In Soviet times, roofing material was perhaps the most affordable, and, therefore, the most demanded roofing material. It has been widely used in both industrial and residential construction. Suffice it to recall the famous five-story buildings ("Khrushchev"). And there is no need to talk about dacha construction ...
But roofing material, alas, is a very short-lived material, since it is practically cardboard impregnated with petroleum bitumen with a protective coating of asbestos, talc and other similar materials. Under the influence of solar and ultraviolet radiation, bitumen and protective coating break and crumble.
Cardboard, being saturated with moisture from rain and snow, gets wet, and the roof usually requires major repairs, or even replacement. In a word, if you approach roofing material with the criterion: "Price - quality", then we can say this: low price - just as low quality of the material.
In the current situation - with an abundance of roofing materials (eyes run up: just choose!), Roofing material has lost its former relevance, and is now used mainly to cover the roofs of outbuildings: sheds, summer kitchens, baths, woodsheds, chicken coops. The usual service life of roofing material is 7-8 years. However, if it is laid in accordance with all the rules for laying roll roofing materials, then the roofing material can last up to 12 and even up to 15 years. And even longer.
The base for roofing felt can be concrete, cinder-concrete, but most often - wooden. The most optimal roof slope is from 10 to 30 degrees. The durability of a roofing material roof depends on many factors, but most of all - on a properly arranged lathing. It should be solid, firm enough and even.
Roofing material is laid in 2-4 layers. It depends on the nature of the building. Although it hardly makes sense to lay four layers on farm buildings. Quite enough well-laid two. Previously, basically two methods of laying roofing material were used: the so-called "simple" and more complex, but much more reliable - on mastic.
When installing a simple roof, roofing material is laid along the slope, without mastic, directly on the wooden crate. If the rolled material falls loosely or in waves, then it must be rewound in the opposite direction. If roofing material is laid in two layers, then they are placed one perpendicular to the other.
The laid material is immediately temporarily fastened along the edges with nails. Then they put the slats, nailing them, thereby tightly pressing the laid material to the crate. Unfortunately, wooden slats rot rather quickly, and therefore they have to be changed often.
If the lathing is not too flat, instead of slats, you can use a metal strip: aluminum, copper, brass or soft steel. The main requirement for the tape: it must be flexible enough in order to fit exactly and tightly to the unevenness of the sheathing. However, it should be remembered that when using a metal tape, it can happen that after several years of operation, when most of the softening substances evaporate from the roofing material, the tape will cut into it and damage the place where the roofing material sheets overlap.
On descents (on overhangs), the roof is wrapped under the crate by at least 10 centimeters and fixed with roofing nails. I advise you to do this by nailing the ends of the roofing felt to the edges of the sheathing again with a metal tape.
Fig. one. 1 - rafters; 2 - rough lathing; 3 - finishing lathing; 4 - roofing material
Unlike earlier times, the second method of laying roofing material - on mastic is now used less and less, since it requires a complex and laborious technology. Therefore, the effect will be much greater if the roofing material is laid not on a single, but on a double crate ... First, a rough floor of boards (you can use slabs) with a thickness of 22-25 millimeters with a gap between them up to 5 centimeters is laid along the rafters. A continuous leveling crate is laid along it with a turn of 30-45 degrees, preferably from dry narrow boards with a thickness of 12-15 millimeters. And only after that the roofing material is laid (Fig. 1). In any case, roofing material roofing should be fixed in dry, warm and calm weather.
If there is a need to build a roof, for example, in four rows, glassine or lining roofing material with fine mineral dressing is placed under the roofing material. The outer (upper) layer is made of roofing material with coarse-grained or scaly dressing.
For gluing a multilayer roofing material coating, hot mastic is usually applied to the prepared base; before laying, the underside of the roofing material is completely cleaned of dusting, and the front side - to the width of the sticker. Before laying, the base is cleaned of dust, dirt, primed and dried.
Fig. 2. 1 - floor beam; 2 - rafters; 3 - break point
Do not place roofing felt on a kinked roof (fig. 2). All this is due to the fact that at the fracture, the parts of the roof are at different angles to each other, and therefore they heat up and cool in different ways. And, as a result, tension forces are formed in the fracture, which either compress (in the cold), then stretch (in the heat) roofing material. But since it is tightly pressed against the crate, cracks inevitably form in the place of the break, and the roof begins to leak. And no, even the most careful laying and seemingly super-reliable fastening of roofing material will help to avoid this trouble.
It is advisable to inspect the roof made of roofing material twice a year: in early spring and late autumn. The detected defects must be eliminated immediately: clean the damaged areas from dirt and apply patches on them.
Now we begin to lay the floor in the attic, choosing for this a sunny fine day. Floor slabs, as the future base of the floor, were cleared of debris left after the installation of the roof and insulation of the attic. Now we will process the logs presented from the pine log.
They must be coated on all sides with an antiseptic primer. The primer will protect the wood from mold and mildew and other types of corrosion.
After the primer has dried, the logs are laid on concrete floors in parallel rows - three logs each. At the joints, the logs must be fastened with additional bars, two together.
The distance between the rows of the logs is 50 cm. It actually depends on the thickness of the floorboards, if it were 40 mm, then the distance between the logs would increase to 1 meter.
The entire space between the lags is filled with expanded clay. In this case, it acts as a heater. Filled up with a thickness of 5 cm. Now in the direction transverse to the lags, floorboards are screwed with screws, which are fastened together in a groove-tenon. Boards should be laid as tightly as possible between themselves, knocking them out of the sides with a hammer, so that over time, gaps in the floor do not form.
The attic floor now needs to be leveled and sanded with a vibration sander. From the first run, coarse sandpaper is used, removing the roughest irregularities, then fine. Surface grinder for fine leveling of wooden surfaces in preparation for painting.
After sanding, the attic floor is ready for painting. Using a wide brush, first cover it with a layer of azure of the shade you like. It should dry well. Azure also has an antiseptic role. Then the floor is covered with high quality German yacht varnish using a roller. After drying, wooden villi will be visible on the surface, so the surface of the attic floor is again sanded with the finest sandpaper. Then again for the second time covered with yacht varnish. Now the floor surface in the attic is perfectly flat and mirror-smooth.
Thus, we can say with confidence that we independently solved such an important task - we laid the floor in the attic. As a result, we got an environmentally friendly wood flooring of excellent, say without bravado, quality. It will not lose its appearance for many years.
You can decide to lay the floor much easier and, perhaps, cheaper if, instead of tinting and varnish, you use a ready-made parquet board purchased from a store.
There are several basic parameters that materials for garden paths must meet:
• it should not leak water - this is a key condition. Otherwise, under such paths, various fungal diseases can begin to develop, which can ruin the harvest.
• the material should not be afraid of the sun. For some reason, many summer residents forget that the material will be exposed to ultraviolet radiation for days, which is why it will have to be replaced every few years. And this will make you spend money, time and effort for no reason.
• the coating must breathe. This parameter cannot be called mandatory, but rather a recommendation. But if you can find materials for garden paths that breathe, that's great.
• resistance to temperature extremes. Here everyone should understand that in spring and autumn the temperature at night drops to -5 degrees and below, and during the day it can reach +25 on the same day due to sun exposure. Not all materials can withstand such temperature drops.
• should not be exposed to chemical and biological influences.
Ideally, if you can find environmentally friendly materials that will not harm plants and soil.
In ancient times, some people did not have the opportunity to build a large wooden house, so they often erected dugouts with their own hands. These small and convenient structures are buried in the soil, therefore they are characterized by high strength, reliability and durability. Now they are used only by gamekeepers, hunters, gardeners and lovers of ecological types of housing.
The decorative edging will give a neat look to the ridges. On high ridges, you will have to make a kind of frame. If you are not new to earthwork, then it will not be difficult to make an even, raised rectangle on the plowed land, otherwise it is better to enclose the ridges in chains. They can be wooden planks and bars, vertically mounted block cylinders, stones.
The edging of the ridges can be made of plants, which is especially convenient if the ridges are not raised above ground level. Choose healthy and vibrant plants for this purpose, such as pest repellent marigolds, monarda, calendula, or pollinating chives.