Winter has passed over half, and it is time to prepare for sowing seeds for seedlings. What is this preparation?
You need to purchase seed material, disinfect it and germinate it. The substrate and containers for growing seedlings should also be disinfected before sowing.
But the most important thing is to calculate the sowing time, that is, to choose the most favorable days for this, because the development of seedlings and, ultimately, the quality and quantity of fruits depend on this.
From our article you can find out:
Whatever kind of activity you are engaged in, it is important for everyone to achieve maximum success in it. In recent years, we have often encountered in various fields, including gardening, with such a concept as favorable or unfavorable lunar days. It was introduced into our everyday life by astrologers who claim that an enterprise started on an auspicious day will be successful and vice versa, if you start a process on an unfavorable day, the result is likely to be negative.
Recently, more and more people are turning to astrological predictions, and the point is not in superstition, but in a scientific approach, because the influence of the phases of the moon on all life on Earth has long been known. This also explains the reasons for the popularity of lunar sowing calendars among gardeners.
Thanks to the sowing calendar, you will become aware of the lunar phase changes that affect the size and quality of your crop. An experienced vegetable grower or summer resident will never plant plants on a full moon or new moon, since during these periods all juices are collected either at the top or, respectively, in the roots or tubers, and this interferes with the normal development of plants. But if the pepper, about the cultivation of seedlings of which will be discussed in our article, is planted with the growing moon, the activity of its growth will be much higher than when planting pepper during the waning moon.
So when to sow peppers for seedlings?
Pepper ripens in 100-150 days from the moment of germination, but it is possible to accurately calculate the timing of sowing pepper for seedlings only if you know the characteristics of the variety. For example, early ripe peppers are sown 65 days before planting seedlings in a permanent place, mid-ripening peppers - 70 days, late - 75 days.
The soil for pepper seedlings should be loose, nutritious, neutral or slightly acidic (pH 6-6.5) and sterile. You can buy ready-made soil in garden stores or prepare the necessary soil mixture yourself.
Here are some recipes for soil suitable for seedlings of peppers:
Any soil mixture must be decontaminated before fertilizing it.
Pelleted seeds, enclosed in a capsule containing a growth stimulator and various fertilizers, preparation for sowing is unnecessary and even harmful, because when the seeds are soaked, their capsule is damaged.
Ordinary seeds are first kept in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection: dilute one gram of the drug in 100 ml of water and immerse the seeds in the solution for 20 minutes.
After disinfection of seeds, to increase productivity, they are placed in a solution of a growth stimulator, for example, Epin, prepared in accordance with the instructions, or put in a solution of mineral fertilizers for 4-5 hours. After this treatment, the seed is washed in clean water and sown wet.
Some gardeners prefer to bubble the seeds by placing them in a gauze bag and dipping them into water, through which air is passed by a compressor. The duration of this procedure is 4-5 hours.
But most often they resort to seed germination. They are wrapped in wet gauze or cloth, placed in a warm place and made sure that the cloth does not dry out. To do this, it is better to put the wrapped seeds on a saucer and place it under the plastic. Do not flood the seeds with water - they need oxygen for germination, in addition to water. Germination occurs best at a temperature of 20-23 ºC. However, germinated seeds have a significant drawback - delicate sprouts easily break off when sowing, so we recommend you a method of disinfecting seeds in potassium permanganate with further processing in a growth stimulator.
Since pepper recovers for a very long time after a pick, pepper sowing for seedlings is carried out in separate pots or cups with a diameter of 10 cm and a depth of 10-12 cm.But if you do not have this opportunity, take a spacious container for sowing, so that in the future it will be easier for you to transplant seedlings in pots with a large clod of earth. The depth of such a box should be at least 5-6 cm, and the soil level should not reach the edge of the container by 2 cm. Do not forget to rinse the dishes in a solution of potassium permanganate before sowing.
Pepper seeds are laid out with tweezers on the surface of the soil at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other, pressed against the substrate, moistened through a sieve or by bottom watering, after which they are sprinkled on top with a layer of soil 1 cm thick, which is then slightly compacted. Cover crops with plastic wrap or glass.
Good seedlings of peppers are obtained when grown in peat tablets, since this culture does not tolerate picking very well - after transplanting, the seedlings do not start growing for a long time.
Seeds are sown in tablets with a diameter of 3 cm: the required number of tablets is placed in a transparent tray and poured with warm boiled water to swell. As soon as the tablets stop absorbing water, pour out the excess from the tray, make holes 1-1.5 cm deep in the upper part of the tablets, carefully place the seeds prepared in the described way into the grooves and cover them with nutritious soil on top. Cover the tray with a transparent lid, glass or plastic wrap. The seeds are germinated at a temperature of 25 ºC.
The first shoots appear in a week, and then the cover is removed from the crops, the tray is transferred to a bright place and kept at a temperature of 25-27 ºC during the day and 11-13 ºC at night. When the seedlings develop 2-4 leaves, and the roots begin to sprout through the net, the seedlings are planted directly in tablets in separate pots filled with one of the soil mixture described above.
Now on sale there is a large selection of plastic cassettes, in which it is very convenient to grow pepper seedlings - there are cassettes 18x13.5x6 cm in size for four seedlings with 8x6 cm cells and a volume of 240 ml each. There are cassettes of the same size, but for six, nine and twelve. And there are cassettes in a box with a lid that transmits light well, but does not allow moisture to evaporate - they can be used as mini greenhouses.
A soil mixture or peat tablets suitable for peppers is placed in the cells, the seeds are sown, then the crops are covered with transparent material, the cassette is placed on a plastic tray and kept at a temperature of about 25 ºC. Humidification is carried out by the method of bottom irrigation - water is poured into a sump.
If you do not want or cannot engage in growing seedlings, you will have to purchase it, and it is better to buy planting material in nurseries, specialized stores or garden pavilions - there you have more chances than in the market to buy exactly what you want and get answers to questions about seedlings. But, unfortunately, it is not always possible to purchase seedlings from well-established sellers and you have to go to the market for them.
What you need to know when buying seedlings? The leaves of the seedlings should be developed, green and evenly colored - without white spots or bloom. Seedlings should be strong and strong, not elongated and drooping.
Unfortunately, unscrupulous sellers use various tricks to sell their goods, and as a result, you can get seedlings overfed with nitrogen fertilizers or, conversely, growth inhibitors. Such seedlings then bloom poorly, develop poorly and bear fruit unimportantly, but you are unlikely to be able to recognize this catch in the market. That is why it is better to buy good seeds from a trusted manufacturer and grow seedlings yourself.
It is not so easy to maintain the temperature regime necessary for the development of pepper seedlings in an apartment, but you should know that the air temperature under the ceiling is a couple of degrees higher than at an average height, and at the baseboard it is two to three degrees lower. The lightest place in the apartment is the windowsill, but it is also the coldest, and the seedlings need warmth.
If you can arrange artificial lighting for the seedlings, you can grow them where they will be warmer.
At a temperature of 26-28 ºC, pepper seeds germinate on the eighth to twelfth day, at a temperature of 20-26 ºC, seedlings may appear in 13-17 days, at 18-20 ºC in 18-20 days, and at 14-15 ºC you can wait for the emergence of seedlings not earlier than in a month.
As soon as seedlings appear, the crops are moved as close to the light as possible, the temperature is lowered for a week to 15-17 ºC, and subsequently the seedlings are kept at 22-25 ºC in the daytime and at 20 ºC at night.
Do not forget to regularly ventilate the room, but keep in mind that the seedlings are afraid of drafts and cold air.
For the first two to three days, the emerging seedlings are not watered, but if the soil requires moistening, it is carefully sprayed from a sprayer. As soon as the cotyledon leaves open, the seedlings are watered with thirty-degree water. In the future, the seedlings are moistened with rain or tap water at room temperature that has been settled during the day.
The soil of the seedlings should not dry out - the pepper is hard to tolerate drought, but excess moisture in the roots should not be allowed.
Please note that in a shallow container, soil loses moisture faster than in a large one. Room humidity is maintained at 60-70%.
For the development of the root system of seedlings, they are fed with potassium humate, diluting 5 ml of the drug in two liters of water. Before flower buds are laid, pepper seedlings develop very slowly, then their growth becomes more intense, and during the flowering period, pepper seedlings are fertilized with such a composition containing trace elements: 1 g of manganese sulfate and iron sulfate or citric acid are dissolved in 10 liters of water, 0 each, 2 g of zinc sulfate and copper sulfate and 1.7 g of boric acid.
Home seedling of peppers requires pinching, that is, removing the growing point from the seedlings. This is done in order to stimulate the development of the root system in peppers and the growth in the internodes of stepchildren from dormant buds, in which flowers are formed.
Pinching is done when the bell pepper seedlings begin to develop intensively - the part of the plant that is above 4-6 internodes is removed with scissors. When, after a while, stepchildren begin to grow in the seedlings, the load on the bush is regulated, leaving 4-6 of the most developed stepchildren, and the rest are removed. In the lower internodes, stepchildren do not need to be removed.
Since peppers have a longer vegetation period compared to other vegetable crops, seedlings of this culture begin to grow earlier than other plants, when the daylight hours are still short. But due to the fact that pepper seedlings need lighting for 12-14 hours daily, artificial lighting has to be organized for it, otherwise the seedlings will be thin and elongated, with sparse leaves due to too long internodes.
Natural light from February to March is only about 5,000 lux, and the normal development of seedlings requires an illumination level of 20,000 lux. For the process of photosynthesis, not just light is needed, but a certain spectrum of rays: red rays stimulate the process of seed germination and flowering of seedlings, violet and blue are involved in the formation of cells, while yellow and green rays do not affect the development of plants. Namely, yellow light is emitted by ordinary incandescent lamps, and therefore it is pointless to use them to illuminate seedlings. In addition, these lamps emit infrared rays, from which the seedlings stretch out and overheat.
It is best to use phyto- or fluorescent lamps, as well as LED lamps, which are created for such purposes, for artificial illumination of pepper seedlings. Seedlings are illuminated with 200 W lamps per 1 m² of crop area. The backlight is placed at a distance of 20 cm from the tops of the plants, and when the seedlings grow, the light source is raised.
In the development phase of cotyledon leaves, to stimulate a sharp growth of seedlings, the lamps must work for three days in a row. As soon as the seedlings have true leaves, the length of daylight hours should be 14-16 hours. In February, artificial lighting should work from morning until 19-20 hours without a break. In April, the backlight is turned on only in the mornings from 6 to 12 hours and in the evening from 16 to 19 hours.
If the pepper grows in a common container, at the stage of development in seedlings of two true leaves, picking of seedlings is carried out, although some reference books recommend picking already in the phase of cotyledons. The soil with seedlings is well moistened, after which excess water is allowed to drain. Seedlings are dived into separate pots with a capacity of 100-150 ml - the seedlings, along with an earthen clod, are transferred into holes made in the soil, which should accommodate the root system of the seedling with the earth. The roots are placed in the soil freely, without bends. The hole is sprinkled with soil and slightly compacted
When picking, the root collar of the seedlings is deepened by no more than 5 mm. After transplanting, the seedlings are watered and, if necessary, add soil to the pots. At first, the seedlings are protected from direct sunlight, and the temperature of the content should be at least 15 ºC - at 13 ºC, the growth of seedlings stops.
Sometimes, in the phase of cotyledon leaves, the seedlings of sweet peppers begin to turn yellow, the hypocotyl stalk darkens at the soil level, then blackens, a constriction forms in this place, and the seedlings lie down. In this case, the cause of the death of seedlings is a fungal disease of the black leg.Usually the causative agent of the disease is in the soil that you did not disinfect before sowing, but it happens that infection occurs through seeds or non-sterile containers - this is why pre-sowing preparation and disinfection are so important. The black leg is progressing against the background of excessive or insufficient watering, dense sowing, too high or, conversely, too low temperature. Treating seedlings with copper-containing preparations and good lighting will help you fight the disease. Affected plants must be removed.
If your seedlings with two pairs of leaves suddenly begin to fade without changing the color of the leaf plates, and lag behind in growth, most likely the seedlings are sick with the fungal disease Fusarium. With fusarium wilting, the leaves begin to turn yellow from bottom to top, and in the section of the stem, you can see the brown vascular ring.
The means of combating fusarium are the same as with blackleg, but it is better to prevent the manifestation of the disease - sterilization of the soil and utensils for sowing seedlings, as well as disinfection of seeds, will help you with this.
When gray fluff appears on the soil, the inner walls of the box and the base of the seedling stalks, oppressing the seedlings, we can say that the crops are affected by gray rot. For preventive purposes, once every 10 days, seedlings are sprayed with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, and treatment is carried out with bacterial fungicides or copper-containing preparations, removing previously affected specimens.
Already adult seedlings can be affected by late blight: dark stripes appear on the stems, and light spots appear on the lower leaves, which gradually darken. The soil is usually the source of infection. At an early stage of late blight, seedlings are sprayed with a solution of 5 ml of iodine in a liter of water; at a later stage, they will have to resort to fungicides, first culling diseased plants.
White spots and plaque on the leaves and stems, from which the growth of seedlings slows down, and the leaves turn yellow - these are signs of powdery mildew, which affects not only adult plants, but also seedlings. You will have to fight the disease with bacterial fungicides or iodine solution, as in the case of late blight of seedlings.
And sometimes there is a hurricane withering of seedlings: in the evening the seedlings were healthy, and in the morning they all lie as if they had been scalded with boiling water. This disease is more common in the southern regions and affects sunflowers and nightshade crops. This disease is not amenable to treatment, so the pepper will have to be sown.
With the development of 7-8 leaves in the seedlings and the formation of large buds, if at this moment the seedlings reach a height of 20-25 cm, you can start hardening it. First, the seedlings are placed for 7-10 days at a temperature of 16-18 ºC, and then the temperature is lowered to 12-14 ºC. To do this, open the vents, windows in the room or take out the plants to the balcony, loggia or veranda, exposing them to direct sunlight. The duration of such sessions is increased every day, and two or three days before planting in the open ground, the seedlings are left outdoors overnight, protected from too cold air. Hardening takes about two weeks.
At the time of planting seedlings in the ground, the seedlings should already have 8-9 leaves and several formed buds, and the average daily temperature in the garden should not fall below 15-17 ºC. Before planting seedlings, the site should be prepared: dig it up on a shovel bayonet and level it. Humus and peat are introduced into clay soil. The holes are placed at a distance of 50 cm from one another, keeping the row spacing 60 cm wide. A tablespoon of complete mineral fertilizer is placed in each hole and mixed well with the soil. The depth of the hole should accommodate the roots of the seedling without bends, and the root collar, after embedding, should be flush with the surface of the site. The seedlings are transferred into the holes along with an earthen clod, the hole is filled in half so that the bulk of the roots is covered with earth, then about a third of a bucket of water is poured into the hole, and when it is absorbed, the hole is filled with soil to the top.
Unlike tomato seedlings, pepper roots damaged during a pick are very slow to recover, and because of this, the seedlings are transplanted into open ground 2-3 weeks later. As a result, the whole point of growing seedlings is lost. In addition, many seedlings simply die after a dive. To avoid the picking procedure, it is advisable to sow the seeds of this culture in separate vessels - 2-3 seeds in each.
You can use plastic cups to sow peppers on seedlings, and when the seedlings get cramped in them, transplant them into a larger container along with an earthen clod using the transfer method. By avoiding injuries to the root system of seedlings when diving, you will not waste valuable time and protect the seedlings from stress.
It is undesirable to use the soil in which vegetables grew for growing seedlings for two reasons:
Seedlings require a looser and more permeable soil than adult plants;
In the garden soil, larvae of pests and pathogens can persist.
But if you add a baking powder, for example, sand, to the garden soil, and then subject the resulting soil mixture to sterilization, then it is quite possible that pepper seedlings will develop well in it. Before sowing, the sterile soil mixture should stand in a warm and dark place under the film for at least two weeks so that beneficial microflora can develop in it. Indeed, during sterilization, not only harmful, but also beneficial microorganisms die. Do not forget to fertilize the soil before sowing.
The growth of pepper seedlings may be stalled due to a violation of the conditions of detention or errors in care. For example, if the indoor temperature drops below 15 ⁰C or if you keep the container of seedlings on a cold windowsill. Nighttime temperatures should be at least 20 ⁰C, and daytime temperatures may be higher. And so that the roots of the seedlings do not freeze, place a sheet of foam plastic under the container with the seedlings.
You can stimulate the development of the root system by weekly feeding the seedlings with humate dissolved in warm (25-30 ⁰C) water: strong roots better absorb nutrients from the soil, and the seedlings begin to grow rapidly.
For the normal development of seedlings, good lighting is required, and if there is little natural light, place an artificial light source above the pepper container.
It does not matter at all what kind of fertilizers you feed the seedlings. The main thing is that these compositions contain the components necessary for the development of seedlings.
The first top dressing, which is applied before picking the seedlings, must necessarily contain nitrogen and phosphorus. Urea, Foskamide, ammonium nitrate or fermented mullein are used as nitrogen fertilizers, and superphosphate is usually used from phosphates.
When the time comes for the second feeding, the seedlings will need more phosphorus and potassium (potassium salt or potassium sulfate), and they will need less nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
For the third feeding, you can use such ready-made fertilizers as Nitroammofoska, Agricola, Kemira, Gumi, Kristalon.
Of the early varieties of sweet peppers with yellow and orange fruits, the best are Lemon Miracle, White Gold, Barguzin, Bagration, Big Mama, Yellow Bell, Bugai, Golden Miracle, Golden Calf, Oriole, Blond, Golden Jubilee, Orange Bull, Sun and others. Of the hybrids, the following varieties are more popular: Orange Lion, Indalo, Brother Fox, Orange Fox, Orange Miracle, Gemini, Nemesis.
Of the red-fruited early varieties, Health, Mustang, Agapovsky, Nafanya, Smile, Zaznayka, Litsedei, Sorvanets, Akkord, Junga, Chardash, Funtik, Eroshka and others are widely in demand, and of the hybrid varieties with red fruits, the most productive are Buratino, Fidelio, Filippok Love, Samander, Husky.
There are many varieties of early peppers, but when choosing, you need to take into account that zoned varieties will develop faster, get sick less and give better yields than varieties that are not intended for cultivation in your region.
Take a 2 liter plastic bottle, lay it on its side and cut the top third horizontally - the seedling container is ready. You can make several small holes at the bottom to drain excess water and place the bottle on a plastic tray.
You can make a cylinder out of newspaper: roll it up in several layers, wrap it around a half-liter can and secure the free edge with paper clips or staples so that the cylinder does not unfold. Place the cylinders on a pallet, put some sphagnum on the bottom of each container, fill the glasses with soil and sow pepper. When planting seedlings in the ground, you do not have to remove them from the newspaper cylinders: in wet soil, the newspaper will quickly get wet and spread, and since the cylinders have no bottom, they will not interfere with the rooting of seedlings.
Pepper seeds marked F1, which you purchase from the store, will give you a first generation hybrid with strong varietal characteristics. Hybrid plants are characterized by high yields, increased resistance to negative environmental influences, and they react little to inappropriate growing conditions. However, if you want to get seed from these hybrids, you should know that the second generation of the hybrid will be less productive, and varietal characteristics may be lost.
Varietal pepper may not have as high a yield as hybrid pepper, but its seeds retain varietal characteristics in the second, third and subsequent generations. In addition, varietal pepper seeds are cheaper and are available in a much wider assortment than hybrid seeds.
In addition to fungal diseases (fusarium, black leg, gray rot and late blight), pepper seedlings can also be affected by more dangerous diseases - viral (stolbur and tobacco mosaic). The danger of a viral infection is that it cannot be defeated. However, the development of both fungal and viral pathologies can be prevented.
In order for the seedlings to grow healthy, you need to prepare the seeds for sowing and disinfect the soil, which may contain insect larvae and harmful microorganisms. The seeds are disinfected for 15 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, Maxim or Fitosporin-M, then washed with clean water and dried.
The soil mixture into which you will sow pepper can be frozen in a winter garden, calcined in an oven at a temperature not exceeding 90 ⁰C, steam under a lid in a water bath, or spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate. The soil is prepared a month before sowing, and after disinfection, it is stored in a cold, dark place under the film.
At home, seedlings can be affected by aphids, thrips, whiteflies and spider mites that migrate to seedlings from indoor plants. To ward off pests, keep pepper seedlings near aromatic plants such as marigolds, lavender, onions, garlic, or mint.
The presence of aphids is indicated by the curling leaves. Whiteflies - tiny white moths - are most likely to attack seedlings in a greenhouse. Both aphids and whiteflies feed on plant sap and leave sticky marks on the leaves, which can later become covered with a black bloom of a sooty fungus.
Thrips are also dangerous sucking pests. In places of thrips bites, colorless or yellowish spots remain on the leaves, and colonies of larvae can be seen on the underside.
Spider mites appear on seedlings in conditions of low air humidity. Signs of the presence of mites are the thinnest cobwebs and tiny bites on the leaves.
It is advisable to plant pepper seedlings in open ground when return frosts have passed, and the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 15 ⁰C. If the seedlings are ready for transplanting, the soil has warmed up enough, but according to the forecast, night frosts are expected, spill the holes with hot water, plant the seedlings and cover the bed with lutrasil or a film stretched over a metal frame. Such a shelter will protect young plants from a sharp drop between day and night temperatures.
This should not be done either in a greenhouse or in a vegetable garden, because sweet and bitter peppers can become dusty. As a result, the bitter pepper will remain bitter, and the sweet pepper fruits will acquire a bitter taste. Sometimes the result of such cross-pollination affects only in the second generation, that is, in the fruits that have grown from the seeds of the over-pollinated plants.
If the weather is calm during flowering, cross-pollination may not occur, but nevertheless, in order to avoid spoiling the taste, planting sweet and bitter peppers should be placed as far apart as possible.
In hot pepper seedlings, the stems are thinner, and the leaves are darker and much narrower than in sweet seedlings. Sweet pepper seedlings look more powerful and squat, and garden bitter pepper seedlings are taller. But these are general differences. Sometimes the difference can be difficult to grasp, since there are many varieties of both one and another species, which can be quite different among themselves.
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Gardeners know that peppers are grown exclusively using the seedling method. Before you start planting, it is a good idea to know what is the best time to do it.
Usually, you can start already in winter, but February is considered a suitable month for planting pepper. Experienced gardeners always study the lunar calendar and only then choose a date for sowing this vegetable crop.
In addition, in different regions it is necessary to plant a vegetable only depending on the temperature characteristics of the climate.
For pepper, with its long growing season, you will need to sow seeds at a fairly early date. The correct selection of the variety also plays an important role, since early and mid-season varieties are more suitable for the Urals.
Seedlings must be at least 60-65 days old, and climatic conditions must be taken into account. Even in a greenhouse in these areas, it is better to plant peppers no earlier than the end of May. A capricious heat-loving culture does not tolerate temperature fluctuations, so it is better to wait for stable heat.
As for the choice of varieties and hybrids, it is better to take those that are intended for cultivation in regions of risky agriculture, are resistant to diseases and are distinguished by early fruiting dates. In the Urals, the following varieties and hybrids of peppers have shown themselves well:
When deciding on the timing of sowing pepper, usually gardeners are guided by the data of special sowing calendars (by the phases of the moon). And although the best days for sowing are different every year, there are still certain uniform terms for sowing a crop. In the Urals, the best time for sowing is from February to March, although some gardeners start seedling "sowing" in January.
IMPORTANT! Sowing pepper in January is possible, but in this case it is necessary to supplement the lighting of the plants.
By the way, the seedlings will have to be illuminated in February and even in March, since heat-loving peppers need a long daylight hours for good growth. Sowing seeds too early (in January) can lead to the fact that the seedlings will stretch out due to lack of light and hurt more. But it is also not worth being late with sowing, since peppers in a short summer will not be able to produce the result they are capable of.
In the lunar calendar, which all gardeners and gardeners are guided by when planning their work, there are dates when it is impossible to plant seedlings. These are the days of the full moon and new moon. Unfavorable days for sowing seeds are shown in the table.
|Month||When you can not plant peppers for seedlings according to the lunar calendar|
|January||13, 14, 15, 28|
|February||10, 11, 12, 27|
|March||9, 10, 11, 13, 28|
|April||5, 6, 7, 12, 27|
It is also undesirable to carry out work 1.5 days before and after the onset of these days.
First of all, let's pay attention to the lunar calendar. Many gardeners today use such a calendar to calculate the most favorable and, accordingly, unfavorable days for planting plants, in particular, pepper.
Compiling such a calendar is quite simple, but it will take time and the presence of the lunar calendar itself with all the indicators. Here you can find both the already fully calculated auspicious days, and the lunar calendar itself at the end of the article.
Pepper is favorably influenced by such indicators as the growing moon and the signs of the zodiac - Capricorn, Scorpio, Libra, Taurus, Cancer and Pisces. The most unfavorable days are the full moon and new moon.
Approximate calculation: a day on the growing moon and in the sign of Capricorn will be the most favorable day on the growing one and in the sign of Gemini - a neutral waning moon in the sign of Cancer - a neutral day; a waning moon in the sign of Aquarius - an unfavorable day.
Days that are not included in these lists are normal and suitable for planting.
Along with auspicious days, there are times when it is much better to refrain from planting seedlings. This is due to the lunar cycles and is displayed in the sowing calendar.
First, landing should not be carried out during periods when the moon is in the full moon and new moon phases.
Secondly, it is not necessary to sow pepper on the day before these lunar phases and on the day after.
Thirdly, according to the lunar calendar, it is not worth sowing in the days of Aquarius.
Below, in a tabular form, we have collected together all the “bad” planting days in the first half of 2021.
|New moon||Full moon||Days of aquarius||Days before and after|
|January||13||28||14, 15||12, 14, 27, 29|
|February||11||27||10, 11||10, 12, 26, 28|
|March||13||28||9, 10, 11||12, 14, 27, 29|
|April||12||27||6, 7,||11, 13, 26, 28|
|May||11||26||3, 4, 30, 31||10, 12, 25, 27|
|June||10||24||1, 27, 28||9, 11, 23, 25|
It is also worth refraining from planting seeds too early (for example, in January). Especially if you don't have a greenhouse.
Pepper seedlings can simply "outgrow". In this case, the transplant will be much more difficult for them.
Sprouted seeds are planted in a box (with subsequent picking) or in individual cups (for growing without picking).
The soil is a mixture of soil with river sand and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Instead of sand, it is now fashionable to add perlite for loosening, but then we take half as much as indicated in the proportion. And also add fertilizer to the soil - a little wood ash or vermicompost.
If you wish, you can prepare the fertilizer yourself.
For home fertilization, you need to dissolve 2.5 ml of potassium humate in 1 liter of water at room temperature. You need boiled or filtered water. This fertilizer will be the first top dressing for pepper.
It is not recommended to heat the soil in the oven or microwave.
Thus, you kill not only harmful microbiota, but also useful. The soil becomes “dead” and new pathogens quickly “capture” it, but the beneficial flora will grow extremely slowly.
For disinfection, it is better to spill it with Fitosporin (a week before sowing the seeds), and then apply BIO fertilizer with live microorganisms. They will perfectly prepare the soil and drive out harmful microbes.
When planting germinated seeds in a box, a bottom drainage layer is required. Expanded clay used for indoor plants, chopped polystyrene, etc. will do.
The seeds are deepened by a centimeter and a half, immersed with the wet end of a pencil or with mild tweezers. If cups are used, then a couple of seeds are placed in one. Placing seeds in large boxes - every 3 cm in a row. The distance between the rows is also 3 cm. The seeds are planted in a checkerboard pattern.
The ground is carefully leveled, moistened with a sprayer and covered with either cling film or glass until shoots appear. This creates a greenhouse microclimate.
How to choose the right time for planting tomatoes for seedlings? Sowing time should be taken into account depending on when you are going to plant the seedlings in a permanent place.
On average, tomato seedlings without the addition of various growth stimulants grow for 50-60 days. This amount of time is enough for plants to get stronger and get used to growing conditions. Therefore, each gardener must independently determine the date of planting tomatoes for seedlings. Well, our publication will only help with this.
Usually, tomatoes are planted for seedlings in central Russia, the Moscow region and most of Siberia and the Urals in mid-March. By about the beginning of May, the seedlings will be ready and can be safely planted in a greenhouse or open ground. Depending on the weather conditions, they do it earlier, and somewhere later.
Last year, we sowed tomatoes for seedlings in early March. They were planted in a greenhouse on April 29, in open ground in mid-May. At the same time, we never use growth stimulants. We try to let the plants gain strength on their own. Therefore, our seedlings grow a little longer than usual.
As for planting tomatoes for seedlings in 2021, there is nothing new here either. You can start sowing them in central Russia and the Moscow region at the end of February, and continue to do this until the end of March.
And in order to more specifically choose the date for planting tomatoes for seedlings, we, as usual, will use the help of the gardener's lunar calendar for 2021.
February - 3, 4, 5, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 28 February
March - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 30, 31 March
April - 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 15 April
Based on these recommendations, then the most optimal days for planting tomatoes for seedlings in 2021 will be March 6 and 7. These are just days off - Saturday and Sunday.
We think that our publications will again help you grow seedlings at home!