Black raspberries: how to grow sweet berries of the color of the night? Description and features of varieties with black fruits


Black raspberries are very often confused with blackberries, considering them to be the same culture. However, these are completely different plants with significant differences and, accordingly, different agricultural techniques. Black raspberry varieties are still a rarity in the garden plots of Russians, but unusual sweet and healthy dark berries are gaining more and more fans among gardening enthusiasts.

The history of growing black raspberries

Traditional raspberry varieties have red berries, but there are plants with orange, purple, yellow and even black fruits. Unlike blackberries, with which black raspberries are often confused, their berries are very easily separated from the stalk, which is the main difference between crops.

Black raspberries are colored red when unripe, and ripe fruits turn black

Black raspberries grow not only in gardens, they can also be found in nature. The plant grows in the forests of eastern North America, in particular, it is widespread in the central and northern regions of Illinois, USA. Habitat - massifs of deciduous forests, borders along forest plantations, there are also large thickets of black raspberries in open areas.

Description of the appearance of the plant

Black raspberry is a perennial shrub that grows upright shoots in the first year of life. In the future, lateral processes appear on them, and the stems take a falling shape. Flowers and fruits appear only on the shoots of the second year of life. Initially, the stems are green with a bluish tinge, over the winter they become lignified and acquire a brown tint. Each shoot is covered with short, curved spines.

During the second year of life, short lateral processes appear on the stems, which end in clusters of buds. The leaves consist of 5 lobes, which are ovoid and have small denticles at the edges. The upper side of each leaf has a strong pubescence, and the lower surface is covered with short white hairs.

Black raspberry flowers are grouped in a brush

Flowers are densely grouped in clusters. Each flower has 5 white petals, 5 green sepals and numerous stamens. The petals are elliptical or oblong, and the sepals are triangular. They are about the same length. The flowering period occurs in late spring or early summer and lasts about 2-3 weeks.

The fruits are initially white, then turn red and finally, when ripe, acquire a black-purple color. The fleshy bones that make up the fruit are sweet and slightly tart in taste, they easily detach from the stalk.

Table: fruit characteristics

The biochemical composition of black raspberries differs from red ones. A large amount of vitamin P and P-active compounds help protect cells from aging, improve the body's immune system, and improve the condition of anemia. But the most important property of black raspberry, scientists consider its ability to increase the effectiveness of the fight against cancer.

Table: differences between black raspberries and blackberries

Photo gallery: differences between black raspberries and blackberries

Differences between black raspberries and traditional varieties with red berries

  1. Black raspberries have a sweeter taste than red ones, some varieties have a honey or blackberry aroma.
  2. Black raspberries have a higher yield; about 4 kg of fruits can be harvested from one bush.
  3. The plant is highly resistant to drought.
  4. Ripe black berries do not crumble for a long time.
  5. The plant does not form root shoots.
  6. Black raspberry has excellent resistance to common crop diseases and is practically not damaged by pests.
  7. Frost resistance is lower than that of varieties with red berries.

Black raspberries look very exotic

Varieties of black raspberries

Breeders are constantly working on developing new varieties of black raspberry, which is considered a promising crop. Thanks to their efforts, new products often appear on the market.

  • Cumberland. One of the oldest black raspberry varieties. It was received at the end of the 19th century and is still the leading one. The black raspberry Cumberland has a very beautiful bush shape with graceful curved stems. The variety does not form root suckers, so the bushes do not grow. Productivity in comparison with modern hybrids and varieties is not very high, the plant gives only 200 to 500 g of berries from a bush;
  • Earley Cumberland. The berries of this variety are larger than those of the Cumberland variety, which became one of the parents of this variety of black raspberries. Their average weight is 2–2.2 g. Fruits of the Earley Cumberland variety have a rounded shape, are colored in black-violet tone, have a very sweet taste and a fairly dense texture;
  • Coal. An early variety of domestic selection. The shoots are long, reaching 2.5 m and bending to form an arch. The thorns are small. The berries are rather small, but juicy, with a pleasant sour-sweet taste and blackberry aroma. The yield of Coal is high, the variety is resistant to both drought and frost;
  • Boysenberry. Shoots grow up to 3 m in length. Unlike other black raspberry varieties, Boysenberry lacks thorns. The berries have an oblong shape, they are very large, the surface is shiny. The variety is fruitful and tolerates frost well enough;
  • Bristol. The variety is considered one of the best. The fruit has a sweet taste and is very juicy. The shape of the berries is round, the surface is covered with a bluish bloom;
  • New Logan. A high-yielding and early maturing variety with shiny and very tasty berries. The bush reaches a height of 2 m. Poorly tolerates frosts, so the plant needs additional shelter for the winter;
  • Litach. An early variety of black raspberry bred by Polish breeders. The bush is vigorous, hard and curved shoots are covered with numerous large thorns. Spherical fruits are covered with a grayish or bluish bloom;
  • Luck. The yield of this variety of black raspberries is high, up to 6 kg of selected medium-sized berries can be removed from one bush, their average weight is 1.7-1.8 g;
  • Gift of Siberia. Black raspberry bushes of this variety are tall and powerful. The berries have a dessert taste, but they are not very large, the weight of an individual fruit is on average 1.6 g. The advantage of the Gift of Siberia is its resistance to pests and common diseases;
  • Turn. Fruits with dense pulp, therefore, they tolerate transportation well over long distances. Productivity is about 5.4 kg per bush. Fruiting period is short;
  • Black Jewel. Raspberry stems of this variety, unlike other varieties, are erect. Black Jewel is a winter hardy and very productive variety. The berries are black and have a bluish bloom. Round shape, weight reaches 2.5 g. Sweet taste with blackberry aroma.

Photo gallery: varieties of black raspberries

Video: black raspberry Cumberland

Features of planting black raspberry seedlings

Experts recommend starting planting black raspberry seedlings in early spring. If the procedure is carried out in the fall, then immature plants may not tolerate frost and die. To place a raspberry tree, several important points should be taken into account:

  1. The place must be sunny, since the plant does not tolerate even a slight shade.
  2. Planting black raspberries should be located away from the traditional red, as the plants can become overdusted and instead of black berries you will get purple and regular red fruits.
  3. Groundwater should not lie close to the surface; plant black raspberries on a hill, in loose and fertile soil.

Planting black raspberries: step by step instructions

  1. Prepare the landing hole. Its size should be approximately 0.5 m in width and depth.

    The size of the planting hole must be at least 50 cm deep and wide

  2. Prepare a nutrient medium from the top layer of earth, humus, sand and wood ash in a ratio of 2: 1: 1: 0.5.
  3. Place a layer of soil with fertilizer on the bottom of the planting hole and moisten it.

    A nutritious substrate is poured into the planting hole from the top layer of the earth, humus, sand and wood ash

  4. Carefully straighten the roots of the seedling, place it in the hole and cover it with earth.
  5. Moisten the planting.
  6. Seedlings can be arranged in a row. Black raspberries are planted in trenches 0.5 m deep. A minimum of 0.5 m is left between the plants, and 1–1.5 m between the rows.

    A minimum of 0.5 m is left between the plants, and 1-1.5 m between the rows

A feature of black raspberry is that it does not reproduce by root suckers, that is, the culture will not creep.Thanks to this, chokeberry varieties can be safely planted in the middle of the site, combine plantings with other berry and fruit crops, and even place bushes in a flower garden.

Care

Black raspberries are considered an unassuming crop. Caring for it comes down to pruning, several watering and top dressing per season. And lush, well-groomed bushes with gracefully curved shoots will become an adornment of the site that attracts attention.

Top dressing

During the season, the culture requires three additional fertilizing. The procedure is started when the plant has bloomed. To do this, make an infusion of chicken manure (1 part to 16 parts of water) or manure (1: 6). To 10 liters of the prepared nutrient solution add 1 liter of wood ash and 50 g of superphosphate. Under the black raspberry bush, one bucket of top dressing is introduced, pouring it along the perimeter of the plantings. After fertilization, the soil is moistened abundantly. The second feeding with the same solution is carried out during the ripening of the fruits, and the third - after collecting the first berries.

Support creation and trim features

The shoots of black raspberries are very long, in the first year after planting they grow upright, and in the second they take the shape of an arch. At the same time, the tops of the heads, touching the ground, can take root, as a result of which the plantings will be thickened. Because of this cultural feature, it is very important to take care of the support of the plant in advance. To do this, make a wire trellis. At the beginning and end of the row, wooden posts about 2 m high are dug in, on which a strong wire is attached in three rows, placing it at a height of 0.5 m, 1.8 m and 2.1 m.

Another option for support for powerful shoots can be an arch. It is installed between two bushes, and the stems are attached to arches. This design is not only functional, but also very decorative.

Black raspberry shoots will grow long and curved, so you need to take care of the support in advance

Pruning of black raspberries is carried out twice a year: the first procedure is at the end of June, and the second is in late autumn. When performing summer pruning, the apical part of the stems is cut off at a height of 1.7 m. This contributes to a more intensive development of side branches, the number of which can reach 6-8 pieces, which will increase the yield of the bush. In the fall, it is necessary to cut out 2-year-old shoots that have already borne fruit. And 1-year-old stems are shortened to a size of 30-50 cm above the ground.

Preparing for winter

Black raspberries do not tolerate frosts as well as their red-fruited relative, therefore, it is necessary to carefully prepare them for wintering. For this you need:

  1. Carefully bend the shoots to the ground.
  2. Fix them with metal staples.
  3. For planting, you can put spruce branches, which is the best natural insulation.

If the winter has little snow, then snow is shoveled onto the bushes and sawdust is poured onto it, which will help prevent melting.

Black raspberry shoots must be bent to the ground and attached with metal brackets

Reproduction of black raspberries

Black raspberries reproduce differently than red ones. The thing is that black-fruited varieties do not form root suckers. But it is possible to breed a culture on the site with the help of layering, apical cuttings and seeds.

Propagation by horizontal layers

The procedure for propagating black raspberries with horizontal layers should be started in the spring.

  1. Shallow beards are made at a distance of 0.5 m from the bush.
  2. Bend down the shoots and put them in the prepared grooves.
  3. The place of contact of the stem with the ground is pinned with a metal bracket and covered with earth.
  4. During the summer period, roots form in this place, and a new plant will begin to form.
  5. Next spring, separate it from the mother bush and transplant the resulting bush to a new location.

This method is very effective. One adult plant can produce 5–6 quality seedlings.

Reproduction of raspberries by horizontal layers is the easiest way

Cuttings

Another breeding method is green cuttings. The procedure is carried out in the summer, while harvesting planting material is desirable on a cloudy day. In the middle of the season, small shoots with several leaves appear from the roots of adult black raspberry bushes. Such shoots must be cut with a knife 2-3 cm below the soil level.

After that, they are placed in a container with Kornevin's solution for 6-8 hours. Then they are planted in a school at a distance of about 10 cm from each other, the soil is moistened and the planting is covered with a film.

To reproduce black raspberries, take green shoots 7-10 cm long and cut them off with a part of the root

After about a month, green cuttings will begin to take root, a sign of this will be the appearance of new leaves. At this time, you can reduce watering and ventilate the greenhouse more often. In the spring of the next season, the rooted cuttings are transplanted to a permanent place, while they should be dug out together with a lump of earth.

Seeds

Reproduction of black raspberries by seeds is considered one of the most troublesome and time-consuming methods, but if there is no other way to get seedlings, then you can grow a bush from a berry. For this:

  1. We select good and ripe berries.
  2. We grind them and squeeze out the juice.
  3. Pour the resulting pulp with water and mix.
  4. Full-weight seeds should sink to the bottom, and light seeds should float up.
  5. We drain the water with floating waste.
  6. We collect the seeds and dry them in the air.
  7. Seeds are sown in a greenhouse in a loose substrate to a depth of 2 to 5 mm.
  8. We periodically moisten the plantings, preventing the soil from drying out.
  9. After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves, we dive the seedlings.
  10. 2 years after planting the seeds, young plants are planted in a permanent place in the ground.

    Seedlings are planted in a permanent place in the ground 2 years after sowing the seeds

Reviews of gardeners growing black raspberries

Black raspberries are a healthy berry, the taste of which is not inferior to its relative with red fruits. However, scientists believe that it is black raspberry that helps fight cancer. In addition, the culture has many other advantages, it is incredibly beautiful and looks very exotic. Its offspring do not creep over the site, so you can even plant a plant in a flower garden.

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Black beans: description of varieties and agricultural technology

Beans are an annual herbaceous climbing or bushy plant. Belongs to the legume family and has been cultivated as a vegetable crop for over 7 thousand years. In Mexico, the countries of Central and South America, the Indians knew and cultivated this plant in ancient times. Beans came to Europe after the discovery of America by Columbus. It was brought to Russia from France in the 17th century. At first, the plant was grown as an ornamental, and then as a vegetable. There are many varieties of beans. In this article, we will consider in detail the varieties of black beans and the features of their agricultural technology.


Raspberry varieties

What is the uniqueness of the super-large-fruited raspberry variety Pride of Russia? Description and characteristics of the culture, reviews of gardeners. Features of planting and growing fruit shrubs.

Raspberries of the Maravilla variety are widely used by gardeners and gardeners due to their ability to bring two bountiful harvests per season.

The favorite berry of most gardeners is raspberry. This culture is represented by a large number of varieties, one of which is Taganka raspberry.

Skazka raspberries are distinguished by their ability to withstand cold weather, as well as resistance to ailments. But the Fairy Tale also gives abundant harvests of delicious aromatic berries.

What does Lyachka raspberry look like? What are the features of its cultivation and the nuances of crop care? How to harvest correctly?

Thanks to breeders, raspberries are successfully grown in any part of the world. For example, today there are varieties of fruitful raspberries for the northwest.

Raspberry Giant is quite in demand among gardeners. This is explained by the numerous advantages of the variety. The Giant's harvest is the pride of the summer resident.

Raspberry Krasa Russia begins to ripen in mid-July and ends in the first week of August, and when flowering is not affected by recurrent frosts.

Raspberry Himbo Top is being talked about more and more every year. Reviews of the variety are very diverse. So what is this raspberry variety and what are its features?

Raspberry of the Phenomenon variety is a hybrid obtained by crossing the Odarka and Stolichnaya varieties. It was withdrawn in 1991 in Ukraine.

Malina Brusvyana was created by domestic breeders. The plant is a tree-like tall shrub that grows over 2 meters.

There are many varieties of raspberries, they differ from each other in the nuances of cultivation, the timing of ripening and the taste of the fruit. There are sweet berries and berries with sourness, some ooze like honey, while others are suitable only for preservation. In addition to ordinary raspberries, which have been growing in grandmother's garden for decades, there are also large-fruited, remontant and standard varieties. In the materials of our section, you will find information about all types of raspberries, get acquainted with its different varieties, with the peculiarities of their cultivation. With the information you need, you can confidently choose raspberries for your garden.


Black raspberry "Cumberland"

I heard about this variety of raspberries (or a hybrid of raspberries with blackberries, in different garden centers it is positioned this way and that) for a long time. But somehow I didn’t come across it, and I really wanted to start such a variety. I purposefully searched for him all last fall, but to no avail.


Raspberry Cumberland. Photo by the author

But at the beginning of summer, when in our climate a long time ago they stopped planting and replanting trees and shrubs (the heat came), I found him. Probably, I was just lucky, because in a huge two-tier container, where you can place up to 100 plants, there was a single pot with sprouts of the cherished raspberry! No longer thinking about the heat, drought and other "delights" of our summer, I bought it, deciding: nothing, I'll grow it! I will shade, water, save - I will never let him go to waste!

And you know, the seedling pleasantly surprised me: ignoring the sweltering heat, it started growing by leaps and bounds! True, when planting, I replaced the removed soil with soil mixture: black soil, sand, ready-made soil for seedlings (1: 1: 1) and added a little wood ash (I never throw it out of the barbecue, I always put it in paper bags - it will come in handy). And, of course, she watered it regularly.

The seedling appreciated my efforts: on two shoots that were already on sale, flowers appeared and berries ripened! Although there weren't many of them, I was able to taste them! Maybe 'Cumberland' contains a lot of vitamins, but in taste and smell these berries are not at all like raspberries, rather like blackberries.

A large assortment of different types and varieties of raspberries, including 'Cumberland', you can find in our catalog, which combines the offers of many large garden online stores. Choose raspberry seedlings.

So, in my opinion, the pluses of this variety are:

  • resistance to diseases and pests. It is true, and now the leaves are even, green - even though neither birds nor wasps attack raspberries at the exhibition
  • ripe berries do not crumble to the ground, even those that are overripe to the touch remain quite dense, do not spread "into porridge" when removed from the bush
  • no root growth
  • does not require shelter for the winter.


Even ripe berries remain firm. Photo from the site moyateplica.ru

But there are also disadvantages:

  • the seeds in berries are larger and tougher than those of regular raspberries
  • shoots are very prickly, gape a little - they will scratch to blood
  • trellis are needed for easy harvesting. By tying shoots to them with a fan, you can avoid microtraumas from sharp thorns
  • without tying up this variety of raspberries will be "walking", because the shoots are very long, their ends sink to the ground and grow anywhere.


The shoot is ready to grow. Photo from sadogorodsad.ru

Well, I tried to objectively evaluate the variety, based on my little experience in growing it. I read that with proper care (timely watering and dressing, correct pruning) from one bush you can get from 4 to 7 kg of berries of maximum fruiting, this raspberry reaches the 3rd year of life. Let's see how it will bear fruit next year.


With good care, Cumberland will reward you with a good harvest. Photo from the site ogorod.mirtesen.ru


It is believed that the black raspberry 'Cumberland' is not widespread in our country, although the variety is more than 100 years old. I don’t believe in it, our enthusiastic summer residents didn’t grow anything like that! Who has Cumberland raspberries, answer me!

Discussion in our group on VKontakte:

Irina Saratovskaya: One bush grows. I can't taste the berries. They are empty for me. What to do with it? Cook jam?
Valentina Voronenko: Irina, I close compotes for the winter, purely from such raspberries and mixed with other berries. The result is pleasing. I will breed a variety, it grows and multiplies very quickly, the berries are dense, do not sour like ordinary raspberries and the yield is higher. Of the minuses, it is very prickly and shoots of three meters.
Albina Zamazkina: It has been growing for me for a long time, this year I will harvest, we do not collect berries, it is impossible to spike.
Anastasia Petrenko: Very tasty raspberries, we have it for a long time, "came" to us from our neighbors.
Galina Dobrygina: I grew mine from seeds. They sent me dry ones, smeared the berries on the newspaper, dried them and sent them away. She comes from the city of Artyom, Primorye. I'm happy with it. In compotes, in jam along with red. The color is beautiful. And children, when they were little, loved to eat them. Red, white and black.
Margarita Kozyreva: Birds still steal berries. Several bushes were "planted" behind my house)))
Natalia Ibragimova: Raspberry about nothing, I was not impressed, the berries are small, the taste is not certain. So, indulge.
Irina Danyaeva: The aroma is delicate, pleasant, the taste is slightly sour, sweet, does not give a sore mouth. It is better to eat berries fresh or add to compotes, after freezing I did not like it - they become none (for my taste). Without trellises - nothing: shoots grow, picking berries is inconvenient. For the winter I take it off the tapestries, tie it, bend it down - it winters well. It grows in partial shade along the southern fence, watering is regular, especially in the heat and when the berries are being poured. We cover the soil under the bushes with humus, compost, cover it with a thick layer of straw - moisture persists for a long time and weeds break through with difficulty.


Lyubov Malakhova: I don't really like this berry either. Fresh, there are a lot of seeds, to collect - very prickly. We will get rid of it, it is better to plant a blackberry.
Nadezhda Korepanova: We love Cumberland! It is good in compotes, it will color any berry with a rich maroon color! The truth is very prickly, when collecting and picking up the kerchief, it will take off and scratch, the husband takes care of it, he has to endure. The truth is very tasty, sweet for me berry!
Nadezhda Korepanova: We eat frozen.


You can participate in the discussion by going to the page in our group on vKontakte.


BLACK RASPBERRY CUMBERLAND - VIDEO

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3 Comments

My neighbors have a bush with berries that look like raspberries. They bought it like an ordinary raspberry, but it turned out that the fruits are black. They thought it was blackberry, and I believe it was black raspberry. The bush is low, drooping, winters well. I would like to multiply it, but it does not have overgrowths. What is this plant?
N. Milovanova, Perm

Blackberries can be easily distinguished from black raspberries. The main feature is the structure of the berry. Ripe raspberries are easily removed from the branch, and the berry is hollow inside, and the white dense base remains on the stalk. The color of the berry depends on the variety and can be red, yellow, orange and deep black.
Blackberries are not removed from their "axis" - each can be picked only whole, since it grows more fruitfully with the rest of the parts.
Many people believe that black raspberries are a hybrid of raspberries and blackberries - ezhemalina. Such hybrids exist, but their berries are more like blackberries: they are usually oblong and rather large (black raspberries are not large in size).
In the photo there is a black raspberry. The most famous variety is Cumberland, most likely this is it. It has become widespread due to its winter hardiness. Without shelter, the bush can withstand frosts down to -25 degrees. It hibernates under snow and at lower temperatures.
The stems are about two meters long, sometimes more, they are curved in an arcuate manner, have thorns. The leaves are light green, somewhat smaller than those of ordinary raspberries. Both stems and berries are covered with a silvery bloom.
The berries are very tasty, they are low in acid. They are dense, well transported, and suitable for all types of processing.
The benefits of black raspberries are still being studied, but it is already known that it contains ellagic acid, which has the strongest antioxidant activity and is an effective prevention of cancer.
Besides utilitarian, black raspberry also has decorative value. The compact bush, strewn with berries, looks very attractive. The impression is enhanced by the fact that the berries ripen at different times. Both black and red fruits are on the plant at the same time. Moreover, they are collected in one inflorescence, which gives a special decorative effect.
Unlike ordinary raspberries, black plants do not climb anywhere, as they do not give root suckers. This allows the use of black raspberries in compositions with other shrubs.
Black raspberries are propagated by layering. To do this, at the end of summer, the branches are bent to the ground. Sprinkle fertile soil and fix the shoot so that the crown remains on the surface. Rooted layers are separated from the bush and planted separately.
ABOUT VARIETIES. In the Middle Lane, the most famous black raspberry variety is Cumberland. But there are other varieties that are still little known: these are Pivot, Coal, Luck, Gift of Siberia, Black Jewel, Earley, Bristal, Litach, etc.

Raspberry is not simple, but ... black
I have a black raspberry Cumberland growing on my site. It has many advantages over ordinary raspberries: it bears fruit for a long time and abundantly, does not give growth, practically does not get sick and is not affected by pests.
It is better to plant black raspberries in the fall - in late September - early October.
The place where red raspberries and apple trees grew before is not suitable for culture. Also bad predecessors are potatoes, tomatoes and other nightshades. Do not plant black raspberries and blackberries together.
My planting scheme: the distance between the bushes is 1.5-2 m, between the rows - 2 m.I dig holes with a depth and diameter of 40-50 cm.In each I bring 6-8 kg of humus, 150-200 g of superphosphate and 70-80 g of potassium sulfate. I mix fertilizers with fertile soil and fill the root system of the seedlings with the resulting substrate. Then I water the plants abundantly and mulch with peat (you can use rotted compost or chopped straw) with a layer of 6-10 cm.


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