Fragrant violet (Violae odorata) - this plant has other names: mother's darling, horse hooves, English violet, garden violet, fragrant violet.
Description of the plant
Fragrant violet is a perennial herb 10-25 cm high with a white rhizome and rooting aerial shoots. Leaves on long petioles, cordate, slightly pointed at the top. Blooms in April - May. The flowers are fragrant on long stalks, dark purple.
In nature, the fragrant violet will melt in the central and southern regions of the European part of Russia in parks, forests, among shrubs. Prefers fertile soils, from moderately moist to moist. Can grow under trees. In dry weather, it requires watering. Tolerates short-term frosts.
Violet, fragrant with seeds and vegetatively propagates. A plant grown from seed is stronger and more resistant to disease. Seeds are sown on the beds or in prepared boxes in the fall, immediately after they ripen, otherwise the germination rate will be zero. They emerge in April. In May, the seedlings are planted. It reproduces vegetatively by dividing bushes or lateral daughter rosettes.
The main types and varieties of fragrant violets
The genus includes more than 400 species and many subspecies and varieties. Fragrant violet is one of the few of our wild violets that are widespread in culture.
It is cultivated as an ornamental plant all over the world and is the oldest garden culture. The date of its introduction into culture is 1542. The high content of essential oil in flowers has led to its breeding as an essential oil plant. Parma and Victoria varieties are commonly grown for aroma oil production. The following varieties of fragrant violets are often grown in culture:
Albiflora - white flowers; Konigin Charlotte - blue-violet flowers, large; Red Charme - bright red flowers; Triumpf - with the largest light purple flowers.
Combination of violets with other plants
Fragrant violet goes well with primrose, lungwort, wild grasses and ferns, looks good with early spring bulbous plants. It is used for growing in flower beds, borders, for landscaping balconies, in vases, on rocky hills, in rock gardens and as a ground cover plant. Large-flowered varieties are suitable for cutting.
Pests and diseases of the fragrant violet
Fragrant violet is very unpretentious, resistant to various diseases. Leaves can sometimes be damaged by a leaf roll.
The leaves and flowers of fragrant violets have long been valued in herbal medicine, their action is especially effective in case of congestion in the lungs, increased skin sensitivity, fragility of blood vessels.
The leaves were used to treat cystitis and were used to rinse the mouth and throat. Due to the presence of salicylic acid (i.e. aspirin), it has a mild pain relieving effect. In folk medicine, an infusion and decoction of the herb is used for stones in the kidneys and urinary tract, as a sedative for nervous excitement and insomnia, as well as for the treatment of certain skin diseases and as a means of lowering blood pressure. The whole plant is used for metabolic disorders, rheumatism, gout, urolithiasis and cholelithiasis.
Collection and processing of raw materials
The subject of collection is flowers, leaves, shoots and roots. The flowers are dried quickly so that they do not lose color and smell. Leaves and shoots are harvested during flowering. Rhizomes are harvested in the fall, cleaned of soil, dried in the air and dried in a well-ventilated room or under a canopy. Store in a dry place in a tightly closed container for one year.
Fragrant violet is used as an essential oil, medicinal, melliferous and ornamental plant.
Infusion of violet leaves... 1 teaspoon of raw materials is poured with 1 glass of boiling water, infused for 1 hour and filtered. Take 1/2 cup three times a day with meals.
Infusion of leaves with honey is effective for coughs, chronic diseases in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The same infusion is used in the form of lotions in the treatment of wounds, boils and other skin lesions. Infusion of leaves is used for cancers of the larynx and tongue; it prevents the transition of ulcers that have long existed in the gastrointestinal tract into a precancerous and cancerous state. Infusion of violets has a good effect on headaches and fever in the head. In these cases, a rag is soaked in a violet infusion and tied around the head.
Infusion of violet flowers... a spoonful of flowers is poured with 1 glass of boiling water, insisted for 1 hour, filtered. Take 2-3 tbsp. spoons three times a day. It is used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative for pneumonia, seizures, tinnitus, dizziness and memory impairment.
Decoction of herbs and violet roots... 1 tbsp. pour a spoonful of crushed raw materials with a glass of water, simmer for 30 minutes, filter, squeeze, bring the volume with boiled water to the original. Take 2-3 tbsp. It is used for stones and sand in the bladder, rheumatism and gout. For a greater effect, simultaneously apply warming compresses from a decoction of violets along with cake.
Violet root decoction... 1 st. pour a spoonful of crushed roots with 1 glass of cold water, boil in a closed enamel bowl over low heat for 30 minutes, filter, squeeze and bring the volume with boiled water to the original.
Take 2-3 tablespoons 3-4 times a day after meals. Used as an expectorant for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, whooping cough. Decoction of roots gargle with sore throat and inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, they lubricate the mucous membrane of the mouth in children with thrush, used as a prophylactic agent for influenza. Good results have been obtained in the treatment of amoebic dysentery and fungal skin lesions.
Externally used for articular rheumatism. Violet tincture. 1 part of grass or chopped violet roots are poured with 10 parts of vodka, insisted for 10 days. Take 25 drops three times a day or use it externally as a lotion. It is used as an expectorant for the secretion of sputum in pulmonary tuberculosis.
Violet syrup... 1 glass of fresh violet grass is placed in a bottle, 1 glass of hot water is poured into it and insisted for a day, then filtered. The filtered liquid is heated to a boil, a new portion (1 glass) of violet flowers is added and again left for 24 hours. The resulting infusion, after straining, is mixed with honey in equal proportions and given to children 1 teaspoon of cough.
Violet herb oil... In industry, essential oil is obtained from the flowers and leaves of fragrant violets, which is used to make expensive perfumes and other perfumery products.
This oil cleans pores well, heals veins, and improves blood circulation. Helps in the treatment of bronchitis, catarrh, oral infections. Relieves headaches and dizziness. The scent of the violet is believed to soothe and strengthen the heart. Violet oil is a strong antiseptic, used to treat wounds, resorb hematomas, reduce skin swelling, swelling and inflammation, and heal cracked nipples.
At home, you can also prepare such an oil, although its quality and medicinal properties will be weaker. Pour vegetable oil (preferably olive oil) into a container with grass so that the grass is completely immersed in the oil. After two days, squeeze the grass, and add violet grass to the resulting oil. So repeat several times. Store the finished oil in a closed container.
Cooking... In the confectionery industry, the violet is used to flavor sweets and drinks.
Contraindications... In large doses and with prolonged use, violet preparations cause diarrhea and vomiting, abdominal pain.
Tatiana Lybina, gardener,
Zhezkazgan, Republic of Kazakhstan
For growing fragrant violets it is quite possible to remove the edge of the flower bed, where it forms a beautiful border, or if you support a lawn under the trees, plant it there. Violet loves light, but feels great in conditions of rolling blackout. She likes it better if the sun hits the plants in the morning. The violet does not like very bright sun and drought. The soil should be loose, fertile and, if possible, slightly damp. Under natural conditions, the violet grows in lowlands, where moisture accumulates.
Fragrant violet reproduces easily, especially if it is possible to get live plants. If it is planted on the border of the flower bed, the extra plants must be removed, otherwise the violet will force its main "inhabitants" out of the flower bed.
Every 3-4 years, the curb must be dug up, old bushes must be removed and new ones planted. At the same time, top dressing is introduced - compost and flower fertilizer. If this is not done, the overgrown bushes begin to oppress each other and ultimately the border becomes thinner and stops blooming.
With a lack of watering and dry air, the violet suffers greatly from the spider mite, which is able to completely destroy the plants. When this pest appears, the leaves turn pale, become covered with small white buds and dry out. The spider mite is very small, almost invisible. It settles on the underside of the leaf. This pest does not tolerate humid air with repeated daily spraying of the underside of the leaves with water - it dies.
The seeds of the fragrant violet quickly lose their germination, need stratification, so they are sown as soon as possible after collection. Seedlings bloom in the second year. Violet gives self-seeding well, as already mentioned, shoots appear at a distance of 2-4 m from the mother plant. Having got a violet once, it is not too easy to get rid of it later. The violet has a strong root system and is difficult to pull out. Usually, when weeding, only the rosettes break off, and the remaining rhizome grows rather quickly.
Violet tricolor - herbaceous plant, mainly wild. Found in ravines, ditches, meadows with acidic or neutral soil. Viola tricolor is often called wild pansies.
The plant forms small bushes, up to 15 cm high. The leaves are rounded, pointed at the end, collected in a rosette at the base of the bush. Peduncles with small flowers (up to 1.5 cm in diameter) at the ends emerge from the outlet. Several nuances appear in the color of the flowers: white, yellow, blue, purple.
Violet tricolor differs in unpretentiousness, can grow on poor, not fertilized soils
Viola tricolor is considered an annual or biennial plant, although it can actually “live” much longer, somewhat losing its decorative effect (this applies to almost all viols). Bloom - from April to September.
Violet tricolor is not only an ornamental, but also a medicinal plant. It is used in dried form by itself or as part of herbal preparations.
Tricolor violet - a flower suitable for decorating a garden in a natural, natural manner
Distribution area. Highlands of Southern France, Spain, Italy.
The perennial horned violet has a creeping, strongly branched root and numerous ascending stems 15-25 cm high.
Forms cushion-shaped, dense bushes. Leaves are ovate-oblong, dentate, up to 6 cm long.
As you can see in the photo, the horned violet has elongated flowers, 3-5 cm long.
Shades - from lilac to dark purple, with a small yellow "eye". Bloom from May to September, but in the first half of summer it is more abundant.
A prerequisite for growing horned violets is a dry location. This species reproduces as a fragrant violet (V. odorata). Unlike the violet Vittrock (V. x wittrockiana) it does not degenerate for a long time. Prefers a sunny location, moderately fertile soil.
Using. Horned violets are planted mainly in rock gardens, but in areas with moderately cold winters, they can also be planted in flower beds - on flower beds, borders and lawns.
There are many varieties of horned violets. Among them:
"Boton Blue" ("Boughton Blue") - with blue flowers.
Foxbrook Cream ("Foxbrook Cream)" - with creamy white flowers.
Violet variety "Gazelle" ("Gazelle").
Little David ("Little David") - with yellow flowers.
Violet variety "Gustav Wernig" ("Gustave Wernig").
Helen Mount ("Helen Mount") - the flowers are pale blue.
Milkmaid ("Milkmaid") - cream flowers with a light blue tint.
Molly Sanderson ("Molly Sanderson") - with purple-black flowers.
"Nettie Britton" ("Netty Britton") - with lilac-blue flowers.
Penny Black ("Penny Black") - flowers are almost black.
Talita ("Talitha") - flowers are bluish-purple with a white center.
"Victoria Cauthorn" ("Victoria Cowthorne") - lilac-pink flowers.
"White Superior" ("White Superior") - large white flowers.
"U. N. Woodgate " ("W.N. Woodgate") - flowers are light pinkish-lilac-blue.
Group Sorbet F1 ("Sorbet F1") consists of 10 varieties with different flower colors.
The flowers of violets growing in nature are most often colored purple or bluish, less often white or yellow.
Fragrant mignonette (mignonette family) is cultivated as an annual plant. The height of the bushes is 20-40 cm, they are covered with wrinkled small elongated leaves. The flowers are small, greenish-yellow, reddish and of other shades, collected in pyramidal clusters-inflorescences.
Reseda is the best of the fragrant annuals.
The flowering period is from June to the onset of frost.
Mignonette reproduces by seeds. They are sown in the ground in the 2nd and 3rd decades of April, or they are planted with seedlings at the end of May. To do this, in March, seeds are sown in boxes or greenhouses. In open ground, the seeds are sown in rows, the distance between them is 40-50 cm, the sowing depth is 5-6 cm, 1-2 seeds are sown every 1 cm and covered with sand on top of 2-3 cm so that a crust does not form after the rains. The seeds are very small, so pre-emergence watering should be done with a garden watering can.
Mignonette grows well, blooms profusely on soil fertilized with humus dug up since autumn in open and semi-shaded places.
After emergence, when the plants reach a height of 3-5 cm, they are thinned out. The distance between plants in a row should be 12-15 cm.
During the summer, the aisles are kept loose and free from weeds. Fortified plants are watered abundantly.
Reseda seeds fall off easily, so as soon as the boxes begin to turn yellow, they are cut off and allowed to ripen in a shaded place. Germination lasts 3-4 years.
Reseda is a medicinal plant.
It is practically not affected by pests and diseases.
Reseda is sown on flower beds, parterre beds, borders, to decorate balconies, terraces, and is used for cutting.
Synonyms. The violet is graceful, the violet is thin.
Distribution area. Balkans, Pyrenees, Asia Minor.
Violet graceful - perennial plant 10-20 cm high with rising stems. Leaves are coarsely toothed. Flowers up to 4 cm, bluish-purple or yellow. Blooms from spring to autumn.
In the garden, the graceful violet is grown in the sun or in partial shade, on structured, well-drained, moderately moist, nutritious soils.
Using. Used to decorate rock gardens.
Varieties of violet graceful and their photos:
Lord Nelson ("Lord Nelson") - flowers are dark purple, almost black.
Moonlight ("Moonlight") - yellow flowers.
"Major" ("Major") - large purple flowers with a yellow eye.
Among perennial species, it is she who is especially hygrophilous.In nature, it is an inhabitant of damp meadows, forest swamps in Europe, Asia, North America.
Violet marsh. Photo from the site en.wikipedia.org
Similar to F. fragrant, but f. marsh more kidney-shaped leaves and light purple flowers are devoid of aroma. Blooms from April to June. Loves acidic soils.