in folk tales (草药) collected carefully and with great effort in the nineteenth-twentieth century. These stories should reflect ancient habits, hide ancient pagan rites that are interesting to know in order to penetrate the customs and traditions of the Slavic-Russian past and it would also be fair to think that they refer to real events with really existed characters.然而, if the examination of these texts should not be neglected, however, it is necessary to make less speculative comparisons between what these texts suggest and the historical reality better known from the research work done beyond the Vistula and south of the Carpathians for the Slavs in the excavations. In the end, with the information that can be gathered along such winding roads, we will try with great caution to reconstruct a world of peasant economy between the 9th and 14th centuries. A.D.在 普通 俄罗斯.
As we said, archeology has shown us that the first contacts that were established around the eighth century A.D. among the Swedish Varangians and the indigenous peoples, before other Finno-Ugric peoples, 在 普通 俄罗斯 they set out from the Baltic Sea via Lake Ladoga and in a few other places not far from the Baltic coast given the seasonal nature (目前) of their visits. We said how they presented themselves to the village elders they managed to locate and how they imposed the collection of taxes through the "mafia" procedure that we have reconstructed.然而 ，, despite the "spiritual" help subsequently given by the Russian Church, 该 CTP spread the legend around the fourteenth-fifteenth century. A.D. of the call from Sweden of a certain Riurik variago to whom the Russian land and its riches were offered with great liberality by the indigenous peoples "to put an end to continuous internal quarrels". Logically this is incredible and on the contrary it is necessary to imagine a colonization planned and carried out with the force of an armed threat, also because this Swedish colonization is known to be still in progress for Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (and not only him!) In the 10th century. A.D.皇帝, among other things in his writings, informs that the Varangians of Kiev every winter left the city and headed north along the Dnieper and other rivers to collect taxes. Round (poljudie) ended in Kiev around April when the "taxes" collected were enough to be put up for sale at a profit. We know that later to make the more effective poljudie Olga, Varigian regent of Kiev in the second half of the 10th century.特区, by virtue of a treaty drawn up with the newly appointed Emperor, he even thought of fixing in a few defined areas of the 普通 俄罗斯 meeting places (pogosty) intended to collect the "taxes due" since the encounters (and clashes) with the locals had evidently been so far unsafe because they were entrusted to not entirely reliable intermediaries. Olga also entered into a contract with 大 诺夫哥罗德 now born as an autonomous state in order to ensure that a good part of the exports exchanged so far with the Baltic Sea markets through the Varangians of Ladoga (Swedish post a few hundred km north of 大 诺夫哥罗德) was managed from Kiev and destined for Constantinople instead of routing towards Central Asia through the Bulgarians of the Volga.
So the taxation in the form of goods arrives, but who is the physical supplier? Even this time we were to answer the Slavs, we would neglect their distribution on the territory that archeology assures us, that is, that they were more numerous in the western part of the 普通 俄罗斯. In the north and north-east there are other peoples: Baltoslavs and Ugrofinni.
Meanwhile, the typical Slavic village is a position in the rather high clearings of the forest in groups that do not exceed ten families with their houses. The fields to be cultivated are usually located either behind the houses or, 甚至, downstream of the hill or the land obtained by cutting down the trees with the method of slash-and-burn (podseka). The good seasons are short and the rain is scarce so the cereals that are grown are mainly barley and rye for subsistence and flax and hemp for textile uses. Usually the inhabitants have a few draft horses in common and raise small animals which they allow to graze in the adjacent forest. However, the pig is by far the most common animal that provides meat on the peasant table and lard for various uses, including artisanal ones. Agriculture is carried out with few tools and, as soon as the land runs out within a maximum of a decade, they go to look for new virgin land somewhere else. Once the move is urgent, it is necessary to choose between the options which are either 1. abandon the current village and found a new one or 2. go back and forth with the new agricultural area obtained as we said with slash-and-burn keeping the old village standing.
This with regard to the Slavs, but the Ugro-Finns? Concentrate in the northeast of the 普通 俄罗斯 they have a more precarious existence due to the latitude of their regions and the relative climate and hunting and fishing prevail in their subsistence activities, albeit together with a limited horticulture, but just in function of this way of life they have long been accustomed to trade in the products they make in their environment.
These are the men at large, but to whom do they account for their existence?
We are not familiar with the paganists of the 普通 俄罗斯, but certainly the dominant common belief is that the gods of heaven and earth have made resources available to mortal men and all human power over nature springs from this divine concession. Furthermore, nature is imagined as living in all its parts and therefore must not be faced violently, but with deference.
The Slavs did not have an organized Pagan Church, but they worshiped their gods in sanctuaries with a priest attached to which a number of villages were headed. In the respective villages the most usual ceremonies were officiated by the elders, while in the sanctuary the solemn feasts were celebrated in honor of the divine founder of the lineage (rod) that is for the eponymous ancestor father who was concerned to be the intermediary between his descendants and the gods of heaven. The sanctuary was usually built in isolated and well-hidden places in the forest and was also fortified so that dependent villagers could find shelter there and place themselves under divine protection in case of hostile attacks. It was accessed from a door along the only street masked by a sacred labyrinth. An aspect that must be pointed out is noteworthy and refers to any other door that introduced into a place inhabited by men and that is that it looked perpendicularly to the rising of the sun and thus allowed the light of the star to enter the interior space to remain a good number of hours. Since at the latitudes to which we refer the sun does not rise every day in the same point of the horizon, but on points distant from each other along a fairly extensive arc of circle and taking into account other phenomena that rotation and terrestrial revolution undergo in the time, with a not very complicated calculation (M. Faccini in E. Cadelo, 在. bibl.) we can determine ... the date of construction of the sacred complex!
And it is not the only type of sanctuary found by archaeologists in the 普通 俄罗斯. Holy places were considered the spaces around the oaks and other similar corners of the forest. On the contrary in the swamp around 大 诺夫哥罗德 Three places of worship were found and one next to the other identical to each other like those in the figure below. Evidently every sanctuary here was used by the three different ethnic groups who then founded the said city. And is this not perhaps a proof that in the Novgorod area the collaboration between Finno-Ugric, Indo-European Baltics and Slavs was peaceful enough? So what to do with the legend of Riurik?
Reconstruction of one of the three shrines with a wooden idol in the center in Greater Novgorod
Apart from religions, we cannot overlook the very important cultural role of the Volga Bulgars who, with their activity in the huge subarctic region, dominated the northeast and the Volga for centuries.
From all this we understand that the Slavic-Russian culture in the 普通 俄罗斯 north of the steppes there is a very peculiar syncretism of customs and beliefs that is reflected and found in today's folklore, while the culture of the "Western" Slavs most in contact with the Kingdom of the Franks remains almost intact from alien infiltrations, except for the elements Baltoslavs.
Returning to "our" Slavs and their village, the inhabited area represented a living unit, a small universe of which the individual was part by birth or by adoption.不仅!家庭 (verv ') it's the house (sun in Russian of masculine gender) materially they were (and still are today) the heart of time and life that passes. Here one could find assistance, tranquility, affections and defense and it is logical that in Russian mir mean at the same time 村 和 步伐 and therefore as well world, cosmos.
每 sun had a householder with powers of life and death over his relatives and he was entrusted with the traditional task of making sure that alliances and social relationships with others sun responded to the sacred customs established by the gods in past generations. The whole village, on the other hand, was headed by an elder (will stayžilec) elected / chosen or surviving among the heads of families. The latter kept not only the sacred paraphernalia for the initiatory religious rites of young males and young females, but also for other more intimate ceremonies: births, marriages, deaths etc. which he himself officiated. One went to him who personified collective memory and technological knowledge for advice on how to build a house, how to make an object, ask for and receive certain tools, etc. For these characteristics it is will stayžilec was therefore able to preside over the assembly (和is和) who met to make important decisions.
At the base of everything, however, there is the Slavic family and the kinship system invented to keep families connected with families and village with village. The Slavic one in anthropology is classified as SUDANESE (M. Godelier v. Bibl.) And its structure is worth examining in some detail. Much of the ancient nomenclature, still used in Russian today, indicates the position of each member in the family tree and the tasks entrusted to him in relation to his other relatives.
Charter of consanguinity relationships in Russian and English (dashed lines indicate generations that cannot have stable and sexual relationships and continuous ones for recognized relationships).
In some drawer there is the writing removed and this refers to the fact that this name disappeared from today's nomenclature with the new legislation of the USSR in 1920.
The family of EGO (THE MAN). The sign × indicates the marriage (covenant) allowed, the horizontal lines indicate the separated generations and the arrows the generated children considered legitimate.
The woman's family. Here, too, the sign × indicates the marriage (covenant) allowed, the horizontal lines indicate the separated generations and the arrows indicate the generated children considered legitimate.
Kinship is first and foremost patrilineal and the women that are generated within it must be expelled from any authoritarian management because their potential to reproduce competing males in the power of the head of the household disturbs and must be well controlled so that the followers do not become elements of disagreement between the different families, if stirred up by the mothers. Therefore, exogamous marriage applies in which the woman is given in marriage outside the sun where it was born and will have the role of living pledge that preserves the cooperation between sun of other villages. The woman is sold (the male pays a price to her parents (the so-called veno which later in the Muscovite regime will become a tax) 由 sun to the other, but exclusively within the same lineage (rod).
Kinship in most human societies - and therefore also Slavic ones - is at the same time alliance and descent, consanguinity and affinity and for these reasons the sexuality of the members must at least partially be under the control of the head of the family so that the copulas that could endanger the established order are prevented and the rules established in this sense in fact become an integral part of the education of every minor within their own sun. Many of those rules incorporate insufficient biological knowledge about the role of each sex in the "making" of the next newborn ...
We will start from the three schemes above (proposed by Genevra Gerhart, 在. Bibl.) Where in particular in Scheme No. 1 are reported how the members of a traditional peasant family were called (并且 仍然 仍然 是) in which the black square is EGO (anthropological term to indicate the subject) that is the person around whom the kinship is built. In Scheme No. 2 it is EGO (the black figurine) who marries HER and alongside there is the permitted choice as can be seen in the family scheme. In Diagram No. 3 the black figurine is this time HER, the bride, and here is indicated the choice of the groom made by the bride's family and who will pay the veno.
The speech is complex and we will in any case refer to the aforementioned M. Godelier, striving to summarize - without altering its meaning - the recent research by this author on the subject.
Furthermore, comparisons must always be made at the end with the Christian religion as long as, 让 我们 记住, it is recognized that in the Slavic-Russian case this ideology has erased and polluted a large part of the traditions from the historical point of view. In the Christian way of seeing, the Slavic organization of relationships with all the aftermath of customs and interpersonal rules that it envisaged was considered fundamentally incestuous. However, it should be noted that incest that is, the major sexual offense against the Christian god for a converted community not all over the world has the same meaning and therefore not even among the Slavs before their conversion.所以, when Christianity will enter the sun 荣耀, 该 ’incest defined by the priests as sexual union between "consanguineous" will require the revision of the classification of consanguinity foreseen in the aforementioned schemes. The difference in this area between the Christian (INUIT anthropological type) and Slavic-pagan kinship systems is substantial and, for example, the strong Slav hostility on the interdiction of the right of the head of the family to exercise the 第一 天 晚上 的 权 on the bride-daughter-in-law (snohà) before copulation with the legitimate spouse in order to personally verify the functionality of the next mother in guaranteeing him a grandson.
Apart from this we remember that the Slavic-Russian kinship system represents, like any other studied in the last 20 years among the various human communities / ethnicities of the world, a hierarchy of power imposed by an immortal deity and then transmitted to mortal descendants. It is based on the age of majority of the leaders and is centered on a regulated and reserved sexuality for subordinates in a different way from that of the elect and all justified and legitimized by a series of legends in which the creative deity entrusted the management of the life of the members of the group to a few chosen men.而 对于 自己 的 这个 艰巨 的 任务 ， 他们 将 确保 只有 受过 教育 的 人们 保持 不断 的 层次 结构 中 死亡 后 ， 旋转.
一般 看来 ， 亲属 制度 是, 最 老, matrilineal 其他 妇女 头 的 服从 下 这里 的 男人 被 驱逐 到 其他 关系 早 的 是 权力 的 潜在 竞争者 的 事实 ， 然后 通过.下面 的 一些 思想 和 文化 革命 (not well fixed in time so far, but in any case not much prior to the beginning of the 1st millennium AD) power passed into the hands of men and at this point it was women who had to be expelled from kinship "of birth "since the system had now become, as in the Slavic and Baltoslavian cases, patrilineal. It is easy to deduce from this how important was the accurate determination of the sex of the newborn since, depending on the system in vogue, the new individual could be included or respectively excluded from the group of relatives.
As for the sexual behavior of members in the Slav patrilineal pagan order, in reality many things were allowed that Christianity forbade. However, we must confess that we know little about the sex life of the Russian peasant in the Middle Ages and the more serious observations of foreign travelers who visited the 普通 俄罗斯 date back to the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. A.D. for which we can only say that female promiscuity and spermatic competition, which in recent times have been confirmed as fundamental evolutionary aspects for almost all living nature including man, were immediately noticed by the evangelizers and branded as intrinsic ugliness in the nature of the Slavs. Assimilate yourself with behaviors incestuous by agents of the Russian Church, it was decided that certain customs should be eliminated by insisting on the doctrine of original sin and on the Christian definition ofincest.
In a Slavic power organized in parallel kinships that join forces through the exchange of females as we have seen, what happens when the head of the family dies? He is not succeeded by his son, but by his brother in life perhaps at the head of another sun while the family of the deceased is destined to dissolve into that of the new head of the family. At this point it is a decision of the latter to authorize one or more children of the deceased who already have a spouse to found new sun, emigrating.
And the old man sun? It no longer has any (sacred) sense of being inhabited by others and is left to flames or decay. It is worth mentioning the abandonment ceremony officiated by the widow of the deceased, if there is one, or by the eldest woman of the house because when the head of the family dies, an economic management in the crops, in the piece of land, etc. is closed. and the widow or the old woman are not heirs of anything, but only take care with the appropriate rite that the gods are not offended.所以, after waiting for each movable object to be removed, the stove re-ignites (peis有) for the last time (extinguished when the landlord dies) and the wood is allowed to burn out. A part of the embers is taken with it as a pledge and, this done, one moves away forever so that a new cycle of life can start again somewhere else with the same roots.
We remember these last facts because they reconfirm us an aspect of the different peoples who there 普通 俄罗斯 that is to say, that the Germanic world in the Swedish variant had not taken much root even in the Slavic-Russian world from the cultural point of view after the separation of the two blocks centuries earlier: Germanic and Slavic. The only "Swedish" trace was probably preserved in the ethnonym attributed to the subjects of the Slavic-Russian state of Kiev when it was named 俄 ’. The origin of the word is another puzzle that, however, does not interest us here.
In the long discourse on the Slavic family, the thesis is that the economy that is established within it is a function of the system itself since it is the family that assigns not only the hierarchical position based on the sex of each member, but also the practical and working functions. that are up to him / her and therefore the economic responsibilities of the individual in the budget of the sun.
So let's take stock. First of all it is good to dispel the erroneous vision of a forest environment full of peasant villages and absolutely devoid of contact with the surrounding territory, given that from the number of inhabited points proposed by the archaeologists the demographic density that is deduced must have been low. It should be noted, on the other hand, that the circulation of goods and men was intense enough, albeit subject to difficult crossing of swamps and intricate forest realities. What interests us is that, as long as the peasant world remained largely detached from the dynamism of the city that was growing in the 普通 俄罗斯. And why did it remain detached from it? For the type of life that was led based on ignorance of what was happening in the outside world as in the village. There was therefore no reason to produce a surplus to be exchanged with the consequent diversification of the village's productions - and therefore not only food - and almost entirely what the producers themselves needed was consumed. The local market meant exclusively an opportunity for recreation and sacred entertainment, but of very little economic interest and was slow to develop in a national sense.
On the other hand, the few urban realities with the need to procure food immediately required the birth of an agricultural class that operated not far from the cities and operated on the basis of the sale of a large part of what it produced. It will be these "orbiting" peasants on the border between forest and steppe (该 CTP they indicate the Slavs as such Poljani) to make use of contacts with the outside world (Christian-Catholic of the time) to improve their techniques and methods and to bring out in the Kyivan (later Russian) society new economic personalities unknown until now who will launch the development of a larger and richer market without involving the "colleagues of the forest" and will gladly gather around the Varangian gentleman on duty. The same variago St. Vladimir, when he decides to make Kiev the capital of his state after having abandoned 大 诺夫哥罗德 to its administrative and political autonomy, it has to face the problem of subsistence and resolves it by transplanting people of all lineages - and therefore technically unprepared farmers - to the south from the far north. He gives them land to cultivate on the border with the steppe to supply the said Kiev since he will have learned that here, just south of Kiev, the land is very fertile due to the presence of loess (a clay of acid soils) and that the Russians call for the color Black Lands (Cernozjòm).
Despite the Vladimir measure, Volga Bulgaria is also located in the Black Lands, but in those located in the Middle Volga, it will continue to dominate the grain market in 普通 俄罗斯 and will continue to serve both Kiev and 大 诺夫哥罗德 for centuries with its own cereals. Transport and logistics will take place along the so-called Via dell’Okà which starts from the Okà River just below present-day Moscow to the northeast on the bank opposite the Bulgarian capital, Bolgar, and crosses the forest in about 20 stages to finish southwest of Kiev. Traffic with 大 诺夫哥罗德 instead it will take place away New Market (在 日俄 Torzòk), a small town-warehouse founded by the Novgorodians in the vicinity of Tver 'to collect goods traveling from the north to the Lower Volga, again through Bolgar's international mediation.
Whether for good or bad food, the farmer makes up for with his work and with the cereals that the climate and the soil allow to grow: barley and rye in the first place and then millet and oats (the wheat will arrive around the 16th century 特区) what else does the peasant economy produce? Returning to the distribution of the Slavs in the 普通 俄罗斯, schematically we note that, if the concentration is maximum in the southwest up to the Carpathians, as we move towards the northeast, the Finno-Ugric populations increase instead and totally dominate as far as the tundra towards the Arctic Circle. For centuries hunter-gatherers, as we have mentioned, in the favorable conjuncture of the international markets were able more than the Slavs to offer the products of the forest in great demand and with high added value, namely the precious furs, honey and wax, the mineral of iron and semi-precious stones and even silver from the Urals and this is also due to their centuries-old contacts with Bolgar. We insist on this point since the state of Kiev had a marked agricultural imprint based on its own economy (10th-11th century 特区) and the Bulgarians of the Volga and 大 诺夫哥罗德 instead they had an absolutely mercantile one. In other words Kiev personifies the holy and absolute monarchy and 大 诺夫哥罗德 a republic Sui generis. Bolgar by contrast is a Muslim (从 921 特区) emirate as well Sui generis whose elite, however, does not require external supplies of food even in the form of compulsory tax as is done for Kiev since the Bulgarians themselves cultivate the Black Lands and the Emir participates directly in cultivation and production.
Why then did we choose the farmer Slavic-Russian for the present survey? The answer is that from our position as moderns we know that Moscow, which took over from Kiev and others 大 诺夫哥罗德 (partly to the Volga Bulgars who later became the Kazan Tatars) in the domain of the whole 普通 俄罗斯, he began to be interested in the peasant "class" hitherto unknown and neglected only towards the second half of the sixteenth century. A.D. with a clearly colonial interest of the territory and its inhabitants more or less in vogue in Western Europe as well, except for the Moscow attitude of subjection without half measures for the use and consumption of the new imperial Russian elite. No ethnic or religious difference was admitted, with very few exceptions, in the subjects and hence our intent to understand the historical path that the "free" Slavic-Russian peasant followed, leaving his forest environment and becoming a "subject Russian ”without any cultural identity.
The Russian Church from Kiev and then from Moscow had a somewhat preponderant role in imposing this situation with its well-equipped bureaucracy, although with the media of the time it was able to exhibit more than anything else the faculty of consoler Sui generis to those who frequented the cities passing by the ecclesiastical estates in continuous growth and all tense in order to avoid uprisings or revolts against the power that was beginning to be perceived despotic and oppressive and which it instead defended.
The cultural situation of the 普通 俄罗斯 however it was never static. Around the thirteenth century. the Catholic Crusader Knights arrive from the Baltic Sea to colonize the Baltic territory. It is an unequal struggle without half measures and without mercy, so much so that an entire Balticoslav people, the Prussians, will be exterminated and erased from history. This does not directly affect the Slavic-Russians, but pushes the Baltoslavs, especially Lithuanians, to turn their attention to their almost Slavic congeners Krivici and other neighboring Slavic peoples. The inland areas begin to smell the burning smell of the invasion of their forest. An invasion which, however, will continue along the largest waterways.
In the south of the Russian Plain, on the other hand, 在 nuove 草原, new ethnic groups arrive, willingly or not contributing to the increase in multi-ethnicity while not penetrating the interior. The great wave will arrive in the thirteenth century. A.D. caused by Cinghiz Khan and with the stabilization of the new Tatar state of奥拉 Golden 酒店 in the following centuries will make the situation in the 普通 俄罗斯 一个 PO 'calmer, thus allowing interethnic ties to intensify in the most remote corners where, 巧合, the "Slavic model" seems to be considered, rightly or wrongly, superior and therefore to be emulated.
A notable aspect of the Slavic model is the standardization of the concept of working activity of kinship members and therefore of the administration of the individual's time by the power. The fields must be cultivated, but theworking activity it cannot be reduced to this one occupation and must instead satisfy all the various needs of the great Slavic family, ranging from building houses to clothing, from roads along the marshes etc.等等. Yet the modern Russian word for work, rabòta - but it is the same for other Slavic and non-Slavic languages - it is practically the same as 奴隶 (rab it is 奴隶 在 日俄) and is distinguished from the older term trud which indicates the fatigue in working ... not forced by someone! Semantics, 这, which the USSR kept well in sight. It is therefore necessary to see the question of the work since between the XII and the XIV century. A.D. the word has no in 普通 俄罗斯 the same philosophical and juridical contents that we find in the West in the same period.
In more "scientific" terms, work translates into an expenditure of energy produced by one's body for an activity aimed at utilitarian purposes and would require at least a full personal choice of what to do and how long, if one is not forced by momentary convenience. Let's say that, if work is imposed without freedom of choice, it becomes compulsion and in this case it arouses rejection and revolt, while fatigue is a more complex sensation that depends on many psychic and somatic factors. All this is obvious for how we "understand" work today, however, hooking us to the remuneration which, according to our logic, must be congruent in value with the consequent effort. For the peasant in the Russian Middle Ages such reasoning did not exist. Instead, it is necessary to see him as a member of an organized community of relatives linked to each other according to rules "descended from pagan divinities" and for which work is part of his vital activities on the same level as the time and energy spent on eating, walking etc. Fatigue is required by the gods "givers of life and strength" and in principle therefore it is one donation / corvée to the gods and cannot be rewarded except with luck and good health. In practice, the work cannot always and only take place in the fields where it is used to obtain food and subsistence, but must also turn to the natural environment that the farmer knows well. Here are other riches available that can be used transformed, adapted or simply used as they are to satisfy material needs. non-food. Nor does the farmer oppose, as we would do today, 该 work 到 free time since for him the free time it is useless and harmful idleness. The Russian verb otdyhat ' 亦即 catch your breath which is used for the free time has a different semantics than Italian holiday what does it mean lack of activity.不仅! In this conceptual space it is not even imaginable a craftsman / worker who you work for someone for a fee and that the "employer", any man, has the right to let others work in his place and can enrich himself ...
In this logic, the first reference to set up a job, whatever it is, 是 dialogue with the divine forces that govern the universe 也许 祖先 的 说情 时 ， 通过 精英 的 关系 有 必要 即. Let's move 那么 眼前 的 现实 并 观察 农民 仍然 没有 受到 基督教 的 举动 异教 理念 主导.
在 自然界 中 ， 你 会 看到 事件 的 许多 重复 循环, 虽然 从来 没有 完全 一样 的, 在 他 将 参与 ， 因为 这 是 工作 的 地球 ， 是 它 的 一部分. To these cycles measured according to the lunar rhythms he will grant the works to be carried out as recognized in the original Slavic names of the months, today almost everywhere replaced by conventional ones of Latin origin. We know well that the composition of the year of 12 lunar periods or 个 月 (Latin mensis or Russian mesjac they both mean both moon 那 month) had already been conceived in Mesopotamia millennia before the appearance of the Slavs and which had been inherited directly with the biblical story from Christianity and Islam. For this reason it is interesting to read in Genesis (3, 17) about agricultural work: "IS (the lord god) he said to Adam… cursed is the earth because of you. In pain you will feed from it for all the days of your life. " prefiguring in the activity of working the fields a sentence to be served rather than a necessity to obtain a more pleasant survival. Therefore, a completely different concept of work than in the Slavic reality. It should be added rather that Christianity a few centuries earlier had altered the biblical judgment on agriculture and had instead stigmatized this activity as human and "holy", although in "expiation for original sin", and had recommended it in convents and abbeys. And this in clear contradiction with the myth of Cain and Abel (创 世纪 4, 1-15) in which the first, a farmer, kills the second, a shepherd, and for fratricide Cain is sent cursed and wandering around the world by the creator god.该 俄 ’基辅 Christianized at the end of the 10th century. A.D. he quietly accepted the agricultural way of life as the only "civil" and instead marked "wild" every other way of existing and living and the place occupied since ancient times by nomadic shepherds (evident descendants of Abel!), the steppe, 它是 在 一个 贬义 的 语气 说 ： CTP 俄罗斯 教堂 野生 场 该 野蛮人 (俄 DIKO 场).
活动 的 农民 "基督徒" ， 然后 通过 一系列 的 庆祝 活动 由 无限 圣徒 的 群体 ， 以 其中 一 人 可以 把 赞助 的 传递, 并 在 规定 的 仪式 由 牧师, 获得 保护 和 仁, 但 从来 没有 忘记 ， 这项工作 是 痛苦. The only neo-Christian was the introduction of the idea of private land ownership against the pagan concept of divine concession to a community without any owner.
Of course nothing new in substance, but Slavic paganism, knowing that every day or every month is the scene of a different natural event, to justify its reality and to understand its development as far as possible, anthropomorphized the event itself and interpreted it and he explained it in the form of continual struggles between invisible superhuman forces. Tradition warned the active man to be very careful not to be a disturber, but to act as an actor / collaborator who contributes to the victory of the divine forces favorable to him and thus improves the universe ...
Was there then any similarity of beliefs in the field of calendar / work in the fields? And why abandon the old pagan way of marking the passing of the seasons with various rites? At the limit, the names of Christian saints would have been given to the divine forces involved and venerated in the face of the same cyclical phenomena according to ancient custom.
In the Nordic calendar, however, there are in the latitudes of Moscow (minus Kiev), Novgorod and Bolgar-sul-Volga some aspects of the sky in front of which Christianity (X-XI century 特区) and Islam (921 特区) found themselves for the first time in their history and were impressed by the spectacular: the very long night of the winter solstice (24-25 十二月) and the very long day of the summer solstice (24-25 六月).不仅! The transition from one season to another was also much sharper here since the sun at its zenith was quite inclined on the Nordic farmer's head compared to its almost perpendicularity at Mediterranean latitudes. Much of pagan mythology and practical references in active life was based on these celestial events. The two monotheisms they were colonizing with their ideologies never took this into account 普通 俄罗斯 and the rest of the Slavia? We do not know for sure, but we must emphasize that another was the way in which Nordic Paganism perceived natural phenomena and the fateful questions that people were worried about every end of the year were: What if the sun never came back? Or worse: Who guaranteed that the cool of the night would return and that instead everything would not burn under the torrid summer sun (temperatures around 40 ° C are still reached today with the many hours of sunshine)? In short, it was necessary to ask for help / advice from the ancestors that these events had overcome in their time and with their wisdom they had come out unscathed and not to the Holy Scriptures or the Koran which on the contrary did not give such explanations.由于 这些 原因 ，, 例如 ：, the year began not before we made sure that the sun would return to the sky. The priests therefore waited for the light to return to the firmament and they were entrusted with the task of overcoming the collective fear by imploring the intervention of the eponyms with the gods so that the world would not perish.所以, after seven magical days (在 日俄 koljady) or more or less on January 1st, if all went well, the sunlight would return. Other than the birth of Christ ...
思想 在 斯拉夫 文化 和 芬兰 - 乌戈尔 这些 元素 ， 因为 声讨 不容 忽视 的 Slavo 俄罗斯 的 传统 ， 显然 不是 整个 斯拉夫 做 了 一个 大 的 文化 背景 ， 因此 他们 想象 多么 困难 和 艰苦 的 制度化 宗教, 基督教 或 伊斯兰教, 他们 不 承认 的 例外 和 鄙视 外邦人 原则, 在 进入, 渗透 和 消除 传统 的 “恶魔” (基督徒) And “idolaters” (穆斯林) maintained by these people.
Unfortunately we know Christianity and Islam quite well and we know the Paganism of the Great North quite poorly and, although the comparisons between the respective mythologies are uncertain and ambiguous, we note to our advantage that Paganism survived in 普通 俄罗斯 at least in the folkloristic corpus and better than in other Slavic regions of Europe. For our assumption this is fundamental.反之! Paganism is still found today in an official capacity in the Republic of the Seas (Mari El) so much so that the elected President, Vladislav Zotin, was consecrated in 1992 by the local Orthodox Bishop and by the National Pagan High Priest of the Seas.
But here is the omnipresent return tradition in the discourse that should explain and clarify every vision of the world. Despite everything the tradition it is not a series of immutable rules and concepts, nor is it generically opposed to technical evolution or new scientific experiences.反之! It periodically changes its name and turns into science and knowledge to be taught to young people (science, education, subject matter and the like are updated aspects of tradition). In the end, there is no congenital backwardness or stubborn opposition of the smierd (this is the most generic and somewhat derogatory name of the Russian peasant) to knowledge and consequently we do not allow ourselves to judge negative 全盘 the holistic-pagan principles. Moving and acting in reality is difficult always and everywhere. Obstacles are not simply eliminated, but understood and studied and, if they exist, it means that the gods wanted to place them where they are. In short, the comparison with nature must be cautious and attentive and in doubts there tradition, 注, suggests which rites to celebrate to overcome them.
例如, before introducing a seed into the ground, permission from the goddess was required 地球 母亲 Wet and tradition indicated how it could be obtained. In addition, we had to thank the goddess by giving her the last sheaf that was in fact left in the field at the end of the harvest. There was the same respect for the goddess herself in deciding when to start working the fields since, if one transgressed and went to the countryside before Radunicy (pagan anniversary that fell shortly before Easter and remembered the ancestors), it would have responded with drought and a famine for the community of mir as it was not conceived that a member could incur in rash acts of offense to the gods and that he would respond individually for them!该 mir it is made up of alliances of kinship and, if there is a family member who is wrong, it is the mir whole to have to repair. Even the word can do harm if spoken with evil intentions! Surely after some time the outrageous words will return in the form of horrible and avenging ghosts and they will wander around the village not only in search of theizba (generic name of the typical Slavic house opposite the sun indicating the complex also of izby separated) of the offender, but they will torment everyone until the offense is washed away by the community.
A typical aspect of the tradition 养殖 也是 一个 告诫 ， 尊重 劳动者 每日 物理 的 划分 (工作!) 两性 之间 和 年龄 之间, 因为 我们 知道, 它们 链接 到 组 家族 村 父系 的 层次.因此 ， 有 女 工作 从 不同 的 男. 由于 这个 原因 ， 年轻 / 年轻 彬彬有礼 / 不要 是 男性 或 女性 ， 不惜 一切 代价, 但是 看到 性别 其 预定 的 命运 也 之 差 从 经济 角度. On the one hand, this is logical given that mass production that would respond to market logic had not yet been reached and on the other it was essential that anyone knew how to do anything since versatility in work remained the most esteemed virtue. The specialist opposite and superior to the peasant in principle there could not be and on this last point it has not been proven even today in our societal system that a person apparently endowed with particular and exceptional faculties exists by genetic nature, but that on the contrary in favorable environmental conditions in a large number of people anyone is stimulated to express the best of themselves and consequently give rise to an innovation useful for all. In the pagan-Slavic vision, therefore, those who knew how to do something better than others were not exalted or "commodified" as is done today, but simply the particular gaze on him by the gods was recognized and ... solely for the time he consumed in the skill for which he stood out! In short, a personal and physical exceptionality, except in the elite members, was an anomaly and was suppressed where and as soon as possible.
Yet despite what has been said we know that the artisans were important for the city realities of the 普通 俄罗斯. In Bolgar-sul-Volga (it is better to call it the first capital of the Bulgarians) since the beginning of the 10th century. A.D. a part of the big city had been built near the market square and reserved for artisans with the dividing streets between specialties and specialties. Similarly the Podil of Kiev or of the capital of Càzara, Itil, not to mention the republic of 大 诺夫哥罗德. When the Tatar-Mongols arrived in the 13th century.特区, 无论 他们 是 工匠 侵略者 took ， 并将 它们 发送 到 黑色 防护 在 大汗 的 服务, 镦 情况 "手艺" 到目前为止 ， 被 合并 的 城市 让 他 开始 担心 俄罗斯 王子 的 一部分 ， 他们 的 专家 最 能 吸引 鞑靼 人 的 羡慕 和 这些 迟早 他们 会 不 费周折 的 ， 它是 被 驱逐 出境 值得 吹牛 隐藏 或 遮盖 它们 不能 产生 好 东西. This is a situation that will last until the emancipation of Moscow in the fifteenth century. A.D. from the Tatar yoke, but which became fixed in certain strange information in which the rumor spread that having a certain object made was a very complicated business since the craftsman was not available or lived far away or was a prisoner of a monster and similar other fantastic tales of which remains the echo in Russian fairy tales (草药).
And where did the artisans come from, if the peasant world denied them?
We have no knowledge of craft schools, apart from the one that must have existed in Kiev in the Monastery of the Caves in the 11th century. A.D. and that found by archaeologists a 大 诺夫哥罗德 for the packaging and painting of sacred icons and other objects for ecclesiastical use to be dated around the fourteenth century. A.D. and therefore we can say that the artisans were practitioners who came out here and there in the villages and passed to the service of the princes' courts in the city-fortresses for various reasons. Before art, however, comes the raw material on which this art materializes and therefore we can fully speak of wood craftsmen, professional weavers and leather and furriers.
Clearly the range of professions is very wide and the mass production it is at the beginning and in this regard serious problems arose among the Riurikids, the dynasty in power in the Russian states. A craftsman, if he is given something to produce, how to control him in the progress of his work? What if he was entrusted with a very expensive raw material to transform? Already he was torn by force or blackmail from the reality of his mir and gives all guarantees that the mir it provided by putting him in an awkward situation. The global solution was to tie the craftsman with a life contract or holopstvo to the prince (or whoever else used it) who last took charge, but almost as a hostage even, the family and children who were also torn from the traditional environment. Yet A. Guagnini, an Italian-Polish visitor of the seventeenth century. A.D. in Moscow he wrote: "The work of the craftsmen usually pays for little money. When the price of bread increases, it is difficult for them to buy it with what they earn by working for a whole day. " Is this the appreciation in imperial Moscow for the craftsman? However, we are in the seventeenth century. and by now the use of the craftsman has already become a real and harsh slavery against which even the Russian Church (which, however, used it) complained loudly.
Craftsman, manual skill, work… We have not yet talked about the tools and the most important and widespread raw material both at home and in the countryside of those times which is wood. In the meantime, it must be complained that wood is an embarrassing archaeological problem as it leaves very few traces in the excavation field and even disappears, if it is a matter of not bulky objects such as furnishings and small tools which are in fact very rare finds. Archaeologists, on the other hand, have excavated many types of iron tools for working wood, known between the 11th and 13th centuries. A.D. and manufactured in the 普通 俄罗斯 with local iron ore.
In the figures above (大 M. Semjònova, 在. Bibl.) Some of them are drawn. On the left there are two types of ax / hatchet (俄 topor): above is the one that with the long handle can become a deadly weapon and below the "carpenter's" one with reduced dimensions and so common that it was used as a bargaining chip. As for the saws (俄 stack) 你 已经 发现 长于 2 米 与 三角 齿 切成 与 两个 在 Z 字形 小 褶皱 的 刀片 (容易 使, 对于 铁匠!).如果 他们 被 发现 哪怕 是 很小 的 ， 并 用 细 齿 带锯 木 弓 之间 伸展 的 叶片, 如 在 其他 图 中 看到 的 从 前端 的 右侧 ， 然后 凿子 等 工具.
Of course, the collections designed here and others seen in museums does not mean that they were the kit of a single carpenter as we would see today when entering a workshop since in any case the tools available in every izba they were very few and often borrowed from the head of the village or exchanged with the neighbors, avoiding unnecessary expensive duplicates left idle.
But let's make one more consideration. The gods were the guardians of science and technology and therefore the worker in using his skills actually became a divine agent and, since the tools and tools had been manufactured according to divine designs and had to be defended from the invisible forces of the hostile gods that is the so-called 不čistye sily, arose the obligation of those who had them in charge to keep them in a secluded, but safe and sacred place. So the winter man, not working the fields, dedicates himself to a series of other maintenance, repairs etc. and he does not work indoors because of the harsh external climate or other, but because at home he feels protected, clean in body and heart and can be sure of exercising his profession in the best way because he is sure that the gods here they look at him and assist him.不仅! Tradition also prescribed to keep away from women who, 有人 说, frequented the 不čistye sily !
The metal paraphernalia is rarely made of copper and, if for some time some iron tools came from the Baltic Sea and Central Asia, subsequently the raw material was of local origin, that is from the Urals when people began to look for and find them in good quantities even in the marshes (meteoric iron) and it was exchanged rough, this "black stone", in standard forged shapes that vaguely resembled the axes of the figures above. For a long time in the meantime it was not known (or dared) to work it since forging etc. for the farmer it was a mysterious and dangerous activity and they feared the men who folded, melted and formed a stone with the action of fire, so much so that the Finno-Ugric blacksmith remained a stranger on the edge of the village. This does not mean that in the 普通 俄罗斯 there were no blacksmiths before the 13th century. A.D. since in the far north, on the shores of Lake Ilmen 2 km from 大 诺夫哥罗德, there was the Variago-Swedish settlement, the aforementioned fort Riurikovo Gorodišče where blacksmith tools connected with the military world and dating back to the eighth century have been found.特区!一个 防尘 ’later and this time a Gnjòzdovo near Smolensk, at the headwaters of the Dnieper River, there was another Variago-Swedish workshop also dedicated to the processing of sword blades imported from the Rhine.
In spite of this, the Slavic-Russian peasant society, unlike the Western Slav who lived at the foot of mountains rich in minerals, did not go beyond the great "social" achievement of accepting in the mir 国外 铁匠 的 存在 几乎 总是 提供 的 ， 他 将 致力于 “随需应变” 只能 做 其 工作 ， 并 在 用于 该 目的 ， 该 图 的 一个 孤立 的 10 吨 将 运行.帐篷, 给 该 蔬菜 (因为 我们 叫它), 乌克兰 草原 的 铁匠, 警告 德国 P. S. 帕拉斯 仍然 在 十八 世纪。, 禁止 妇女 ， 因为… 扰乱 火灾! On the contrary, the fire reigned in the female culinary activity and this time the male was forbidden to enter the kitchen.
Above on the left (from V.V. Aleksandrov, 在. Bibl.) There is also the design of a sacralized workshop as a separate area of the sun we talked about above. Note the sled, the trough, the step ladder, the rotating millstone and little else, while there are none stored tools.
We who have visited many wood museums (and in any case other museums) in northern Europe would like to make an observation. In the exhibitions we admire sculptures, paintings, embroideries and we consider them objects embellished by artistic desire and generally we ignore the true meaning of that "extra work" that makes the most common objects "beautiful" in our eyes. In fact, the embellishment constitutes a magical-religious element that served to protect the artefact by loading it with signs that effectively and for a long time guaranteed its "functionality" against the actions of the said impure invisible forces (不čistye sily) which tended to deteriorate it (rust for example!) and to destroy it (woodworm, mold) consequently there could not be a freedom of choice of the subjects to be portrayed or of the symbols or materials and colors with which to cover it and everything responded to pre-established rules ...
If a 大 诺夫哥罗德 there were famous iconography schools that produced excellent artists such as Andrei Rubljòv applying these criteria, for the smierd what school was there to learn and refine his many trades? And let's not forget that in the Nordic republic the art of working wood was the queen industry. It was part of the business range of the Canton of Carpenters on 里瓦 市场 of the city where not only naval maintenance was carried out for the boats of the merchants that went up or down the Volhov river, but also items of furniture, tools, containers, frames, 犁, oars, pegole etc. were manufactured and supplied. together with statues of first quality to be incorporated into the hull or in a pier of the house door etc. for apotropaic purposes as well as for sacred embellishment. The entire canton was a permanent school and access was forbidden to any outsider because art held technological secrets. Certainly excellent class carpenters came out of it.又 是 谁 的 城市 成立 后 创造 了 本 行政区 十年?君士坦丁 七世 告诉 我们 ， 俄 ’ 他 是 众所周知 的 船只 的 建设 从 一 制成 ， 整个 树 (monoxyloi 他 称 他们 为), 可 移动 的 ， 他们 可以 在 无数 水道 快速 导航 普通 俄罗斯. The art must have been very ancient among the Slavs who had to do with rivers and lakes at any time of the day and night and certainly had passed it on to the Bulgarians of the Volga and the Khazars who used it abundantly.
The wood becomes beautifully polished and painted and the painting in the peasant civilization was appreciated better on the furnishings of the house than on the ships and which were not lacking in any izba.
Many of the objects depicted below (on the left taken from ON Selegina, 在. Bibl., And those on the right from LV Belovinskii, 在. Bibl.) Are mainly made of wood or with birch and lime peel and even leather ( especially for wineskins and more in use in the steppe), among the materials appears iron (cast iron and forged) 那, we repeat, it is a late contribution from the 14th century. A.D.
We note however the pot (一) for cooking soups and stews called čugunka 那, filled with the ingredients, was placed in the pečka placed on the tripod or tagan / taganka. In the past, however, instead of the tripod and the cast iron (or bronze) pot, a beautiful earthenware pot with three feet on the bottom was used. The wooden bucket o I'll see is intended to draw water from the well, while the barrels are used for ritual alcoholic beverages (mead or mjod). In these articles we note the technique of the staves held together by the wicker and not by the iron bands as it will happen later.
The chest o sunduk at the bottom it was used to store the trousseau and other fabrics and the spoon o kovš / kuvšin at the same time it served as a bowl from which the soup was sipped and held by the large handle. In fact, there were no dishes and usually, if it was sometimes a question of having to cut meat, it was done on the lavka o on the small platform in front of the stove mouth o pečka and in dinners outside on smoothed logs / remains of trunks.
If cattle horns are lacking for drinking, it is because they were used exclusively for libations and because the cattle were very few and small in size.
Remarkable is still the luChina 该 svetec that is, a sprig of birch that is soaked as it was with resin (djogot) it burned with a good scent and gave as much light as needed.
Without going into details, we note that the subjects to be painted undoubtedly remained the still lifes with beasts and flowers and certainly depicted various magical pagan elements such as nymphs and imaginary beings, while landscapes were avoided, considering it ridiculous to reproduce them when it was possible to look at them for oneself in the reality nor being able to imagine any other than those created by the gods.
Looking at theizba 外, we note the sculpture of a horse's head or (more rarely) a rooster's head on the tip facing the road. The horse was in fact the animal of the Sun, but also the cock was considered a family member and thanks to him who was the first to see the sun return to the sky, those who slept would wake up and come back to life.反之! Since the 不isistye sily they acted in the darkness and at night, the rooster with its crow immediately chased them away in the morning. In short, the sun through these sculptures he was well protected!
Inside theizba the walls, 该 lavka, the door leaves were always painted, but not there pečka perhaps for technical reasons and in the museum postcards above of a Russian house (Ural region, from V.A. Baradulin v. bibl.) you can admire the colorful atmosphere of the nineteenth century. A.D. which certainly follows the tastes and fashions of many centuries ago and the rich collection of wooden furnishings.
A male work outside the home was for a long time the collection of honey and wax, almost a monopoly for the Baškiri and for Ugro-finni. Honey and wax were obtained from the periodic looting of wild hives that formed in the hollows of the trees and that had to be emptied before a fearsome and voracious competitor: the bear! It is the embryo of an organized industry of forest products since the two products were in great demand throughout medieval Europe for which regular supplies and quality were expected. The only political realities suitable for this type of trade were 大 诺夫哥罗德 and Bolgar-sul-Volga who in fact controlled it to a great extent.
And since we are talking about embryos of industrial activities, we cannot fail to mention the industry of the extraction of rock salt which was concentrated in the elevated region west of Kiev: Podolia and Volynia where in addition to the mine salt were the sources of the Vistula and del Bug (southern and northern) and therefore in a very favorable position for transport to the north and south. This industry was taken over by the Riurikids of the Rostislavid branch. Salt was essential not only for the preservation of fine furs, but also for the salting of meat and fish and vegetables and thus became a weapon to fold the Kiev Riurikids when needed. And speaking of fish, smoked or salted, it was a product that circulated in the markets of the Russian Plain.在 那些 日子 里 有 鱼 依然 较大 规模 的 鲟 鱼 的, 抓, 附近 的 大 河流 口 达到 了 相当 大 码头 养活 全家 人 周.而 基督教 和 食肉 鱼类 定期 禁止 对 农民 的 桌子 ， 他 取而代之 流行.
However, it is the "women's jobs" that interest us now because from an economic point of view they are the only ones that often produce that surplus which we lamented the lack and which was traded in the periodic markets of the villages. Let's start with an ancient female work activity: weaving. Already appeared at the beginning of the invention of agriculture and the sedentarization of man, it began with the cultivation of the plant best known for this use in the north: 该 linen (Linum usitatissimum 在 日俄 ljòn). The cultivation reserved for women took place in separate land near the river and the textile plants in addition to flax were hemp (Cannabis sp.在 日俄 konopljà) and some others. Flax and hemp do not require special soils and grow almost everywhere in the north as long as constant care is given to them. The stems must grow tall enough to give long, tough fibers.
一个 防尘 ’before it begins to bear fruit, the plant is extracted from the ground with all the roots by hand. It can never be cut (the scythe is a male tool!) And the fibers will thus be undamaged from bending and breaking. Then the stems are left to macerate for some time until the long fibers detach from each other, freeing themselves from collagen. To separate and discard the remaining collagen, the fibers are broken down and combed and finally given to spin with traditional vertical spindles.
It sometimes happened that the number of plants to be collected and then worked produced so much thread that woven and transformed gave cloths in greater quantities than necessary for the uses of the family. On the other hand, the extra stems could not be allowed to rot and all of them had to be used until they were exhausted and here was the surplus: extra wire and sheets!
Punching, carding, twisting, spinning with the spindle etc. they were the most troublesome jobs before moving on to the loom. The spindle with the clay counterweight was a sacred instrument and could only be used by its first mistress, so much so that the counterweight bore the sign of the latter's name. Finally, the thread was curled up on the spinning wheel. If a previous coloring was required, various plants were found in the forest to do this and the preparation and obtaining of the vegetable colors in which the yarn had to be immersed was a complicated, very long and smelly job.
Finally we passed on the loom which, as is 自然 漆, 每个 izba, small or large had one.
The most widespread in the Slavia seems to have been the vertical one. It was the man's job, immediately after the threshing (an operation that is largely female!), To repair it, clean it and put it in order after having pulled it down from the attic (čerdak) and finally mount it. Once ready, the hostess went to work together with the other women. The device (the drawings below are taken from a museum postcard) was under the patronage of the Slavic-Russian goddess Mokoš 该 Mokošà, later equated by Christians to saint Parascheva 该 saint of Friday and in reverence to it the weaving was interrupted on Friday and resumed on Monday.
Each thread in a different color was placed on its own spinning wheel and in fixed cut lengths and with a weight tied to a band (there are many weights in archaeological excavations!) A certain number of them were hung on the upper beam of the loom and acted as a warp . The rest of the thread was wound on its shuttle and formed the weft (or the wefts in different colors). Shuttle and shuttle, although in the figure the weft can be seen collected on the side without a shuttle, they were usually handled by young girls since the adult woman was the responsible operator of the loom.
In the form of embroidery (although rarely with topstitching as this was too long a work to be done without sufficient light) with threads of different colors between weft and warp, the woman of the house was able to draw stylized mythological figures on the sheets depending on the destination of the fabric itself ( dress? tablecloth? sheets? 等等) as in the figure on the right where you can see the apotropaic embroideries dominant in the Russian countryside.Spinning, weaving and putting together clothes to make a dress, a cloak or a mat were time-consuming jobs and so was sewing using needle and thread so, 在 后者 的 情况 下, it was easier to resort to buttons and laces or , 如果 他 能 弄个, 有 金属 扣环 和 销 抱团 更多 的 毛巾.
该 CTP 也 记录 在 质量 上 的 明显 差异, 例如 ：, 床单 "俄罗斯" 比 君士坦丁堡 ， 自 希腊人 ， 他 来 了 ， 有 一个 教会 的 牧师, 工作 在 底盘 实际上 增加 ， 以 提供 装饰 和 在 某些 情况 下 ， 有 必要 将 整个 村庄 的 协作. With the Church the designs on the sheets had changed as well as the colors allowed because numerous and complicated “Christian” prohibitions on weaving, textile fibers and colors had been introduced.不仅! Certain fabrics were woven by the monks in the few convents so that their sanctity was not profaned with female hands. An example? The weaving and embroidery ofantimension (俄 antimìns) or the sacred tablecloth used for the Orthodox altar were made entirely by the monks.
We focused on this domestic industry and especially on linen since the demand was enormous among people of all classes for this fiber for underwear. Hemp fabrics were also in demand and the equipment was the same, but it was for humbler uses or for ropes. In short, such a complicated chain of activity did not take place in the city-fortresses and collecting towels, semi-made clothes and the like represented for a long time one of the primary taxes that the secular and ecclesiastical elites demanded from the peasant world.反之! Having a weaver or a weaver in one's palace was one of the greatest aspirations of the princes and notables, since they did not look kindly on "their" women employed at the loom. Nonetheless, with the Tatar-Mongols, it was preferred for a long time to continue importing cotton and silk sheets from Central Asia ...
Another very important female activity, this time however not entirely "extractable from theizba and transferable to the public good ”was and remains to prepare the food and therefore the manufacture of the pots. The "cuisine" topic, however, is too vast and complex to dare to summarize it here. Let's add instead that the woman was reserved in the first place to manage the garden of the house to grow herbs and spices and secondly to search for medicinal plants (in addition to dyeing plants). Towards autumn, starting as early as the summer solstice, it was customary to see elderly women together with girls bending down along the ditches to tear off a stem or cut a bush to put in the shoulder bag. The herbs were placed to dry at the house behind the pečka and dried they were then chopped by hand to use them in various infusions since the herbal medicine and pharmacognosy activities were exclusive female prerogatives, as it was and still is in these regions of northern Europe. These herbs were widely traded at all levels and forest suppliers benefited from them.
And the pots? For a long time they were made by women by hand without the potter's wheel and carried typical decorations ... very useful for the archaeologist who is digging the shards today.
A surplus of “peasant agricultural” production that should not be forgotten was the slaves.
必须 说 ， 这种 “商品” 的 时候 已经 知道 交通 远古 覆盖 奴役 穆斯林 法院 的 人员 编制 要求 和 欧洲 X 直到 十四 世纪. A.D.年轻人 从 斯拉夫.君士坦丁堡 是 这种 贩运 的 心脏 一样 是 罗马 帝国 经过 最 显 著 的 历史 事件 ， 特别 是 因为 它 是 对 的 帝国 官僚 的 上升 和 扩大 伊斯兰教 强加于人. The slaves in this new cultural-religious organization no longer have reason to exist if they accept the new Muslim order. Yet the traffic does not decline, but changes. It is no longer peasant labor that is sought because now converting to Islam there is an abundance of it, but service personnel in the courts. Where to look for it?
As for the Slavs, from the imperial documents we know that the most usual policy at the time when these people were still involved with the Huns and Avars in clashes and wars was not to maintain very long without ransom in the state of slaves (亦即 person / object to sell!) the prisoner obtained as booty and give him back his freedom after a certain number of years by offering him the option of being adopted into the great Slavic family, in case he does not know where to end his life. Later when the major activities of the Slavs, no longer in perennial military campaigns, were concentrated in the agricultural work that we have described so far and they had to deal with the productivity of labor in times of peace, having no prisoners to sell, but mouths in more to feed if the sons and daughters became too numerous and the portions of food to be divided became thinner, the head of the family often decided to get rid of the extra mouths by selling them to specialist merchants.结论: it was better to send the boys abroad and to serve where they would have had to live decently than to risk starvation at home!
This last aspect (later!) Of the slave trade is testified in the Russian Middle Ages by the existence of a famous market inside the forest: Dručesk (今天 Druzk in Belarus). Unfortunately, it escaped the control of Kiev as the merchants from Druzk they traveled with the boys overland to Thuringia and did not use tributaries of the Dnieper. However, there were slaves for the Kiev merchant lords from other sources. In fact, it is almost certain that the same policy we said was in force in the Slavic peasant family of extra mouths was also in force among the Ugro-Finns since 大 诺夫哥罗德 it was able to supply enough young people for Kiev and Bolgar until the 12th-13th century. A.D. of that origin and then send them to Baghdad or Samarkand.
As for the Turkish ethnic groups of the steppes, a similar custom must have been in force even in these parts since the Genoese and Catalans in the Crimea were trading in young Slavs and Turks (Cumans) still in the fifteenth century. A.D. but here instead of servile personnel, trained and war-ready cavalrymen aged no more than 15-16 e were bought and sold.
© 2015 的 奥尔 多 Ç. Marturano
奥尔 多 Ç. Marturano
北约 和 塔兰托, 他 曾 在 巴里 大学, 然后 帕维亚, 最后 ， 汉堡, 在 那里 他 完成 了 他 的 本科 学位 工业 化学.他 从来 没有 担任 过 化学家 和 也 用 他 的 语言 能力.他 知道 这 一点 (讲 流利 写) 俄, 英语, 德语, 法国 人, 西班牙人, 匈牙利 和 研究 了 ， 他 希望 带来 更大 的 完善 ， 在 不久 的 将来 一 打.他 毕业于 普希金 俄语 学院 位于 莫斯科 ， 在 那里 他 开始 了 他 在 中世纪 的 俄罗斯 冒险.工作 在 国际 市场 上 ， 其实 是 多情 中世纪, 但是 当 他 发现 他 不可能 知道 那么 多 关于 俄罗斯, 拿着 论文 普希金 学院 的 机会 和 选择 学习 中世纪 白俄罗斯 字符, Polozk 圣 Euphrosyne: 从 那里 渐渐 走入 那个神奇 的 世界 ， 新 的.
他 深入浅出 的 关键 公布 的 历史 随笔 奥尔加 · 拉鲁萨, 2001 (这 不是 拉鲁萨 的 妹妹, 为 慈善!), 然后 男孩 影子 OF THE Tartarins, 2002, 这 是 亚历山大 Nevskii 的 传奇.
After the affirmation of Christianity in the Roman Empire the Paganism began to decline, but the remaining followers gathered in the countryside, far from the city life by now become pro-Christian in villages called you pay from which the same religion took its name. The so-called pagans were therefore extraneous to the cultural and political questions of the state. The name therefore immediately took on a derogatory connotation, soon becoming an insult indicating rough and ignorant people. With the advent of Christianity as a state religion, the name took on a derogatory connotation, soon becoming an insult indicating rough and ignorant people or unwilling to convert. In a later period the term was used by Christians to indicate Muslims, and also the adherents of the Eastern Indo-European religions therefore took on the meaning of not Christian, as well as barbarian indicated the not Roman. With the Renaissance and modern times, the term 'pagan' lost any negative meaning and began to be generally used to identify, narrowing again the field, only the ancient religions practiced in Europe and Central America. With the contemporary development of the so-called Neopaganism the name has returned to the fore and is quietly used by the new pagans without any negative meaning, and indeed, often as a label symbolizing the revenge of the insulted (the pagans) on the insulters (the Christians).
A second term with which the pagans were named, this time in particular referring to the great personages who remained such while living in the cities, is kind, word of Latin origin (kind s, from gens, that is people), roughly reflecting theethnicoi Greek, which in turn was used in Hellenistic circles as a translation of a word widespread among the Jews, goim, which meant all those who were not part of the Jewish community either by ethnicity or by religion. This name therefore labeled all peoples belonging to a people, assuming ethnological meanings. Today the names kind, gentilitas is Gentilism are used, deprived of their ethnic meanings, to indicate that branch of modern Paganism that tends to refer as faithfully as possible to the ancient pre-Christian pagan religions, using the original rituals reached today, as opposed to the so-called heterodox pagans, which do not they refer to no particular ancient tradition but base their worship according to more recent rituals and religious typologies.In paganism there was and is absent an evil figure, introduced into religion with the advent of monotheism of Jewish roots. The cult defined as Satanism is a Christian deviance and not a pagan practice, as Satan never existed in paganism.
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