In recent years, there has been a culture on the market, sold by some traders under the name "Chinese salad". In fact, this plant is Chinese cabbage... I believe that passing cabbage as salad as stupid as catnip for melissa.
Apparently, they decided to call this culture a salad because of some similarity in the shape and nature of the arrangement of the leaves with a real salad. Although the leaves of real lettuce are smoother. But after all, a real salad is not a close relative of cabbage, as it belongs to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, Chinese cabbage and Chinese cabbage are East Asian species of the cabbage genus - cruciferous culture, especially since even the family has recently been called "cabbage".
The main absurdity of selling cabbage as a salad is that Peking cabbage is more valuable in terms of nutritional, and for some, taste, properties. For example, in terms of vitamin C content, Chinese cabbage is twice as high as leaf salad... In addition, it has dietary and medicinal properties. In addition, it is considered more nutritious than what we are used to. White cabbage... That is, a more useful plant is sold, passing off as a less valuable one, here it turns out to some extent anti-advertising.
less demanding on soil fertility compared to head and color... This type of cabbage is very early ripening - as a leaf crop, it is ready in 30-40 days, and usually 50-60 days are enough for the formation of heads. Because of this, there are early spring and late summer sowing dates for her. Sowing time in early spring depends on what kind of soil you are sowing. For spring sowing to the greenhouse - this is the beginning and the middle of April, outdoors - from the end of April to the beginning of May.
Late in the spring sowing period often leads to shooters. After July 15, daylight hours become relatively short, this allows those who are engaged in the cultivation of this crop to get at least a leafy variety or hybrid in the fall. Therefore, for gardeners, seedling is considered the best way of growing, which is desirable for leafy forms, and mandatory for cabbages.
Seeds should be sown in furrows, the distance between which is 5-10 (preferably 7-8) cm to a depth of 0.5 to 1.5 cm.In the phase of formation of the first true leaf of the plant, it is recommended to thin out, so that there are 3- 4 cm. In the phase of 2-3 true leaves, seedlings can be planted on prepared beds. By the way, it is enough to introduce organic matter under the predecessor of cabbage, for example, a culture from pumpkin family.
Moreover, if acidic soil, then together with organics it follows lime... Row spacings are best done with a width of 40-50 cm, and the distance between plants depends on the form in which you want to eat it. If as a salad culture (obtaining leaves), then 15 cm is enough, for growing heads of cabbage - 30-40 cm.If this or that scheme does not suit you, choose it for yourself, taking into account the fertility of the soil: the lower the fertility, the larger the area should be power supply and vice versa.
If it is necessary to sow seeds directly into the soil, experts recommend a square-nested sowing: 4-5 seeds need to be planted in each nest, leaving 35-40 cm inside and between the rows.When the seeds sprout, the seedlings will need to be thinned out, leaving at first two, and then one of the most developed plants.
12-15 days after planting on the garden, it is advisable to feed the plants with manure infusion or nitrogen and potassium (10 g / 10 l of potassium sulfate) mineral fertilizers, but nitrogen should still prevail. They usually feed several times. Some amateur vegetable growers recommend increasing the dose of nitrogen fertilizer by 10 g with each feeding (in terms of ammonium nitrate), bringing it to 50 g. In fact, such high doses of fertilizer containing nitrate nitrogen are environmentally dangerous.
Firstly, a concentration of nitrates that is unacceptable for humans is created in plants, and secondly, against the background of increased nitrogen nutrition, it increases susceptibility of plants to diseases, thirdly, humus is destroyed, useful microflora is suppressed, chemical burns of the roots are possible. Therefore, the amount and type of fertilization should depend on the initial level of soil fertility and weather conditions.
For example, a relatively high dose of nitrogen may be required after heavy or prolonged rains and on slightly humid soils. In these cases, it is better to use urea for application as a mild and at the same time concentrated fertilizer. One tablespoon for 8-10 liters is enough. This volume is best distributed over about 2.5 square meters. In the case of prolonged rainy weather, it is more expedient to take ammonium sulfate as nitrogen fertilizer, since its ions are bound by the soil and, to a lesser extent, are washed out from the root layer of the soil.
In order to prolong the consumption of Peking cabbage in the fall, experts recommend digging up the plants with the roots, transferring them to a greenhouse or basement and, laying tightly to each other, cover the roots with moist soil, then water it.
This type of cabbage does not last long, but it can be used for cooking cabbage soup and cabbage rolls, besides, it can be stewed, salted, fermented and pickled.
Alexander Zharavin, agronomist
Peking cabbage does not like picking, after which it gets sick and slows down in development.
My own experience has shown that in order to avoid the loss of time for its survival in the soil and to get a harvest earlier, it is advisable to sow the seeds in separate cups or peat tablets.
Peat tablets contain all substances and growth stimulants necessary for a young plant. The size of the tablet depends on the seeding depth. For cabbage, choose those that in dry form have a diameter of at least 4 cm. Before sowing, they need to be well moistened, they will increase in volume, become soft and suitable for use. A cabbage seed is sown into each tablet to a depth of 1.5 cm.
The tablets contain the entire supply of nutrients needed by the seedlings
Drainage holes must be made in plastic cups before sowing. This will prevent stagnant water and provide additional oxygen to the roots. It is best to make them not in the very bottom, but on the sides, below. Then the containers are filled with soil mixture, moistened and seeds are sown. The planting depth is the same as for tablet seeding.
Seedling soil can be purchased at the store or prepared by yourself from 12 parts of peat, 4 parts of garden soil and 1 part of sand.
Sowing is carried out in two terms, the first in late March - early April, the second in early July. Cups or tablets are placed in the tray. The earth needs to be moistened periodically. Seedlings will appear in 4-6 days.
Cabbage seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5 cm, after a few days the first shoots will appear
Peking cabbage is a long day crop, the excess light allows it to release arrows and obtain seeds. If the target is not seed, but heads of cabbage, then after the emergence of seedlings it needs to reduce daylight hours to 8-9 hours. For this purpose, any dark fabric that allows air to pass through is suitable. A mulching black non-woven fabric is also suitable. In the evening (at 17-18 o'clock) the seedlings are covered, and in the morning (at 8-9 o'clock) they are opened.
Caring for young plants consists in reducing daylight hours, regular watering and observing the temperature regime. The optimum temperature for cabbage growth is 17–20 ° C. Water the plants as needed, preventing the earthen coma from drying out. After planting in open ground, it is necessary to cover the seedlings according to the same scheme, before setting the heads of cabbage. With this method, the cabbage is not threatened with shooting.
Peking cabbage needs 8-9 hours of daylight for normal growth.
To protect the seedlings from sunburn and reduce stress between day and night temperature drops, it must be hardened before planting in the ground. Each gardener has his own hardening method.
I do this - 2 weeks before disembarkation, I take a box of seedlings outside every day. I leave the first 2 days for 15 minutes, then for 3 days I increase the time spent on the street to 30 minutes, on 6,7,8 days I leave for an hour, and then for the whole day. 3 days before disembarkation, I leave to spend the night on the street. Do not forget to water and cover. I plant seedlings in early May and early August at the age of 3-4 weeks. I carefully take out the seedlings from the cups together with the earthen lump, after watering it well, I plant the cabbage in tablets together with the tablets. It is not necessary to remove the tissue shell of the tablet, the roots easily pass through it, because it is rather thin and does not interfere with the growth of plants.
Any cabbage, including Peking cabbage, belongs to vegetables that are difficult to extract moisture, and consume extremely wastefully, so it needs abundant watering. People say: "To grow a head of cabbage, you need to spend a barrel of water." Water it with warm water and it will return a good harvest. Loosening and weeding as needed.
People say: "To grow a head of cabbage, you need to spend a barrel of water"
With excessive feeding, nitrates accumulate in vegetables, Chinese cabbage is no exception. To prevent this from happening, you need to fertilize it in moderation, once every 2 weeks with an infusion of bird droppings or mullein. If the land has been well fertilized since the fall, then you can limit yourself to top dressing with herbal infusion.
Chicken manure is a valuable organic fertilizer with a rich chemical composition. This includes:
To prepare the infusion, 1 kg of chicken manure must be poured with 10 liters of water, covered with a lid and left for 2 weeks for fermentation, stirring occasionally well. The result is a concentrated mother liquor. For feeding, 1 liter of mother liquor is diluted in 10 liters of water. The working solution is ready. Fertilize cabbage in the evening, after watering, pouring 1 liter under each root.
Mullein is an equally valuable organic fertilizer. The infusion is prepared and applied in the same way as for chicken. In the same way, you can prepare a combined infusion by mixing 0.5 kg of mullein and 0.5 kg of chicken manure.
Herbal infusion is an extract of nutrients obtained from common weeds. Weed grass takes from the ground the micro- and macroelements contained in it and partially accumulates them in itself. During the fermentation of plant residues in water, all these substances are released and pass into the liquid, enriching it. To prepare a useful extract, you must:
To prepare an infusion for feeding, you need to fill the barrel with weeds
The feeding infusion will be ready in 2 weeks.
Some gardeners recommend covering the barrel with glass or film, I did not see a significant difference, except that the gas formed during fermentation evaporates faster through the breathable material.
For the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage in Siberia, it is necessary to provide it with frost protection, but at the same time not overheat. Although there is little chance of frost during the summer even in Siberia, it can be too chilly at night. Most likely, the shelter will have to be opened or removed during the day. An exception is if you use a special agrofiber.
If you are inclined to planting in spring, then they begin to sow seeds at the junction of March and April. If it is at least +4 C, they will soon sprout. In this weather, you can plant them directly in the greenhouse soil.
Before sowing, do not forget to treat the seeds in a disinfectant liquid to protect the seedlings from diseases. Additionally, you can carry out treatment with growth stimulants.
Having dug up the soil before sowing, it is also carefully processed in order to get rid of pests and vectors of various diseases. For this, fungicides, insecticides are used. If we are talking about a greenhouse, then it is necessary to treat its joints and corners with an antibacterial solution, and do the same with garden tools.
You should not plant the seeds too close to each other, observe a distance of at least 25 cm. In addition, later planting will have to be thinned out from weak specimens so that they do not take away useful substances from full-fledged ones. It is desirable that the soil contains a lot of calcium and nitrogen. Fertilize the soil before sowing. If you do this while growing, it will affect the taste of the vegetable.
Peking cabbage has recently been steadily gaining popularity among Russian gardeners. This is not surprising at all, because it is not only tasty, but also very useful. Nevertheless, many do not dare to plant unusual exoticism on the site, considering it capricious and demanding to care for. But this is by no means the case. In addition, breeders have created many varieties with improved characteristics. They successfully take root and yield crops even in the harsh Siberian climate. You just need to make the right and informed choice, having studied their advantages and disadvantages in advance.
Cabbage Fortuna gets along well on any soil. Additional feeding of the plant saves from wilting and allows you to strengthen the root system: the more nutrition, the more harvest. Sandy soil is well fertilized with manure and nitrogen substances. It is useful to plant seedlings after one-year crops: it is better not to plant broccoli after root crops.
The average distance between seedlings should be at least 20 cm. This is the optimal distance for rapid growth of the head of cabbage and lateral heads. Fortune gets along well in areas without shade. It is better not to plant the crop in lowlands where water stagnates.
Before planting, the seeds are soaked as a preventive measure. If the head of cabbage is sick, it is better to remove it so as not to lose the entire crop.