Your garden should be as good as your home, because they reflect your personal view of beauty. However, any style of garden requires you to initially create a plan, taking into account which you have to work.
Your attention will be offered recommendations on how to equip a garden, which plants to use, how to care for plants in different garden designs. Hopefully, you will gradually understand how to arrange a garden on the far side of the plot, how to create a cut garden, how to organize the work and make it easier to maintain the garden. Each plan offered to you is accompanied by recommendations for the selection and placement of plants on it in a certain order, suitable for such a place. These plans reflect regional environmental characteristics or are simply suitable for growing certain plants. Armed with these plans, you can easily create a garden that expresses your personal tastes.
Most of the projects that homeowners have chosen focus on the construction of different summer cottages rather than the landscape. But countless paths, patios, decks, hedges, trees, all large and small plantings, as well as favorite functional areas of the summer cottage, decorate home life on any day of the year. Attractive brick paths, covered from the flanks by bushes and lushly flowering annual and perennial plants, cheer up; they will keep you awake in the morning and welcome you back home in the evening.
Carefully placed and grouped small trees, shrubs, and enclosing panels create patio privacy, while screens keep neighbors from prying eyes. In the islets of flower beds, your favorite plants will flaunt, and the vacant areas on the site will be thoughtfully divided into several individual zones of purpose.
One of the design options for the area near the house
The design and maintenance of plantings and structures in the open air is determined by the ability of people to create comfortable conditions for themselves. It takes some skill to decide which plants and structures you need to create the best combinations of annuals, perennials, short and tall plants. This is the first step for solving the main problems - creating a landscape around the entrance to the site and a small formal garden.
An important detail in landscape design is the paths that link the various parts of the site together. They help you move around with comfort in the country, enjoying the contemplation of the beauty of the flower beds and flower beds you have created. Of course, the type of planting will change with the change of seasons. And it is important that all corners of the garden are good at any time and in any weather.
Sheared shrub fences help to create various forms of fencing - curved, straight, or geometric shapes - throughout the formal garden. They can help you create a focal point for your garden or decorate your lawn.
Of course, in different soil and geographical conditions, the design of the garden will change taking into account the location and your desires.Over time, you may be tempted to redesign the site. For example, you can add or replace some plants, adjust them to the size of paths, patios or hedges, in large and small places. You can group or replace any plants according to your taste.
If you are in any doubt about how to tackle specific problems in creating a dramatic change, consult with a professional design studio at your local nursery or landscape designers in your area.
I offer readers one of the options for decorating the area near the house using low-growing plants (see picture).
The curved path in this design invites you into your home. The first stop is between two skillfully formed bushes of roses and small, beautiful perennials by the path. In front of the house, on a wide square, you can meet your guests or celebrate family dates; here you can relax on a bench and enjoy planting against the backdrop of a lawn.
Shrubs and perennials are presented here from spring to late autumn with flowering plants and plants with attractive leaves. They retain their structure in winter and are beautiful when covered with snow. Prune at the base of the bushes to leave room for snow when clearing off the path. The care that will be required in the future will consist in pruning and shaping the bushes, in removing wilted flowers so that they are constantly planting.
And now about the plants that will be needed to create the landscape specified in the diagram. The following bushes and flowers are encrypted under the numbers there:
Lapshina Raisa Stepanovna
Exercises and games to develop attention, thinking, memory
«Exercises and games to develop attention, thinking, memory»
School readiness presupposes a multi-component education. First of all, the child must have a desire to go to school. In the language of psychologists, it is motivation to learn. He must also be able to interact with peers, control his behavior, and fulfill the requirements of the teacher. It is important that the child is healthy, resilient, so that he can withstand the load during the lesson and the entire school day. And, perhaps most importantly, he must have a good mental development, which is the basis for the successful mastering of school knowledge, skills and abilities.It largely depends on how well the child is developed thinking.
Thinking - This is the process of a person's cognition of reality with the help of thought processes - analysis, synthesis, reasoning.
There are three types thinking:
Clearly effective. Cognition occurs through the manipulation of objects, toys.
Visual and figurative. Cognition occurs through the presentation of objects, phenomena.
Verbal and logical. Cognition through concepts, words, reasoning.
Visual-effective thinking especially intense develops at a young age... Based on visual-actionable thinking a more complex shape is formed thinking - visual-figurative... The child can already solve problems on the basis of ideas, without the use of practical actions.
By the age of six or seven, a more intensive formation of the verbal - logical thinking, which is associated with the use and transformation of concepts.
All kinds thinking are closely related. When solving problems, verbal reasoning is based on vivid images. At the same time, the solution of even the simplest, most specific problem requires verbal generalizations.
Various games, design, modeling, drawing, reading develop the child has such mental operations as generalization, comparison, establishment of cause-and-effect relationships, the ability to reason.
If special classes are held with the child, then thinking development is faster... And the indicators themselves thinking can improve 3-4 times. Parents can be of great help to their child. Learning is best done in the natural, most attractive form of activity for preschoolers - play.
An important advantage of play is the intrinsic nature of its motivation. Children play because they enjoy the gameplay itself. Educational games make learning an interesting activity, generate interest in the world around them.
Work on development of thinking should be carried out systematically. Develop thinking not only at home. This can be done on the way home, on a walk, or even while doing household chores. The most important thing in this business is to create a positive emotional attitude. If for some reason the child does not want to study, reschedule the class to a more suitable time for this.
I want to introduce you to some game exercisespromoting development of thinking... These exercises can be turned into an interesting game. In the game, you can set a rule - for a correct answer, the child receives a token or some other reward. This creates additional interest in the game.
Play the exercise "Warm up for reaction speed".
A grandfather who gives out gifts?
The piece of clothing where the money is put?
Play the exercise "Complete the phrase".
The boy washes his hands because.
If you cross the street at a red light, then.
The bus stopped because.
Play the exercise "Complete the sentence".
He writes music. (composer).
Laundry washes. (laundress).
Mountain peaks conquer. (climber).
Play the exercise "Riddles - jokes".
A peacock was walking in the garden. Another came up. Two peacocks behind the bushes. How many are there? Count yourself.
A flock of pigeons flew: 2 in front, 1 behind, 2 behind, 1 in front. How many geese were there?
Name 3 days in a row, without using the names of the days of the week, numbers. (Today, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow or yesterday, today, tomorrow).
The hen went out for a walk, took her chickens. 7 were running in front, 3 were left behind. Their mother is worried and cannot count. Count, guys, how many chickens were there?
On a large sofa in a row, Tanina's dolls stand: 2 nesting dolls, Pinocchio and cheerful Cipollino. How many toys are there?
How many tails do four cats have?
How many paws do two cubs have?
How many ears do two mice have?
How many tails do two cows have?
Solving various kinds of non-standard tasks in preschool age contributes to the formation and improvement of general mental abilities: logic of thought, reasoning and actions, flexibility of the thought process, ingenuity, ingenuity, spatial representations.
You will begin a word by pronouncing the first syllable, and the child will finish it.
"Guess what I want to say"
10 syllables suggested: for, for-, for-, mi-, mu-, do-, che-, pry-, ku-, zo-.
If the child copes with the task easily and quickly, then invite him to come up with not one word, but as many as he can.
The game "Find an extra word".
Read a series of words to your child. Each episode consists of four words. Three words are united by a common feature for them, and one word differs from them and should be excluded.
Suggest identifying a word that is "Superfluous".
Apple, plum, cucumber, pear.
Spoon, plate, saucepan, bag.
Dress, sweater, shirt, hat.
Birch, oak, strawberry, pine.
Soap, toothpaste, broom, shampoo.
Bread, milk, cottage cheese, sour cream.
Swallow, crow, chicken, magpie.
The game "Name the word" promotes development of mental flexibility.
Invite your child to name as many words as possible that denote a concept.
Name the words for trees (birch, pine, spruce, mountain ash, aspen)
What are the words for pets?
Name the words for animals.
What are the words for vegetables?
What are the words for fruit?
What are the words for transport?
What are the words related to sports?
What are the words for ground transportation?
You can choose options for tasks at your discretion. If the child was mistaken and incorrectly named the word, then it is necessary to discuss his mistake and correct it.
The following games contribute to the development of thinking and ingenuity... They also help build vocabulary.
Offer your child: “I will speak words, you also speak, but only the other way around.for example: big small".
The following word pairs can be used:
The game "It happens - it does not happen"
For games you need a ball.
You name a situation and throw a ball to the child. The child must catch the ball if this situation occurs, and if not, then there is no need to catch the ball.
Different situations can be proposed:
The game "Guess by the description"
The adult asks to guess what (about what vegetable, animal, toy) he speaks and gives a description of the subject.for example: it is a vegetable, it is red, juicy. (A tomato)
If the child finds it difficult to answer, pictures with various vegetables are laid out in front of him. The child finds the desired image.
An adult shows or names objects and phenomena,and the child must answer the question: "How will they change, who will they be?"
By whom (than)will be: egg, chicken, seed, caterpillar, flour, wooden board, brick, cloth.
There may be several answers to one question. It is necessary to reward the child for several correct answers.
Leading this games names an object or place, and the child in response calls something or someone that may be inside the named object or place.
When going for a walk, take a ball with you. You will need it to conduct games "Answer quickly".
An adult throws a ball to a child, names a color. The child, returning the ball, should try to quickly name the object of this color.
You can name not only color, but also any quality (taste, shape) subject.
In the evening, play a game at a calm home stop "Come up with a name"... For her, you need to prepare several small children's poems. Read a poem to your child without naming a title. Invite him to come up with a name for each poem. This game will teach the child to generalize and highlight the main idea in the poem. Children often come up with even better names than the author's ones. Exercises to develop attention in children.
Early preschool age (2-3 years) the child is predominantly involuntary Attention, and by 5-7 years the manifestation attention is arbitrary. It should be noted that, starting from older preschool age, children become able to maintain focus on actionwho begin to acquire an intellectually significant interest for them (puzzle games, riddles, educational type tasks)... Sustainability attention in intellectual activity increases markedly by the age of 7. By the end of preschool age, children have the ability to voluntary attention starts intensively develop... Further, an arbitrary Attention becomes a prerequisite for successful organized learning activities.
Development cognitive abilities of the child, training the child's focused activities will allow develop voluntary attention, all its properties.
Usually in preschool age distribution and switchability attention is underdeveloped, therefore, they should be given special Attention in the classroom with the child. In this case, you should take into account the personal characteristics of your child and not demand the impossible from him.
purpose: exercise children in focus attention at several sites.
Material - a piece of paper with little men schematically drawn on it, standing, sitting, lying, with divorced, raised, lowered hands.
Methodology: the child is given a piece of paper for consideration, the presenter asks him to point to the figures of the little men standing on the counter "At attention" and explain how he determined the pose of these men.
purpose: to form concentration in preschoolers attention at the facility on the basis of enhancing their cognitive activity.
Material - drawings that have many similar and sharply differing details, for example, two shape-shifters or two brightly decorated Christmas trees, etc.
Methodology: The child is asked to list similar and different details of the image. It is necessary to ensure that the child names as many signs of objects as possible.
Exercise # 3.
purpose:exercise children in focus attention at several objects in conditions of enhancing cognitive activity.
Equipment - 7 items laid out in a row and covered with paper.
Methodology: closed objects are opened slightly and children are invited to look at them for 10-15 seconds, then they are closed, again and the guys name what is under the paper.
Methodology: the same objects open and close again after 1-10 seconds, the defectologist asks the children in what sequence they are located.
Methodology: swap two or three objects, show all of them to the children, ask them what has changed in the order of the objects one after another.
Methodology: relies seven items on top of each other. Show them to children for 10-20 seconds, ask them to list these items and indicate the order from bottom to top and top to bottom.
purpose: exercise children to switch attention.
Methodology: the presenter describes five different movements once or twice without showing them. Then he invites the child to do the movements in the sequence in which they were named by them.
The exercise "Search nonstop".
Children are offered for 10-15 seconds. See as many objects of the same color around you (or one size, shape, material, etc.)... On a signal, one child begins to enumerate. Others complement.
purpose: exercise children in focus attention.
Material - pictures depicting different objects.
Methodology: children are shown pictures of various objects,which they should recognize by the description of the presenter:
- long, rectangular. Sometimes small and round, it leaves a white mark on the board.
- white, light, thin, smooth, changing, rustling
- white, liquid, cold or warm, healthy.
The exercise "Flower meadow".
purpose: development of sustainability of attention.
Material - a picture depicting a clearing with many flowers, butterflies, beetles.
Methodology: the child is asked to find the same butterflies, beetles, flowers
The exercise "Onlookers".
purpose: development of voluntary attention.
Methodology: children go in a circle. On the clap of the leader, they stop, stomp alone naked, turn around and continue moving. Thus, the direction of movement changes after each signal from the master.
The exercise "Dwarfs and Giants".
purpose: development of attention switching.
Methodology:children are given instructions: “If the host says "Dwarfs" - they should squat, and if “giants, stand up and raise their hands up.
The exercise "Draw".
purpose: develop a skill carefully listen to and follow the instructions of an adult.
Instructions: Color the balls so that the large ball is between green and blue, and the green is next to the red (on a piece of paper, sketch four balls schematically, one of them is large).
- paint by sample (hatching in a specific direction)and drawing elementary patterns according to the sample:
- laying out from counting sticks (matches) figures,items by sample:
- games on development visual and auditory attention: "What is the difference between 2 pictures?", "What has changed in the room?", "Listen to the claps".
The exercise "Color your soul mate."
Parents can come up with tasks of this type themselves. This can be drawing and verbal solution of simple examples, recording words and listening to a piece of a poem, etc. It is important to form such a quality as noise immunity in a child.
A child's memory can be developed and trained,guided by simple rules:
1. Any intellectual the exercise enhances the nutrition of the brain and increases the overall tone of its activity. Memory development is closely related to development other cognitive processes such as thinking, sensation perception.
2. Everything that is good for human health is good for memory... This includes proper nutrition, certain physical activity, good rest, sleep. For childrenthe daily routine is also extremely important: when an adult organizes his life,helps him perform the same actions at the same time: brushing your teeth, washing your hands before eating.
3. Active memorization is facilitated by interest in this material, understanding of this information, concentration and freedom of extraneous thoughts. For the development of arbitrary memory in a preschooler is importantso that the child understands why you need to remember something.
4. Various techniques will help the child to remember the necessary information.we are memorizing: semantic correlation, grouping, classification, schematization, correlation with the previously known.
So, Dear Parents, develop your kid's memory, suggest such games: "Remember and Find", "Cut picture", "Draw what you remember" and many others (see book «Development of children's memory» L. V. Cheremoshkina)
1. Game for tactile memory "Planks".
It is necessary to cut 10 planks of 10-20 cm from thick cardboard or plywood. On the back, number from 1-10.Stick various materials with the children: fur, bike, piece of rope, matches, oilcloth, etc. Now you can offer your child the following games:
a) Arrange the boards in a row in order. "Take a close look, close your eyes and mix them up. Now, feel them in the same order. "
b) Take tablet number 1, close your eyes and touch it. What reminds you of its surface?
in)The kids in the group probably have friends: Teach children to understand how plaques resemble character or voice, appearance or habits.
2. Development of visual memory.
To do this, the following questions are suggested:
- Where are the following things in our house?
- Remember what he is wearing ... (friend's name)
You can play games "What's gone?", "What changed?", and many others.
3. In a way development of auditory memory maybe not only memorizing poetry and listening to fairy tales, stories. It can be listening to records of fairy tales, songs, (cartoon, songs).
Develops auditory memory retelling of the read.
4. Shape and involuntary memory... To do this, during any activity, simultaneously memorize poetry, listen to music.
5. Remember! Memory should be developed only in a natural setting do not force the child when he does not want to. Try to interest him!
6. Remember that it is especially easy to remember and retain for a long time the material with which the child did something, felt, tasted, cut out, built ...
7. If you want the child to remember any story, event, conversation, you want to enrich his horizons, it is necessary that the material for memorization was not only interesting, but also clear enough.
8. Remember that it is important for children to know their own progress! Pay attention of the child to thatwhat he managed to remember, and what has not yet succeeded. In this way, the child gets used to self-control, and this is important for further improvement of work.
9. Correct organization of repetitions is of great importance. The main thing is not to be able to use what is stored in memory.
Children are shown a picture for a short time. Then the picture is removed and the kids need to describe what was shown in the picture in as much detail as possible.
A good option for playing pictures is "find 10 differences"... This option can be complicated. First, show one picture for memorization (about half a minute, then show the second. Children need to be told what has changed.
Several soft toys are laid out for the child. (for a preschooler no more than 7)... Within 30 seconds, he needs to remember their location. After that, he turns away, and the adult swaps the places of the toys. The kid turns back and tells what has changed.
A leader is selected from the group. Its appearance must be remembered. After that, the presenter goes out the door and there changes something in his appearance. He returns, and the children guess what has changed in his appearance.
After you walked with your child in the park and came home, try to remember together, some interesting object that you saw or an unusual person who passed by you. Begin to name what you remember in this person or subject in turn. Whoever names the most signs is the one who won.
This game develops motor memory... An adult shows children some movement to cheerful music. For example, squats, stands up and spreads his arms to the sides... Kids need to repeat it. Movements can be complicated and even come up with an interesting dance.
We take the counting sticks. An adult lays out a certain composition from them and gives the child time to remember it. Then the baby repeats this composition with his own counting sticks. You can switch roles. In this game, you can use not only counting sticks, but also coins, beads, matches, etc.
Dear Parents! For your efforts to be effective,use the following tips:
1. Don't let your child get bored during class. If a child has fun learning, he learns better. Interest makes children truly creative individuals and gives them the opportunity to experience the satisfaction of intellectual pursuits.
2. Repeat exercises. Development a child's mental capacity is determined by time and practice. If any exercise fails, take a break, come back to it later, or give your child an easier option.
3. Do not show undue anxiety about lack of success and lack of progress, or even some regression.
4. Be patient, do not give your child tasks that exceed his intellectual capabilities.
5. In classes with a child, measure is needed. Don't force the child to do the exerciseif he is tired, upset. Give your child the opportunity to sometimes do what he likes.
6. Avoid negative evaluations, find words of support. Praise your child more often for his patience and perseverance. Never emphasize his weakness in comparison with other children. Build confidence in your abilities.
A preschool child has truly enormous opportunities. development and the ability to learn. It contains the instinct of cognition and exploration of the world. Rejoice and have fun with the communication process. Remember that this is a great opportunity for you to befriend your child. Help the child develop and realize your potential. Do not feel sorry for the time spent. It will pay off many times over. Your child will cross the threshold of school with confidence, teaching will not be a heavy duty for him, but a reality, and you will have no reason to be upset about his progress.
Didactic games for the development of attention. Part 2 Purpose. Develop the stability of visual attention while finding objects. Tasks. Develop children's ability to consider consistently.
Games and exercises for the development of speech of preschoolers "Who was who or what was what" (activating the vocabulary and expanding knowledge about the environment) Who or what was the earlier chicken-egg, horse.
Games and exercises for the development of speech of preschool children Educator GBDOU No. 11 Primorsky district of St. Petersburg Maykova Yulia Pavlovna "Whose voice is this?" Purpose of the game: To distinguish between adult animals.
Games and exercises for the development of visual attention in preschoolers from personal experience It is very important to develop observation in preschoolers, the ability to notice their distinctive features and signs when examining objects.
Using the "Mongolian Game" puzzle game for the development of logical thinking in preschoolers It is with logical thinking that the formation of a child's worldview begins. In the process of developing logical thinking in a child, they are formed.
Card file of games for the development of attention and memory Card file of games for the development of attention and memory Games for the development of attention Recommended for children suffering from psychomotor hyperactivity, decreased.
Consultation for parents "Development of attention, memory, logical thinking" Consultation for parents. Development of attention, memory, logical thinking. The role of memory in the development of a child is enormous. Assimilation of knowledge about the environment.
Didactic games for the development of logical thinking I bring to your attention game exercises that contribute to the development of logical thinking. You can play in class and on the street ..
Memo for parents. Games for developing the attention of preschoolers. The memo is printed by double-sided printing, folded in the form of a booklet. Playroom. We play with the whole family. Games at the table for development.
Games and exercises for the development of speech breathing Today I want to draw your attention to another important component of the sound culture of speech - speech breathing. Speech breathing is breathing in progress.
When planning a summer cottage, first of all, you need to decide on its purpose. If you need a place for a good rest, then you can limit yourself to a lawn and a gazebo. If the requirements include the availability of space for planting fruits and vegetables, then the planning issues should be taken more seriously.
When creating a layout, you first need to divide the site into three zones.One of them is set aside for a cottage and utility rooms, the second is for a garden and a vegetable garden, the last is for a recreation area.
The house and outbuildings should ideally be located on the north side of the site. A residential building can be surrounded by all kinds of shrubs and ornamental plants - boxwood, juniper, dwarf thujas. All buildings on the site are recommended to be located in such a way that they do not cause problems when arranging other summer cottage areas.
The vegetable garden and garden area can be placed near the house. Fruit trees, as a rule, are planted around the house, due to which you can decorate the site, save space, and also get a good harvest. Growing trees will give some shading, therefore, when choosing their future location, this fact should be taken into account.
The vegetable garden can be placed next to the recreation area. To give it a more decorative look, you can create a vine or bush fence that is beautifully decorated with clay pots. When arranging the beds, you should pay attention to the humidity of the selected place, the level of flooding during rains, the amount of sunlight, as well as the distance from the toilet. It is possible that the best option in this case would be a greenhouse or greenhouse.
If you are planning not only growing vegetables at your dacha, but also regularly resting with friends, then you should think in advance about arranging a recreation area where you can grill barbecue. Ideally, there must be a small gazebo, flower beds, an artificial reservoir and beautiful paths.
Back to the table of contents
The minimum building area with optimal dimensions is equal to a square area with parameters of 8x8 m or a rectangular area on which the plan of a two-story house 8 by 10 m can fit.
These dimensions allow for the construction of a small country house with a rational distribution of internal premises. The use of a smaller foundation is allowed, but in this case the layout will be of little use and not very convenient.
On the layout of a two-story house 8 by 10 m, a staircase is fully placed. There is enough space to accommodate not only the kitchen and living room on the first floor and the master's bedrooms on the second, but also to receive guests.
After entering into the layout of the required rooms, there may be a free area that can be used to organize additional rooms
The upper limit of size is limited only by the wishes of the owners and the size of the suburban area. For a comfortable stay of a family consisting of two adults and several children, you will need a cottage with an area of 110-130 m². This figure can be increased to 200 m² by organizing a garage.
Building a larger house will entail additional costs, and not only during the construction process. Large cottages are very expensive to maintain and operate, and most rooms will rarely be used by the owners.
In most cases, the set of premises for the first floor is the same for all layouts. Rooms for various purposes can be placed here, but some of them are mandatory:
Layout option for the first floor of a two-story house with a large veranda
Helpful advice! Organize a small vestibule at the entrance to the house, then cold air will not directly enter the house when the doors are opened. Thus, you will be able to maintain comfortable temperature conditions even in winter.
After entering the required premises into the layout, you may have free space. It can be used to organize additional rooms, for example:
The layout of a two-story house 10x10 m may include a garage. This room is included in the general drawing of the first floor and is brought under the roof of the building, and is also equipped with a separate entrance to the cottage. In most cases, the garage room offers two entrances. One of them can run directly from the house (through the hallway), the second - from the street (through the roller shutters).
Layout of the first floor of a compact house
It is not difficult to achieve a successful placement of rooms. The main condition for success is to exclude narrow and long corridors on the plan. This can be achieved by combining the spaces of several rooms. As far as corridors are concerned, the space they occupy cannot be viewed as useful and functional.
The problem of the small area of the first floor is solved by removing some partitions, which will maximize the free space. This method of combining rooms is called studio layouts. In practice, it turns out that the rooms of the living room, kitchen and hall are connected into one large room, which has a purely visual division into functional areas.
The combined spaces simultaneously play the role of the same corridors from where you can get to the guest room, bathroom or office, if the layout provides for the presence of these premises on the ground floor.
Studio layout allows you to expand the internal space of the house
Note! The staircase is an irreplaceable attribute of a building with two floors. It can be used as a natural partition.
In rare cases, the kitchen is the walk-through room. In such conditions, the workspace has an island type of placement. It must be completed with a bar, the design of which depends on the shape of the room itself.
The combined rooms of the living room and kitchen are separated by a bar counter
Most often, bar counters of the following forms are installed:
The classic version of the distribution of internal spaces, where each of the rooms has clear boundaries, is possible only if the premises have a large area. Then it becomes possible to complicate the structural form of the rooms by adding internal partitions that cannot create the effect of enclosed spaces. The kitchen and living room can be combined, while the latter can be a completely independent room.
An example of the layout of the first floor of a house without the use of internal partitions
In classic layouts, the second floor of the building is reserved for a recreation area for the whole family.
If there is enough space upstairs, a family room is set up, which is an analogue of a living room, but used exclusively by people living in the building. A dressing room is also installed here.
Layout of the second floor with four bedrooms of a large two-story house with an attic
Helpful advice! If the cottage has a garage, children and bedrooms should not be placed above the area. It is recommended to place a storage area, a staircase or a dressing room there.
As with the first floor, corridors should be avoided. The most common solution to this problem is to organize a small patch with free space. It can be located in front of the stairs and serve as a passageway between other rooms on the floor.
Bedroom with access to the recreation room, organized on the second floor of a private house
Much less often, the patch is used as a walk-through room between the children's and the parent's bedrooms. This is due to the fact that such a solution is possible only if there is a sufficiently large amount of space. In small two-story cottages, only one bathroom is installed below, so that the area above can be used exclusively for bedrooms.
The parent's bedroom is often adjacent to one of the smaller rooms. Such planning methods are relevant for families with small children. A smaller room is set up as a nursery for a toddler up to 3-4 years old. As they grow up, the child moves into his own bedroom, which may also have an adjacent room.
3D model of a small two-story house
If the layout includes smaller bedrooms with adjacent rooms, each family member can have their own dressing room. The small size of the house will not allow such a solution, therefore, the option of arranging one dressing room for all with division into sectors is allowed, where each site is intended for a separate family member.
Building your own house, especially if it is being built with your own hands and forces, without hiring contractors, is a difficult and risky business. A person who undertakes this "adventure" will certainly have many doubts:
Detailed project of a two-story house with drawings of all floors
Even experienced builders know that one small mistake during the design phase can ruin the entire process. The house will never be built, money and time will be irretrievably wasted. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to carry out thorough preparatory work before starting construction and investing funds. It is at this stage that you need to make a detailed drawing of the house.
This document will serve as a starting point for further work, including the basis for the development of official project documentation and budgeting of the facility.
Free drawings of frame houses are available in abundance on the Internet. We are not talking about sets of ready-made project documentation, but about drawings of private houses, cottages on several floors with an attic and a garage. The drawing in this case is several similar plans for the internal layout, schemes for the location of communications and the orientation of the building to the cardinal points.
Layouts of the first and second floor of a two-story cottage
In order to create your dream home, you need to get acquainted with the abundance of existing and free planning options. If earlier all houses were similar to one another, and even in appearance one could say what and how is located inside, today all stereotypes are crumbling.
A classic house with a square box can harbor a wide variety of architectural solutions and design delights. Precisely in order to choose the best offer for yourself on today's market, it is worth looking through more than a dozen free projects, detailed drawings and layouts of private houses.
They are presented both as country houses and capital large buildings.
Project of a one-story house with an attic
They are erected on fairly spacious plots, since they have a large building spot. For a comfortable stay of a family of four - two children and two adults - a house with an area of 120-160 square meters is enough. And if you add a garage and outbuildings to a one-story house, then the area increases significantly. And in a small area there may simply not be enough space for all this.
The advantage of such projects is the absence of stairs in the house, the ability to install only one bathroom, the convenience of moving around a single-level space. The downside is the wide build-up area, the need for careful planning to reduce unused dead space.
They are convenient if you need to place a large-area house on a small plot, as well as clearly zoning the premises: the bedrooms and the recreation area are transferred to the second floor of the house in the attic, utility rooms and common rooms are located on the first.
The two-storey cottage can be built from a variety of materials. Here there are brick projects, and houses made of blocks, from logs, using frame-panel technology. The advantage of such a house is that the costs of construction and heating are cheaper than building heating of a house with the same perimeter, but on one floor. Minus a two-story cottage in the mandatory presence of stairs in the house. It not only makes life difficult for the elderly and young children, but also eats up a significant part of the usable area.
Two-storey cottage project with layouts
When everything fell into place with the number of storeys of the house, there was a certainty whether the garage would be built-in or stand alone, you can start planning a private house. This is necessary not only for aesthetic reasons, but also for practical reasons.
If a private house is being built in a large settlement or cottage community, then there is a high probability that the site is provided with centralized communications: electricity, water supply, sewerage, gasified.
The correct location of the house will allow you to choose the optimal distance to enter the networks into the house.
Also, in some municipalities there is such a thing as a red line. This is the required distance from the edge of the plot facing the main street to a residential building. Somewhere it should be at least five meters, and somewhere - no more than three. You can find out this information in your local administration.
A properly located house on the site should not shade the surrounding area. Do not build a veranda or patio in the shade of the house, or set up a garden or vegetable garden. As well as planting tall trees near the house, which will block the windows from sunlight.
Further, the house on the site must be oriented to the cardinal points. Only future owners will be able to decide how to install it. Someone is guided by the teachings of Feng Shui for the location of the house, someone is guided by the principles of energy efficiency of a small house, and someone is simply by their own comfort.
If you prefer to wake up early in the morning, then the bedroom and kitchen windows should face east, it is better not to expose the kitchen windows to the west, since the average family cooks in the evenings, after a working day, and it will be quite hot indoors even without the rays of the setting sun ...
Option for the location of the cottage on the site in 3D
If there are small children in the house, then the living room windows can face south-west, which will allow you to constantly fill the room with sunlight. The north and northwest sides should be reserved for non-residential premises. It is optimal to arrange there bathrooms, staircase space, storerooms, hallways, thereby saving on heating.
To make drawings with your own hands, you need to imagine the layout that a private dream house will have, and for this you need to know the number of required rooms with exact dimensions.
Everyone has their own concept of the comfort of cottages. It depends on the needs of the family, their well-being and status. To some, the size and zoning of a room space of 12 square meters will seem optimal, but for someone it will be unacceptably cramped.
Layout of a two-storey cottage with a garage
Average statistical data confirm that a family of two adults and two children can live quite comfortably if there are rooms of the following sizes:
|Premises||Quantity in pcs.||Area in m2|
|a guest room||1||12|
|Entrance hall + vestibule||1 + 1||12|
Thus, the optimal building spot size is a house of 9 x 9 meters, if the house is two-story or one-story with an attic.
Layout of a house with an attic 9 × 9
If you put a house with a base of 8 x 8, then some of the premises will have to be abandoned, and the rest will be made a little more compact. The network contains many ready-made projects and layouts for houses with such dimensions. Leafing through them, you can choose a suitable ready-made option or spy on an interesting idea, and bring it to life in the future house with your own hands.
The floor breakdown can be done as follows. To the second floor, raise all the bedrooms and a guest room, a dressing room, one bathroom and a staircase. All remaining rooms should find their place on the ground floor.
When the area of the premises is ready, you can start looking for a good location for them on the floor. For this, it is worth considering that the length of all building materials is a multiple of six. Therefore, in order to avoid overspending or unnecessary trimming, it is better to choose a house with dimensions 9 x 9 6 x 9 9 x 12.
Houses with sizes that are not multiples of three and six are also being built, for example, 6 x 8 8 x 8 7 x 9, but you need to prepare for the fact that after construction there will be a lot of waste, and in the process of building a house there will be a lot of work to fit the materials. Back to the table of contents
The planning should not be carried out anyhow, but taking into account the necessary requirements, norms and ease of use. To achieve a successful and optimal arrangement of premises, you can refer to the catalogs of finished projects, view free presentations on the websites of construction and design organizations, download drawings of wooden houses.
By the way, viewing layouts in houses made of various materials: blocks, logs, frame-panel boards, brick - will also allow you to understand the full picture, get fresh ideas and find suitable solutions.
Brick house project with a garage for two cars
There are several unspoken rules that allow you to make the layout of residential buildings convenient and comfortable:
Do not forget to provide for the presence of windows and doors in the project.Large window openings and a significant number of them are the most natural lighting in the house, an aesthetic appearance, the illusion of space and freedom. And the flip side of the coin is high heat loss and high heating costs. In addition, maintaining all windows in proper condition all year round is a serious task.
Back to the table of contents
When all the preparatory work is completed, other people's successful projects of one-story and two-story houses, brick, from blocks, logs, layouts of houses from a bar, frame frames, have been thoroughly reviewed, then you can start creating your brainchild. To draw a clear plan of the house, it is better to take graph paper or paper lined in a cage. This will help keep the scale and see clearly the future layout.
To begin with, you need to apply the perimeter of the future house on paper, then take into account the width of the walls in the project, which will depend on the building material used.
Place all door and window openings on the resulting square or rectangle, and then, according to your own ideas, divide the remaining area into the appropriate rooms. In this case, do not forget to take into account the thickness of the load-bearing walls and internal partitions.
When the plan of the first floor is ready, you can start drawing the second level. If the building is one-story, then your work is over.
Sketch of the layout of the first floor of a two-story house
The created drawing should be checked for compliance with reality. To do this, experts recommend coming to the site and making a breakdown on the ground. If after this stage everything is still satisfactory, and the project does not require making adjustments, it can be transferred to professionals - to the design organization, which, according to your drawings, will compile complete project documentation and offer original architectural solutions for the design of the building facade.
Vedeva Natalia Valentinovna
Report "Interaction of teachers with families of pupils in preschool educational institutions"
One of the main tasks facing the kindergarten is family interaction to ensure the full development of the child. Upbringing preschool children are carried out in family and children's institutions. Goal and challenges facing family and kindergarten,united: educate healthy, well-rounded people. Hinder the development of these relationships can both personal,and professional factorsLack of time, feelings of inadequacy, ethnic stereotypes, feelings of resentment can all lead to the formation of personal and professional biases that interfere with families become active participants in raising their children... therefore educators must take the initiative and understand how interact with each individual family for the benefit of the child... Using the principle of one-to-one parental involvement, a variety of ways can be developed to involve the majority of families.
Basic principles of organizing work with family:
• The openness of the kindergarten for families (each parent is provided with the opportunity to know and see how his child lives and develops)
• Cooperation teachers and parents in raising children
• Lack of formalism in the organization of work with family
• Creation of an active developmental environment that provides uniform approaches to personal development in family and the children's team
• Diagnosis of general and specific problems in upbringing and development of the child.
Collective - parent meetings, open days,
classes - trainings, master classes, workshops, role-playing games, round tables, conferences, competitions, family pedagogical projects, contests, questionnaires, testing, etc.
Visual and informational - exhibitions of children's works, musical
poetry corner, library for parents, brief information corner, photo exhibitions, etc.
Individual consultations, "Mailbox" - bank of questions about problems of child development, helpline, analysis pedagogical situations, conversations, consultations, family visits, assignments to parents.
An important link in individual work with parents is visiting families... It allows educator to get acquainted with the conditions in which the child lives, with the general atmosphere in the house. As a result educator can give parents more informed recommendations, find the best ways to create a single line of influence on the child in kindergarten and at home.
For the educatoryou need to prepare for your visit: find out the composition in advance families, find out where the parents work, outline what information about the child needs to be obtained, think over the answers to possible questions.
Repeated visits are planned depending on the results of preliminary acquaintance, the behavior of the child in the group of children, the attitude of parents to their duties, their participation in the life of the kindergarten.
An effective form of work with parents is
individual conversations educators with adult members families... In these conversations, parents are more willing and frank to talk about the griefs that can sometimes be in family, about the anxiety caused by the child's behavior, about the baby's success. Individual conversations can be initiated the teacher or the parents themselves.
Parental counseling can be scheduled or unscheduled. The topics and content of both planned and unscheduled consultations are discussed and then approved by the head of the kindergarten.
The main form of work with a team of parents is a group parent meeting. At these meetings, parents are systematically introduced to the goals and objectives, forms and methods. education children of this age group in kindergarten, the results of the work for a certain period are summed up. Subject pedagogical talks and reports in group meetings it is determined educator in accordance with the annual plan of the kindergarten. The interests and wishes of the parents are also taken into account. Useful if besides teacher, a doctor or other kindergarten staff, parents themselves speak at meetings.
Open days are not only a means of satisfying the natural interest in how children live in kindergarten, they are primarily a way to acquaint parents with the conditions, content, methods and techniques. educationally - educational work, as well as to overcome the sometimes very persistent superficial opinion of some parents about the role of kindergarten in life and raising a child.
Non-traditional forms of communication with parents:
• Joint leisure, holidays.
• Participation of parents in exhibitions.
• Organization of days of open doors.
• Oral pedagogical journals.
• Games with pedagogical content.
• Classes about professions taught by parents.
An effective non-traditional form of work with parents can be
count mini-meetings. An interesting a family, her experience is being studied education... Then she invites two or three familieswho share her position in the family education... Such meetings are invited and familieslooking for an issue to be discussed in mini-meetings. Over a cup of tea, a calm, confidential communication takes place. The experience of family education.
A form of promotion pedagogical culture of parents
is the parent conference. Its value lies in the fact that not only parents but also the public participate in it.Various topics can be discussed: moral child education, preparation for school, parental responsibility for raising your children... At conferences are educators, employees of the district education department, teachers, psychologists - everyone who works in the education system. There is an exchange of experience of family education, exhibitions of drawings, handicrafts of parents and children, joint concerts of amateur performances are organized.
The purpose of creating clubs for fathers, grandmothers, grandfathers is to increase the circle
interaction between family and kindergarten... They can be conducted in the form of a lecture hall for young parents, in order to give young dads and mothers not only theoretical knowledge, but also teach them to apply this knowledge in practice. It can also host contests, exhibitions, lectures, etc.
At joint meetings in the parent club, for a "round
table ", during the discussion, parents and educators have the opportunity to get to know each other better, get new information. Communication in the club allows each of the participants not only to express their opinion, but also to be heard, to compare their position with the position of other parents and educators... Parental trainings help to develop an assessment of different ways of influencing a child, choose more successful forms of addressing him and communicate with him, and replace unwanted constructive ones. For example, it is impossible to experience feelings of anger and anger at a child and at the same time to be a happy parent sowing negative emotions in the child's soul, you cannot receive his smile and love in return. One of the forms of work with parents at the present stage is the holding of various competitions - evenings of questions and answers. These forms of work allow parents to clarify their pedagogical knowledge, apply them in practice, discuss some of the problems of children's development.
Perhaps nothing else brings together educators and parents, as
joint leisure of children and parents, where the latter are full participants.When preparing them, parents are involved in almost all activities.:
• exchange of ideas, practical advice about the upcoming holiday, learning poems, songs, dances, working on a role
• assistance in the design of the premises
• sewing of festive costumes
• preparation of individual numbers
• making surprises and gifts
• preparation of the festive table.
This approach encourages creative collaboration between parents,
children and educators, eliminates the alienation between them.
Families gladly participate in excursions, weekend hikes
day. Communication of parents with each other unites children and helps communication. A common field of interests, actions of the child-parent community in kindergarten and at home is formed. Parents' participation in competitions fosters rapprochement of members families, forms an interest in physical culture, and through it - in a healthy lifestyle.
The rules required for optimal pedagogical communication: addressing their parents pupils by name only
• showing a sincere interest in them
• display of goodwill, a smile in communicating with them
• conversations about what parents are interested in and what they value most
• the ability to make parents feel their importance, showing respect for their opinion.
Factors of humanization in communication:
• individual personalized invitations made together with children to parent-teacher meetings instead of impersonal announcements about the upcoming event
• organization of a room for parents in a preschool institution, where they can get acquainted with children's literature, children's works, toys, didactic material that can be taken home for a while.
It is necessary to abandon formal communication, monologue in favor of dialogue with parents and give priority to such forms of work as "round table", evenings of questions and answers, joint holidays and entertainment with adults, teachers' councils, discussion clubs, exhibitions of joint work of parents and children, training sessions that help parents navigate in various situations, analyze them, and find optimal solutions.
It is necessary to end the lesson with moms and dads at the peak of their interest, giving them the opportunity to further reflect on themselves. When discussing pedagogical problems should not be given to adults ready-made answers, you need to build a discussion in such a way as to contribute to the development of their ability to analyze their own educational activities, critically evaluate it, find the reasons for their pedagogical mistakes.
It is necessary to clearly think over the forms and methods of work and ensure their compliance with the tasks set, the characteristics of the prospective partners in interaction.
Presentation "Cooperation between a speech therapist and parents" Cooperation between a speech therapist and parents as a factor in the development of a child's common speech space. Family is the basis of primary socialization.
Development of the creative initiative of parents The upbringing of preschool children is carried out in the family and in child care institutions. The family and the kindergarten have the same tasks:
Acquaintance with a fairy tale using schemes (from work experience)
For modern children, due to the huge amount of visual information, it becomes more and more difficult to perceive, assimilate and memorize verbal information.
Many children experience speech problems: * have difficulty with retelling works of fiction, telling different stories, essay fairy tales, due to the inability to construct a sentence grammatically correctly, to express your thoughts *they have poor dialogical speech: they find it difficult to formulate a question, build a short and detailed answer *find it difficult to construct a monologue: for example plot or descriptive story on the proposed topic, retelling text in your own words.
The most fertile soil that has unlimited developmental and nurturing opportunities is story.
Story - a constant companion of childhood - plays a special role in the life of a child. Imaginary Situation Binds fairy tale with play - the main activity of a preschooler. The kid empathizes with the heroes, shares their feelings, lives with them in the world fairy tales... It is easier for him to establish associative connections with his favorite characters. Storyby introducing children into the circle of extraordinary events, transformations taking place with their heroes, they express deep moral ideas. I will retell fairy tales plays a special role in the formation of coherent speech in preschool children. Here the structure of speech, its expressiveness, the ability to convey the characteristic features of the characters, the correct construction of sentences are improved.
An important technique retelling works of fiction - is using tables... Such descriptive tables or schemes help the child see a clear plan story... Tables stand out hint planwith which preschool children can consistently retell the plot of a fairy tale or story.
I was tables developed, to fairy tales, which are included in the general education program of preschool education for children of the older group (from 5 to 6 years old) and children in the preparatory group for school (from 6 to 7 years old).
When work with tables, the principle from simple to complex is strictly observed. The content of the table is a subject, graphic or partially graphic representation of characters fairy tales, natural phenomena, some actions and in another way by highlighting the main semantic links of the plot.
The main thing is that you need to convey a conditionally visual schema, to depict so that what is drawn is understandable to children and corresponds to their age. For schemesmainly geometric shapes were chosen. At the beginning they are colored to convey the characteristic signs of fairy tale heroes... Then in one color, so as not to distract attention to the brightness of the symbolic images.
Methodology workwith children according to tables: Stage 1. We consider the table and analyze what is shown on it.
Stage 2. We carry out the recoding of information, that is, we transform symbols into images.
Stage 3. After transcoding, we carry out retelling of a fairy tale based on symbols, that is, there is a memorization method.
In the process of preparing children for I will retell fairy tales, tables help work out expressiveness of speech, facial features of the characters, their character. When examining illustrations, plane images of heroes, their mood is highlighted, features of behavior in this fairy tale... The educator gives a sample of various dialogues. Testing expressiveness of speech, facial expressions is conducted individually or with a small subgroup of children.
Gradually, the transition from the teacher's creativity to the joint creativity of a child with an adult was carried out. If at the initial stage work was given ready-made schemes, then on the next - we collectively put forward and discuss various versions and select the most successful options, that is, here the teacher acts as an equal partner who imperceptibly helps the child find and choose the most successful solutions, form them into a holistic work. Gradually, the child begins to show creative independence, that is, we create tables with older preschool children, invent them together, together. Children sketch them on their own, draw numbers. You can use arrows to indicate the sequence retelling.
As a result work children met with many interesting fairy tales, learned to transform abstract images into symbols (that is, to compose schemes and work with them, began to arrange dramatization and dramatization of texts more often, make up descriptive storiescome up with their own fairy tales... Children have a desire retell fairy tales - both in educational activities and in everyday life, the circle of knowledge about the world around them has expanded, children have overcome shyness, fear of telling a fairy tale, learned to stand freely in front of the audience. In conversations with parents, it turned out that they began to read fiction literature to children more often at home, became interested in the problem of the development of speech and memory of children, they became interested in the method "Mnemonics".
Story "Cat, Rooster and Fox"
Experience on the topic "Organization of educational activities for teaching preschoolers traffic rules using ITS" "Organization of educational activities for teaching preschoolers traffic rules using game educational situations for older children.
Drawing up a story based on the painting "Winter has come" using reference schemes (senior group) Lesson summary Topic: "Drawing up a story based on the painting" Winter has come "using reference schemes. (Senior group) Educator of MKDOU.
Summary of the lesson using the technology of productive reading and listening "Acquaintance with the fairy tale" Frost and the Hare "Summary of the lesson using the technology of productive reading and listening for young children. Author: Kazanskaya M. V. Topic “Acquaintance.
Consultation for parents "Acquaintance with a fairy tale" "Acquaintance with a fairy tale" Fairy tales serve as a powerful, real means of mental, moral and aesthetic education of children, they.
Consultation for parents "Acquaintance with a fairy tale at home" Fairy tales are in every home, in the preschool period they are read to children of all ages, and children love them. From them they draw a lot of knowledge:
Teaching the retelling of children with TNR using mnemonic tables and schemes Speech is, first of all, a communication tool. Much in his future fate depends on how a person masters speech. Good speech is essential.
Work experience "Development of fine motor skills and coordination of hand movements using non-standard equipment" Relevance. Now it is already known that at the initial stage of life it is fine motor skills that reflect how the child develops, testifies.
Work experience "Acquaintance of preschool children with geometric shapes through mathematical games" Everyone knows that mathematics provides unique opportunities for the development of children: it hones the child's mind, develops the flexibility of thinking.
Learning to retell a short literary text using graphic schemes. Retelling of E. Charushin's story "The Hedgehog" Purpose: to teach children to retell a short literary text using graphic schemes. Tasks: - Formation of skills to answer.
Work experience "Acquaintance with the fairy tales of Vitaly Bianchi" Among the various means of introducing children to nature, fiction plays an important role. The book, as noted by the writer N. Sladkov, is not.