By: Jackie Carroll
Sweet thorn is an attractive and fragrant tree native to southern parts of Africa. Read on to find out more about this lovely landscape tree that grows well under the most difficult southwestern conditions.
In their native South Africa, Acacia karoo trees are beneficial wildlife trees. Birds nest in them and the flowers attract insects to feed the birds. Ten species of butterflies depend on the Acacia sweet thorn for their survival. The sweet gum that oozes from wounds in the bark is a favorite food of many species of wildlife, including the lesser bushbaby and monkeys. Despite the thorns, giraffes love to eat their leaves.
Growers in Africa sell the gum as a gum Arabic substitute and use the beans as goat and cattle forage. As a legume, the tree can fix nitrogen and improve the soil. It is often used to help restore ruined mine land and other degraded soil. The leaves, bark, gum, and roots are used in a wide range of traditional remedies.
Sweet thorns (Acacia karroo) are highly ornamental plants that you can grow as a multi-stemmed shrub or prune to a tree with a single trunk. The plant grows 6 to 12 feet (2-4 m.) tall with a similar spread. In spring, the tree blooms with an abundance of fragrant, yellow flower clusters that resemble pompoms. The loose canopy allows dappled sunlight through so that grass can grow right up to the trunk.
Sweet thorns make attractive specimens and you can also grow them in containers. They look good on patios and decks but produce fierce thorns, so plant them where they won’t come in direct contact with people. A row of closely planted sweet thorn shrubs makes an impenetrable hedge. The trees are useful in helping to control erosion and they grow well in poor, dry soil. Sweet thorns are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11.
Sweet thorn trees grow well in any soil as long as it is well-drained. It thrives in dry, arid soils found in the southwestern U.S. Since it is a legume that can fix nitrogen, it doesn’t need nitrogen fertilizer. For the best growth, water newly planted trees regularly until they are established and growing. It helps to water the tree monthly during extended periods of drought, but under normal conditions, it doesn’t need supplemental irrigation.
If you want to grow the plant as a single stemmed tree, prune it to a single trunk while it is young. Other than pruning, the only maintenance a sweet thorn tree needs is clean-up. It drops hundreds of 5 inch (13 cm.) brown seed pods in the fall.
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Vachellia karroo, commonly known as the Sweet thorn, is a species of acacia, native to southern Africa from southern Angola east to Mozambique, and south to South Africa. 
It is a shrub or small to medium-sized tree which grows to height of 12m.  It is difficult to tell apart from Vachellia nilotica subsp. adstringens without examining the seed pods. It is not listed as being a threatened species.  The Botanical Society of South Africa has accepted a name change to Vachellia karroo. 
Common names in various languages include Acacia, Common acacia, Karoo thorn, Doringboom, Soetdoring, Cape gum, Cassie, Piquants blancs, Cassie piquants blancs, Cockspur thorn, Deo-babool, Doorn boom, Kaludai, Kikar, Mormati, Pahari Kikar, uMga and Udai vel. 
Sweet thorn, cape gum, cape thorn tree, cockspur thorn, deo babool, karroo thorn, karrothorn, mimosa thorn, white-thorn [English], mimosa à longues épines, mimosa hérissé, mimosa odorant, cassie, piquants blancs [French] Akazie, Süssdorn-, Akazie, Weissdorn [German] acacia orrida, mimosa karroo [Italian] doorn boom, doringboom, karoodoring, mookana, soetdoring witdoring, umuNga [Afrikaans] aromo de Sudáfrica [Spanish] isinga [Ndebele] mookana, mooka [Tswana] umNga [Xhosa] umNga, isiKhombe [Zulu] سنط كارو [Arabic] آکاکیا کارو [Farsi]
Acacia campbellii Arn., Acacia dekindtiana A. Chev., Acacia eburnea sensu auct., Acacia horrida sensu auct., Acacia inconflagrabilis Gerstner, Acacia karoo Hayne, Acacia minutifolia Ragup., Acacia natalitia E. Mey., Acacia pseudowightii Thoth., Acacia roxburghii Wight & Arn., Mimosa eburnea L. f., Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso
In the 2000s, molecular phylogenetic studies resulted in the controversial transfer of many Acacia species into the genera Vachellia, Senegalia, Mariosousa and Acaciella, with only Australian species remaining the Acacia genus (Kyalangalilwa et al., 2013). The current accepted taxon of Acacia karroo is thus Vachellia karroo. However, since most of the scientific literature refers to Acacia karroo, this latter taxon is used is the datasheet.
Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo Hayne or Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) is a very variable and very thorny tree species that is widespread in Africa and grows to a height of 5-12 m. It is a multipurpose tree providing food, feed, commercial products, and environmental services. Livestock and wild animals relish on its foliage, pods and seeds, which do not contain antinutritional factors.
Acacia karroo is a very variable, thorny, evergreen or almost evergreen tree that grows to a height of 2-20 (-25) m. It has a rounded crown. The branches emerge rather low on the trunk. The bark is smooth and dark red on young branches, becoming rough or fissured and blackish on the trunk and on old branches. The leaves are alternate, pedunculated, bipinnate, bearing 2-7 pairs of primary pinnae each bearing 5-15 (-27) pairs of leaflets. Very long (up to 17 cm), straight, and conspicuous white spines are borne at the base of the leaf-stalk. The leaflets are 4-7 mm long x 1-3 mm broad. The flower-heads are axillary borne on young shoots and grouped in pompons. They are deep or golden yellow in colour. The flowers are ball-shaped. The fruit is a 18 cm long dehiscent pod, green to brown when mature. It is flat and has a crescent shape, constricted between the seeds. Pods split open at maturity. The seeds are small, 5-8 mm x 3-5 mm long, oblong-elliptic in shape, olive green to brown in colour (CABI, 2018 Aubrey, 2002 US Forest Service, 2018).
Acacia karroo is a multipurpose tree that can be used for food and feed, and yields useful products. The foliage and the pods are readily eaten by livestock and wildlife. They can be browsed or cut, and are reported to be deprived of antinutritional substances. The tree yields an edible gum similar to arabic gum and useful for candy production. The seeds can be roasted to make a coffee substitute. The flowers are attractive to bees and the long flowering period allows to produce pleasant honey from the nectar. Sweet thorn is a valuable source of fuelwood and charcoal. The timber is used to make posts and pens. The bark yields tannins used for dyeing leather to a reddish colour but also providing an unpleasant odour. The inner bark is used to make ropes. Sweet thorn provides environmental services (see Environmental impact) (Ecocrop, 2019 Fern, 2014 Orwa et al., 2009 Aubrey, 2002).
Acacia karroo is native to South Africa, where it is the most common Acacia (sensu largo) species. It is found from South Africa to Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, and in Australia, where it is considered as a weed. Acacia karroo occurs in a wide range of habitats like dry thornveld, river valley scrub, bushveld, woodland, grassland, banks of dry watercourses, riverbanks, coastal dunes and coastal scrub (Ecocrop, 2019. Sweet thorn is found from sea level up to 1000 m altitude. It grows where mean annual temperature is 12-40°C and annual rainfall is ranging from 200 - 1500 mm (Orwa et al., 2009). Acacia karroo grows on most soil types, though it does better on soils with a relatively high fertility such as clay, loam, black hydromorphic vertisols with high pH or deep alluvial soils along the banks of rivers and streams (Ecocrop, 2019 Orwa et al., 2009). It does well in arid environments provided that it can find supply of groundwater. Sweet thorn is very tolerant of cold and resistant to frost down to -10°C, which may cause defoliation but does not kill the trees. Young plants are frost sensitive. Sweet thorn is tolerant to wind, fire and salt spray (Ecocrop, 2019). It is an aggressive pioneer, readily invading degraded or overgrazed areas.It competes for space, water and nutrients with pasture grasses, and may replace them (Orwa et al., 2009).
The making of Acacia karro leaf meal can be a way to limit the proportion of thorns in the feed. This implies cutting small trees or branches, 15 and 30cm above the ground, stacking then up to 1.5 m high on polythene sheets, letting them dry to reach to reach a DM content above 80%, collecting dried leaves by shaking the branches above the propylene sheets and sieving then though a 2-4 mm sieve to discard the thorns. This preparation of leaf meal is labour intensive and less laborious leaf meal harvesting technologies are still sought (Mapiye et al., 2011).
Due to the presence of condensed tannins that may have adverse effects on livestock, practical and cost-effective methods to reduce these effects in smallholder farms have been studied (Brown et al., 2016). Sudies based on other tannin-rich legume trees show that while promise, sun-drying techniques may cause losses of water soluble carbohydrates due to plant respiration and Maillard reactions. The storage of leaf meal in bags in well-ventilated shade or storeroom until fed may improve the nutritive value of the forage but this has not been tested for Acacia karroo (Mapiye et al., 2011).
Acacia karroo is a fast growing species that establishes readily in full sunlight and does not need shelter or protection from grass fires. Seed germination might be promoted by fires. Sweet thorn is resistant to heavy grazing, to fire and to frost. Grazing by goats has been suggested for the alleviation of bush encroachment (Dingaan et al., 2018).
A N-fixing tree, Acacia karroo)improves soil N status. Its roots system improves soil structure, making it more susceptible to infiltration by water (Orwa et al., 2009). In communal areas of Zimbabwe, it is believed that dryland crop yields increase where sweet thorn has grown and been cleared (Orwa et al., 2009). Sweet thorn extracts water from deep underground, and is thus an indicator for underground water (CABI, 2018 Orwa et al., 2009). The development of its canopy benefits to the grass growing under it, as it reduces the temperatures of the soil and provides shade (Dingaan et al., 2018 Orwa et al., 2009). However, while a low tree density improves grass production, high density (>300 trees/ha) is detrimental to it (Stuart-Hill et al., 1987). Sweet thorn is reported to stabilize sand dunes and disturbed areas (CABI, 2018).
A very thorny species, sweet thorn can be used as a living hedge (CABI, 2018).
Acacia karroo is a pioneering species prone to be responsible for bush encroachment in grasslands and farming land in South Africa. It may thus be detrimental to grass production because of the competition for soil moisture between grass and trees, decreasing the livestock carrying capacity of grassland. In the Molopo area of South Africa, sweet thorn encroachment may have reduced grass production by 30% (Dingaan et al., 2018).
In Australia, sweet thorn is referred to as a noxious weed, requiring notification and destruction in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland (US Forest Service, 2018).
The protein content of Acacia karroo foliage range between 10% and 23% DM (Brown et al., 2016), which meets the N requirements of growing cattle or goats. These values compare favorably with those of other indigenous Acacia species (Mapiye et al., 2011 Mokoboki et al., 2005 Ngwa et al., 2002 Aganga et al., 2000), and is quite high when compared to the 2-5% range observed in most tropical grasses during dry season (Brown et al., 2016). Acacia karroo is thus a valuable a protein supplement for livestock fed low quality forage (Brown et al., 2016 Mapiye et al., 2011).
The fibre content of Acacia karroo leaves is consistent with the fibre contents of leaves from other acacias (Brown et al., 2016 Mapiye et al., 2011 Mokoboki et al., 2005). Acacia karroo leaves contain high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and more particularly linolenic acid, compared to other acacias (Mapiye et al., 2011). The mineral content of Acacia karroo leaves is high, with favourable mineral profile (Brown et al., 2016 Mapiye et al., 2011 Halimani et al., 2005 Aganga et al., 1998). Contents in Ca, P and Mg are relatively higher than those observed for other Acacias species and they increase during the dry periods (Mapiye et al., 2011 Aganga et al., 2000). Contents of Ca, Mg , Fe and Zn are above the recommended diet contents for beef cattle (Mapiye et al., 2011). Acacia karroo foliage and pods contain reasonably high levels of essential amino acids (Mapiye et al., 2011 Halimani et al., 2005 Ngwa et al., 2002).
Variations in the composition Acacia karroo foliage are caused by differences in populations, soil, climate, season, stage of growth, and browsing pressure. Its nutritive value is higher in young plants in the growing season with fertile soil (Brown et al., 2016 Mapiye et al., 2011 Scogings et al., 2008 Aganga et al., 2000).
The presence of thorns in Acacia karroo can be a problem for the ingestion of leaves by livestock, which may be alleviated by cutting and sieving it to produce a leaf meal (Mapiye et al., 2011).
Acacia karroo contains high levels of condensed tannins, with values between 5.5% and 10% DM (Brown et al., 2016 Mapiye et al., 2011 Mokoboki et al., 2005 Dube et al., 2001), when a 2-8% range is expected to be beneficial to ruminants (Mueller-Harvey, 2006) Mapiye et al., 2011). Condensed tannins of Acacia karroo have been reported to increasing fecal N excretion and decrease N retention in goats, which should be the result of the complexation between tannins and endogenous proteins (Mapiye et al., 2011). The condensed tannins contents of Acacia karroo is expected to be higher in old plants, during the dry season, on low quality soils (Scogings et al., 2008).
Acacia karroo, like many Acacia species in Southern Africa, is a valuable source of forage for ruminants, particularly during dry periods, when it can provided a significant supply of protein compared to other available forages (Brown et al., 2016 Ngambu et al., 2013 Mapiye et al., 2011 Aganga et al., 2000). However, the presence of thorns and tannins limits its consumption and their adverse effect can be alleviated by feeding young sprouts or leaf meal (Brown et al., 2016 Mapiye et al., 2011).
The DM digestibility and particularly the protein digestibility of Acacia karroo are relatively low compared to those reported for similar browse plants, which may be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds and more specifically condensed tannins (Mapiye et al., 2011 Aganga et al., 1998)..
For beef production, Acacia karroo leaf meal can be mixed with locally available feed energy sources such as rangeland hay or chopped crop residues, before being distributed into troughs in pens or distributed in the rangeland. It can also be fed to steers each morning before they graze poor quality forages. Alternatively, dried leaves can be ground and used in home based or commercial rations (Mapiye et al., 2011).
Grazing steers (3 to 19 months old) supplemented with Acacia karoo leaf meal, in such a way to insure a supply of 150 g of protein, showed higher body condition score, average daily gain, slaughter weight, cold and warm carcass weights than those that were not supplemented. They also showed increased blood concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, P, Ca, Mg and Fe. Supplementing steers with Acacia karroo leaf meal, rather than supplementing them with sunflower cake or not supplementing them, increased meat protein content, and proportions of α-linolenic acid and its derivative docosapentaenoic acid in meat. In these studies, the growth performance of steers supplemented with Acacia karoo leaf meal remained lower than those of steers supplemented with sunflower cake ( (Mapiye et al., 2009a Mapiye et al., 2009b).
Acacia karroo leaves are used to supplement grazing goats, or goats fed with low quality forage (Brown et al., 2016). Goats fed alfalfa hay and supplemented with fresh Acacia karroo leaves included at 40% showed higher growth rates, lower meat pH, higher meat tenderness and higher meat juiciness than goats not supplemented with Acacia karroo (Ngambu et al., 2013 Ngambu et al., 2012). Goats fed a mixture of fresh Acacia karroo sprouts and alfalfa showed a higher average daily gain than goats fed a mixture of lucerne hay and commercial pellets at a feeding level of 3% of body weight. The protein content of fresh Acacia karroo sprouts was higher than that of commercial pellets and the composition of the diets was calculated to meet the metabolizable energy requirements of goats (Nyamukanza et al., 2008).
Acacia karroo foliage has anthelmintic properties in ruminants when fed with at an inclusion rate around 40-50% (Brown et al., 2016 Marume et al., 2012, Mapiye et al., 2011 Xhomfulana et al., 2009 Kahiya et al., 2003). Total fecal egg counts and Haemonchus contortus or Oesophagostomum colombianum worm burdens decreased in grazing steers supplemented with Acacia karroo leaf meal compared with non-supplemented steers or steers supplemented with sunflower cake diet (Xhomfulana et al., 2009). A decrease in fecal egg counts and worm counts was observed in kids infected with Haemonchus contortus larvae and given Acacia karroo whereas the infection progressed in kids not fed Acacia karroo (Marume et al., 2012). The anthelmintic properties of Acacia karroo have been attributed to its high content in condensed tannins and not to other polyphenols. For instance, though it contains less polyphenols than Acacia nilotica, Acacia karoo had higher anthelmintic properties in goats than Acacia nilotica and most of its polyphenols are in the form of condensed tannins (Kahiya et al., 2003).
Feeding Acacia karroo leaf meal at low (10%) inclusion level in the diet of pigs depressed nutrient digestibility, increased endogenous protein secretion and increased the activity of liver enzymes but did not reduce growth rate and was therefore considered as potentially feasible (Halimani et al., 2005 Halimani et al., 2007).
Feeding a diet containing 4% of Acacia karroo leaf meal to growing rabbits did not result in differences in intake and digestibility. It was concluded that the amount of tannins in the diet was not high enough to have negative effects and that an inclusion rate of 4% was ideal for supplementation (Mashamaite et al., 2009).
Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae (a family of legume, pea, or bean producing trees, shrubs, and plants), first described in Africa by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773. Wattle tree is the name used for a Acacia tree in Australia. Acacia tree actually refers to a genus of trees. There are a wide variety of acacia trees in the world. Most grow in tropical and sub-tropical regions. There are more than 800 species and sub-species of acacia tree around the world.198 Free images of Acacia Tree. 76 88 11. Leaf Green Leaf Veins. 40 31 9. Leaves Green. 36 51 2. Leaves Green. 139 131 15. Leopard Acacia Overview. 47 55 18. Acacia .
By Andrew McNaughton and Julienne du Toit
Pictures by Chris Marais
I n the eastern Karoo, the tree most likely to be piercing your flesh and plucking at your clothes as you walk along dry watercourses is Acacia karroo.
You’ll know it by its distinctive white thorns, so sharp that have been used for sewing needles and for pinning insect specimens. You’ll also know it by its lacy leaves, dark bark, and sweet-smelling yellow flower-balls in early summer.
In the Karoo, many will tell you that this thorn tree is invading the veld.
They say it like it was a bad thing.
Enriching the Earth
Sharp thorns and fine, mimosa-like leaves.
In fact, the Karoo Thorn (one of its many common names) is busy doing a splendid job at casting thorny protection over damaged land and immeasurably enriching the soil over the next few decades.
Like most pioneer plants, Acacia karroo is short-lived, usually dying after 30 or 40 years.
Unlike most pioneer plants, Acacia karroo has nitrogen-fixing fungi attached to its roots, which mean that the soil around every tree increases in fertility.
It’s well documented (among others by the Dohne Research Centre) that plants in and around Acacia karroos become more palatable and more productive.
Prince Albert Karoo botanist Dr Sue Milton (from Renu-Karoo) notes that their expansion in the Karoo is due in part to increased rainfall, and higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
“Rising temperatures and possibly fewer frost days may also contribute to their expansion. When the Karoo goes through drought, the trees die back towards the drainage lines again.”
Kudus have expanded their range into the Karoo is thanks to this tree.
While it lives, Acacia karroo is an all-in-one supermarket for browsers and grazers.
The leaves are nutritious. Grasses and other plants thrive in its shade, covering the bare earth. In winter, it drops its protein-rich pods.
Vervet monkeys, which are excellent seed dispersers, can live entirely from Acacia karroo alone. They eat its leaves, flowers, bark, and especially the delicious gum that gives the tree its other popular common name – Sweet Thorn.
Then, in a few decades, the Acacia karroo dies, and its rotting timber attracts thousands of insects, which in turn feed birds and mammals. Its fallen branches trap seeds and create small protective microclimates for new plants. It stops soil erosion along drainage lines and dry riverbeds.
Living or dead, these trees provide shelter for animals: protection from predators, shade in summer and windbreaks in winter.
Acacia karroo leaves the earth a richer place.
No wonder Kew Gardens in London has made it one of the ‘star plants’ in their South African Landscape section.
Vervet monkeys thrive around these trees which provide all their food needs.
POSTSCRIPT: In 2005, the Acacia karroo was renamed Vachellia karroo in a quiet but controversial taxonomical coup. The Australians have claimed the name Acacia for their wattles. This seems all the more vexing because ‘Acacia’ is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘thorny tree’, and the Australian wattles don’t have thorns.
(presently Vachellia karroo)
A truly exceptional tree, with a plethora of benefits for the gardener, farmer and the environment. There are three distinct growth forms divided into several subspecies with the largest (and the one we grow) being the Dune Forest Form. It has a tall, single, upright trunk, sometimes branching low down to create a multi-stemmed appearance with attractively peeling bark, and a dense, somewhat rounded crown that provides lovely dappled shade. The tree will often flower prolifically up to 4 times per year, depending on the rains, and the cheerful, bright yellow puffball blooms light up the entire tree, bringing life and beauty to its surroundings.
Fabaceae or Leguminosae (Legume or pod-bearing family).
This family is also divided into 3 subfamilies mimosa or acacia subfamily, cassia and pea.
Regarded as one of the largest, as well as economically significant families, its members have been cultivated since early times for their plethora of uses – as food, medicine, fodder, for practical use (tannins) and ornamental displays.
Arguably one of the most widespread trees in Africa, it occurs in nearly all parts of the country, from temperate to almost desert-like conditions.
They are found mainly in savannah grassland, where the soil is alkaline, but also grow in coastal shrub, woodland, and along streams and rivers.
The trees are however not normally found growing in overly acidic soils, or where the winters are cold and wet.
In the wild, the trees are usually a good indicator of water and nutrient-rich soils
Deep rusty-brown, sometimes darker often flaking to expose the reddish under bark.
The bark has a somewhat leathery texture, and young branches are a lovely olive-brown or rusty-red colour, with a layer of conspicuous beige dots.
The leaves are twice-compound, oblong, light and feathery-textured, dark-green, and typically hairless.
The main leaves comprise of about 5 pairs of leaflets, and each of these is again split into 8 or more pairs of smaller leaflets of about 6 x 2.5mm long.
They occur singly or in pairs of up to 8 in the axils of thorns.
The leafstalks are 5-11mm long.
The thorns grow in pairs, are straight, stout, white with darker tips, and usually measure between 2.5 to 10 cm long.
On younger trees they appear to be more prominent.
Typically, they will be longer and thicker towards the base of tree, whereas at the top they are smaller and fewer in between.
Small, golden-yellow balls (13mm diameter) in groups of 1-7, growing on short branches at the ends of stems, not amongst the leaves.
They are sweetly scented., and usually occur from October to February, but flowering can be sporadic, depending on the seasons rains.
Dark-brown, slender pods, (100-260 x 6-10 mm).
The pods are woody textured, usually slim and sickle-shaped, and are borne in clusters that split open on the tree.
The tree size can be extremely variable, depending on conditions, but typically they grow between 3-15m, occasionally reaching 15 – 17m
The bark, leaves and gum of the tree are mostly used, less often the roots.
Crushed leaves are used as poultices for open wounds, and as a gargle for sore throats.
The gum is used as a remedy for oral thrush.
The bark and leaves are used as emetics in the treatment of dysentery, while concoctions of both of these and the gum are used as ointments to treat colds and conjunctivitis.
A substance found in the heartwood of this tree is currently being researched for its blood pressure lowering properties.
The nutritious and versatile gum is often used in the food industry as an additive and makes a good water- soluble glue.
Seeds have been roasted to make a good alternative to coffee, and the gum is also consumed raw by people and monkeys.
The wood is hard, heavy, thick grained and durable, and makes a good quality firewood.
It has also been used extensively for making furniture, fencing posts, yokes and in turnery.
The early European settlers used the wood to construct their wagons.
A lovely red dye can be obtained from the tannin-rich bark, and it has been used in the tanning process to give leather a rich, even colour.
The bark also produces a good twine, as it is slightly fibrous.
The nutrient rich wood is prone to attacks from borers, and mature trees have been known to suffer relentless attacks from both these and several fungi species.
The tree also has an invasive root system and should be planted well away from permeant structures.
The tree provides a high quality, nutritious fodder for livestock and game and is known to be a favourite of the Black Rhino.
Monkeys, baboons and bush babies eat the sweet gum, as well as many insect species.
The nectar and pollen rich flowers attract a multitude of honeybees (very good honey tree) and butterflies, many of which have been known to use this as a food tree for their larvae.
Birds also favour the tree as a nesting site, as the thorny branches provide shelter and protection from predators.
The flowers are also readily eaten by many animals, and the multitude of insect life it attracts will inevitably lure a host of insectivorous bird species.
Like many other Acacia species, the tree has nitrogen fixing abilities, and is able to harness the element directly from the air with the help of symbiotic bacteria living in its roots.
It then effectively converts it and thereby enriches the surrounding soil.
The tree is thus an asset in any garden or park, as it will not only provide shelter from the elements to sensitive plants planted in its wake, but also helps with the rehabilitation of the soil.
An amazingly hardy tree, that, once properly established, can withstand extended periods of drought and cold.
Normally a fast grower, 1- 1.5 m per year, but this may be less if the habitat is unfavourable.
Prefers an alkaline, nutrient rich soil, but will tolerate a wide range of soil types, from clay to loam, but typically does not like sandy soils.
Low to moderate water needs.
Soak seeds in warm water overnight and use only ones that have swollen in size.
They can then be directly sown into large individual bags, as transplanting them at a later stage might stunt the saplings growth due to the presence of the long, sensitive taproot.
The growing medium should be a mixture of river sand (to ease drainage) and compost (2:1).
Cover the seeds with a thin layer of mulch and keep moist.
Germination is usually good and will occur within 2 weeks.
Place the containers in a warm, bright area.
It is recommended to provide the saplings with adequate trunk support, as they grow rapidly.
The samples trees were located between 2,500 ft and 3,500 ft. At Keauhou on Hawaii, sample trees were selected from three canopy classes per age class. The age classes were 10, 15, and 20 years. The canopy classes were as follows: dominant tree (largest tree within a sampling area with canopy fully ex-posed to sun), co-dominate trees (the largest
Xqc soundboard Oct 22, 2017 В· Vachellia karroo, also commonly known as the Sweet Thorn, is part of the acacia specie and native to southern Africa. These trees can grow up to 12 meters and is recognizable by its rounded crown, yellow flowers, finely textured leaves and twin thorns. The bark is red while young and will with time become rough and a deep reddish colour. Stucky x reader panic attack