Peaches in Russian gardens are rather capricious plants. It is not uncommon for them to be affected by fungal diseases, especially curly leaves. Somewhat less often, but still noticeable, there is an attack of pests. Sometimes there are problems with a lack of fruiting. We will try to familiarize the gardener with the most common problems and ways to solve them.
Let's consider the main possible diseases of the peach, their causes, methods of struggle and prevention.
There can be several reasons for this problem.
The lack of flowering indicates that the necessary conditions have not been created for the plant. The most common problem is the following:
If, after successful flowering, no ovaries are formed, this indicates that pollination of the flowers did not take place. Peach is a self-fertile crop, but under adverse weather conditions - rains, strong winds - pollination may not occur. There is nothing you can do about it - you will have to wait for the next, more successful, season.
Falling flowers are observed in two cases.
Gum is a sticky, thick yellow-brown liquid that is often released from wounds and cracks in the bark of a plant, as well as from fruits. In the common people, gum is often called simply glue. The disease associated with the release of this sticky fluid is called gum flow or gummosis.
A sticky thick yellow-brown liquid, which is often released from wounds and cracks in the bark of a plant, is called gum, and the process itself is gum flow
This disease of a non-infectious nature is more often observed in stone fruit crops. There may be several reasons for it:
Small areas of gum release will not harm the plant, but if their area begins to increase, action must be taken. They are simple and consist in cleaning the affected areas with a sharp knife to healthy bark or wood (depending on the degree of damage), disinfection with a 3% solution of copper sulfate and processing with garden varnish. There is also a folk remedy - rub the wounds with fresh sorrel leaves. After drying, the procedure is repeated two more times, after which the wound is covered with garden varnish or putty.
This unpleasant phenomenon can be caused by various reasons.
Cracks in the bark of fruit trees from frost damage are usually located vertically
Whatever the cause of the cracks in the bark, they must be treated without fail. The method of treatment is described in the previous section.
Growing a peach seedling from a seed is a common breeding method. If at the same time the gardener is faced with the fact that the leaves on the sprout began to dry out, then the problem is probably caused by a violation of the growing rulesI. Possible reasons:
It is clear that in order to prevent and eliminate the problem, you should strictly follow the rules of cultivation, ensure a balanced diet and watering.
This is an alarming symptom of a dangerous fungal disease of the peach - curly leaves. It usually appears in the spring after flowering on young shoots. In this case, at first, red tubercles are formed on the leaves, later they curl. At the next stage, the leaves turn black and dry, then fall off. If you do not take action, then by mid-May - June most of the leaves will be twisted, the fruits either do not tie, or become wrinkled, ugly. The disease progresses rapidly and the tree may die without urgent intervention.
When the leaves are affected by the curliness of the leaves, first red tubercles form on them, later they curl
In order to combat, the affected parts of the plant should be cut out and destroyed, and the plant itself should be treated with fungicides - Horus, Strobi, Abiga-Peak, Skor, etc.
Peach suffers from frost more than other crops. If the frosts were strong in winter and in the spring it turned out that the peach was frozen over, then first of all it is necessary to determine the degree of damage. This can be done only at the beginning of the growing season. In any case, the only way to help the tree is to carry out competent pruning. If it turns out that only the fruit buds are damaged, and the wood is not damaged, then those branches on which there are no flowers are cut out. Pruning is done up to 2-3-year-old wood. After the ovary has fallen off, all branches without fruit must be removed.
If all fruit buds are affected, then this is a reason for a strong rejuvenating pruning with cutting out all vertical shoots and transferring them to lateral branching (on 4-5-year-old wood). And also make a strong thinning of the upper and inner parts of the crown. The same pruning is done with severe frostbite of the shoots.
In case of severe damage to the skeletal branches and their bases, pruning should be carried out in June after the dormant buds wake up and the shoots grow out of them. If the buds on all branches wake up weakly, then the pruning is transferred until next spring. When young trees are frostbite to the level of snow cover, pruning is carried out with the capture of 10-20 mm of healthy wood of the trunk. Then, from the shoots formed above the grafting site, a new aerial part is formed, and it is better to do this in a bush-like form.
It is clear that such stress greatly weakens the plant and reduces its immunity, the risk of fungal diseases, especially curliness, increases. Therefore, during this period, preventive fungicide treatments are required.
In addition to diseases, the peach is at risk of attack by various pests. The gardener needs to know who they are, what they look like and how to deal with them.
Aphids are small hemiptera insects no more than 2-3 mm in size (there are some rare species up to 5-8 mm in size). More than 3500 species of aphids are known, which have a wide variety of colors - black, red, white, green, yellow, peach, etc. Regardless of the color and type, all aphids feed on plant juices and secrete a sweetish sticky liquid (the so-called honeydew) during their life. Control measures are also the same for all species. Black aphids are more often observed on peaches, but other species are also possible.
Aphids, as a rule, are brought onto the crown of a tree by ants on their backs and planted on leaves and shoots. They do this in order to subsequently feed on honeydew secreted by insects. Aphids can be detected by twisted leaves, inside of which its colonies are located on the back side. And also it can be located at the tips of young shoots.
Ants love to eat honeydew from aphids.
Any significant harm can be caused by aphids if they do not fight with it and allow it to reproduce calmly. But usually it doesn't come to that. There are many chemical and folk remedies for the destruction of harmful insects, as well as to prevent their attack. Let's list the main ones:
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The small beetle (up to 5 mm) has a long proboscis, which owes its name. It hibernates in cracks in the bark, fallen leaves and topsoil. In the spring, when the soil warms up to +10 ° C, the beetles rise to the crown. Swelling buds become the first food items for weevils. Then they move on to young leaves and shoots, as well as flowers and peach ovaries. The females of the flower beetle gnaw the buds and lay eggs in them, from which the larvae subsequently appear, gnawing the flower from the inside. Damaged flowers, naturally, do not form ovaries and fall off. Large populations of weevils are capable of causing significant damage to the peach crop, so they need to be systematically controlled.
The weevil is a small bug, but it can do a lot of damage
During the period when the beetles have just ascended to the crown, you can take advantage of their feature to enter a state of numbness at low temperatures (+ 5-8 ° C). Such temperatures are not uncommon in the early spring morning. At this time, you just need to shake off the beetles on a film or cloth previously spread under the tree and then collect and destroy them.
In late autumn, deep digging of the soil is effective, as a result of which wintering pests will be raised to the surface and die from frost. And of course, insecticide treatments cannot be dispensed with, as described in the previous section.
This pest originates from East Asia, which gave its name. It affects mainly rosaceous shrubs, but prefers peach, for which it has a second name - peach moth. In Russia, the eastern moth is common in the central, western and southern regions, as well as in the Crimea. The butterfly has a wingspan of up to 10-15 mm, the color of the front pair is brown-gray, the back pair is light brown. The way of life is twilight. Flight, mating, laying of eggs take place in the evening and morning. Hibernates in a transparent oval cocoon. Cocoons are found in fallen leaves, fruits, bark cracks and soil.
When the temperature reaches + 15 ° C in spring, butterflies fly out of their cocoons and after 3 days begin to lay eggs on the shoots, the underside of the leaves and sepals. During the season, the pest produces from 4 to 6 offspring. After 6-12 days, cream-colored larvae with a dark head crawl out of the eggs. Caterpillars of the first generation damage young shoots, gnawing them from top to bottom. The next generations of the pest affect the ovaries and fruits. Damaged shoots dry up, the fruits become unfit for food. It is possible to determine the presence of larvae inside the fruit by droplets of gum and excrement of the pest. If you do not take action in a timely manner, you can be left completely without a crop.
Droplets of gum and excrement on the fruits indicate the presence of Eastern moth larvae inside them.
To combat the pest, complex measures are used:
Whitewashing the trunks and branches of the peach will save it many troubles, including from the eastern moth
These arthropod arachnids are microscopic in size (0.25-2 mm) and, since they are not insects, it makes no sense to use insecticides against them. To combat them, there is a group of special drugs called acaricides. Of the large variety of different mites, kidney and spider mites are usually observed on the peach. The kidney is one of the smallest of its kind (0.25-0.35 mm) and cannot be detected with the naked eye. This pest infects peach flower buds, causing them to grow in size and become barrel-shaped. On this basis, the pest is identified.
It is possible to distinguish kidneys affected by a tick by increasing their size and barrel-shaped form.
The spider mite first infects the leaves of the plant, on which yellow dots are formed, and then they turn yellow and fall off. Later, if you do not take action, spider mite nests appear on the branches.
Most often, colloidal sulfur is used to fight. Moreover, the first two treatments (with swelling of the buds and two weeks after flowering) are carried out with a 0.8% solution of the drug, and the next two - with a 0.6% solution with an interval of two weeks. This treatment also prevents powdery mildew in the peach.When the fruits begin to ripen, then such acaricides as Fitoverm and Akarin can be used, which have a waiting period of two days.
Several years ago, having acquired a dacha, together with it I received a bouquet of diseases and pests of fruit plants. In the first year, curly leaves were found on the peach trees, which left me without a crop. I had to urgently get down to business. In the fall, I did a strong anti-aging pruning, and in the early spring I treated the entire garden with DNOC. Before the beginning of flowering, I carried out treatment with a tank mixture of Decis and Horus, which I repeated two more times after flowering. I have tested such a mixture for a long time and always gives good results, preventing the attack of various pests and disease. I now carry out such treatments annually, only instead of DNOK I use a 3% solution of copper sulfate. In the summer I try to regularly spray all plants with Fitosporin, which is a biological fungicide and is absolutely harmless to humans. It also contains humic fertilizers, which provides simultaneous foliar feeding. Since then, there have been practically no diseases and pests in my garden.
Peach is a fairly popular crop in Russian gardens. But growing it is not so easy, since it is susceptible to many fungal diseases, pest attacks and frostbite. The gardener has to make a measurable effort to combat these problems, but with due diligence, they bring the expected success.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Peach is one of the most delicious and delicious fruits. But in order to get a good harvest, you need to work hard. After all, this tree is very delicate and susceptible to many diseases and pests. Therefore, if you decide to successfully grow a peach grove in your front garden, then first you need to familiarize yourself with such a feature as peach diseases and their treatment.
Below we will consider in detail the diseases and pests of the peach, how to overcome them and what should be done to prevent attacks from external provocateurs.
To avoid peach disease, constantly inspect the tree, use preventive methods to combat the main fungal pathogens and pests.
If everything is done on time and correctly, then you can save the peach from death and enjoy a juicy harvest.
You should be attentive to all parts of the tree, especially the trunk.
In the case of growth, the blotches merge and form one large spot, which also falls out, leaving behind an extensive hole. In addition to the leaves, the fungus affects the buds, flowers and ovaries. The process of their defeat is the same.
Infected tissues gradually die off, dry out and fall out.
The fungus feels especially comfortable in wet rainy weather, it winters well on healthy tree organs, forming sporulation.
To protect trees from this peach disease, in the spring, even before the first buds begin to bloom, we prune damaged branches and shoots.
We treat the cut sites with a thick solution of lime and 1% solution of copper sulfate.
When the first signs of the disease are detected, we spray the leaves with 3% Bordeaux liquid before bud break and after flowering. If klyasternosporiosis has struck a peach during flowering, then the concentration of the drug is reduced to 1% so as not to burn the leaves and flowers.
After the leaves bloom in the spring, you can notice their deformation.
Some leaf plates are not sufficiently formed, others have not yet had time to acquire a rich green hue, and some have completely twisted, became wavy, brittle, and lost elasticity.
They soon dry up and fall off. As a result, the tree can completely shed its foliage and remain with bare branches. It stops fully producing nutrients and discards fruits that have not yet had time to form.
Signs of curly leaves
A good condition for the reproduction of the causative agent of this stone fruit disease is rainy, damp weather.
The fungus is activated during the spring growing season, manifesting itself at first in the form of a purple bloom with a border, and a week later forming growths on the back of the leaf plate in the form of a gray bloom.
During the flowering period, brown flowers may appear on the tree, which darken and dry out completely.
This alarming sign can signal the infection of trees with moniliosis, as a result of which the ovaries are unable to develop, and the already formed fruits are deformed and rotted.
The fungus is transferred by pests of stone fruit crops, such as oriental moths, weevils, geese, as well as during pollination by bees from a diseased tree to a healthy one.
Like any other stone fruit plant, the peach is sometimes attacked by harmful insects. They can not only cause serious harm, but also cause the death of the tree. In the fight against insect pests, as with fungal infections, a fungicide-based product can help.
For the destruction of insects, insecticidal agents are used that have a damaging effect on the insect itself, while causing minimal damage to the tree. Fungicide is used as a prophylaxis preventing the development of new threats from pests.
The eastern moth is a kind of butterfly. Its wingspan can be more than 2 cm. The main danger of this pest is the laying of a significant number of eggs on young shoots or many ovaries. By the end of summer, the moth switches to the peaches themselves, then migrates to the bark or fallen leaves for the winter.
In the next season, the peach tree will be in the moths, which have grown up and begin to eat foliage, young inflorescences, and also bark. To protect the plant from the harmful effects of this insect, you can only collect it by hand and promptly remove the infected areas.
In the fight against the moth, special traps made of fabric strips and a non-drying adhesive solution effectively help. It prevents the insect from climbing the tree bark. Painting the trunk of a plant with a lime solution works according to the same principle.
Aphids not only significantly reduce the immunity of the peach, but also contribute to the occurrence of such a disease as black fungus. It is not difficult to find out about an aphid attack, you just need to look under a couple of leaves of a peach tree - the insect accumulates in the very thick of the foliage. Curly foliage and crooked shoots indicate that aphids have been living on the plant for a long time.
Before fruiting, you can get rid of the pest with any insecticidal agent. However, if young fruits have already appeared on the tree, it is permissible to fight aphids only by one method - the insect does not tolerate sharp alkaline aromas at all. Therefore, tinctures made from garlic cloves, laundry soap, and onion peels are sprayed onto the leaves.
Outwardly, the fruit moth may resemble a small butterfly. However, its ability to destroy shoots in a short period of time makes it one of the most dangerous pests. Despite its small size, the fruit striped moth can do tremendous harm. Its caterpillars can bite into a bud or a young shoot, thereby causing their death.
An effective method of getting rid of fruit moths on a peach is to treat the tree with insecticidal agents. The most famous are named Metaphor and Chlorophos. Having noticed the area affected by the striped moth, it must be immediately removed and burned. Then the fresh cut is necessarily processed using a garden varnish.
The mite that harms the peach tree does not belong to the insect family, as it is a representative of arthropods. Therefore, insecticidal preparations that can kill pests in this case will not work. It is impossible to find out about the appearance of ticks on a plant, since their tiny size does not allow a person to detect a problem. However, you can immediately notice the changes taking place in the plant.
The buds of a tree affected by mites deform and begin to grow sideways, not upwards. You can also notice their significant increase in size. Arthropods are capable of forming yellow spots on foliage, which provoke their falling off.
If untreated, ticks create a nesting web in which they live and reproduce. Colloidal sulfur is an effective drug in the fight against arthropod mites. Processing is carried out even before the peach tree begins to bloom.
Bugs of bluish and greenish shades are pests called weevils. They feed on the leaves of all fruit trees, thereby causing irreparable damage to the buds, inflorescences and fruits of the peach tree. If the reproduction of insects, which often occurs on the leaves, is not prevented in time, then by the middle of summer most of them will be damaged.
Fighting an insect can only be done by hand. It will take a long time to collect all the weevils. As a preventive measure, special means are used, such as "Inta-Vir" and "Decis".