Irises are very popular garden perennials with bright, unusual flowers. Their flowering, depending on the species, can last from mid-spring to mid-summer.
Most irises are rhizomatous plants, only a few species, allocated in a special group, form bulbs. From the point of view of growing conditions, all irises can be divided into two main types: moisture-loving and dry-loving.
In the modern classification, many plants from closely related species of the Iris family are classified as irises, although not all experts agree with such a combination.
In the middle lane, most of them bloom from early to late June, except for a few earlier (Russian, Pumila, all iridodictiums) and later (xiphoid, domestic, forked, spuria) species.
Moisture-loving irises in nature grow along the banks of reservoirs and damp meadows. In the garden, they need regular, abundant watering.
Marsh iris (airovidny) is a winter-hardy species with yellow flowers that grows along the banks of reservoirs throughout Russia.
Iris marsh grows along the banks of reservoirs throughout Russia
Winter-hardy iris smooth with blue flowers grows along the banks of reservoirs in Siberia and the Far East.
Iris smooth grows along the banks of reservoirs in Siberia and the Far East
Iris bristly with blue-violet flowers - the most frost-resistant of all irises, grows in the damp meadows of Eastern Siberia and North America.
Iris bristly with blue-violet flowers - the most frost-resistant of all irises
Multicolored iris is a very winter-hardy North American species with blue-blue or lilac-purple flowers that grows along the banks of water bodies.
Iris multicolored - a very winter-hardy North American species
Mint Fresh is a variety of multicolored iris with painted white and lilac petals.
Mint Fresh - a variety of multicolored iris with painted white and lilac petals
Spectacular Louisiana irises with reddish-lilac, blue-violet and white flowers normally winter only in the subtropics of the Krasnodar Territory.
Louisiana irises have very low winter hardiness
The frost-resistant and unpretentious Siberian iris with violet-blue flowers grows in wet meadows throughout Russia.
Frost-resistant and unpretentious Siberian iris grows in wet meadows throughout Russia
Snow Queen (Snow Queen) is an old variety of Siberian iris with white flowers.
Snow Queen (Snow Queen) - an old variety of Siberian iris with white flowers
Cambridge is a very hardy old Siberian iris with blue-blue flowers.
Cambridge is a very hardy old Siberian iris with blue-blue flowers
Coronation Enthem is a Siberian iris variety with vibrant purple-blue flowers.
Coronation Enthem is a variety of Siberian iris with vibrant purple-blue flowers
Sultan Ruby is a variety of Siberian iris with dark lilac petals.
Sultan Ruby - a variety of Siberian iris with dark lilac petals
Lavender Bounty is a variety of Siberian iris with delicate lilac flowers.
Lavender Bounty - a variety of Siberian iris with delicate lilac flowers
Iris xiphoid (Kempfer's iris) grows in damp meadows in the Far East and East Asia. Its natural form with dark purple flowers is quite winter-hardy in central Russia when planted in elevated areas without stagnant water and regular watering in drought. It blooms in July, later than most other species.
Iris xiphoid (Kempfer's iris) grows in damp meadows in the Far East and East Asia
The garden forms of Kempfer's iris with flowers of various colors are known as Japanese irises. They have low winter hardiness, require dry wintering and abundant watering during the flowering period.
The garden forms of Kempfer's iris with flowers of various colors are known as Japanese irises.
Indoor iris with orange flowers, better known as Chinese belamcanda, blooms only at the end of July. His winter hardiness is average.
Domestic iris is better known as Chinese belamcanda.
Dry-loving irises naturally grow in dry meadows, in steppes and on rocky slopes. In the garden, they need sunny areas with good drainage, and watering is required only with prolonged drought.
A winter-hardy species from Eastern Siberia - iris (pardantopsis) forked with pale purple flowers blooms in early July.
Winter-hardy species from Eastern Siberia - Iris (pardantopsis) forked
Garden hybrid of forked and domestic irises - Noris pardankand.
Garden hybrid of fork and home irises - pardankand Noris
Iris Russian is a winter-hardy undersized species with narrow leaves and blue-blue flowers from Siberia and Eastern Europe. It blooms early, already in May.
Iris Russian - winter-hardy undersized species with narrow leaves
Iris cereal is a thermophilic narrow-leaved species with blue-violet flowers from southern Europe.
Iris cereal - thermophilic narrow-leaved species
Irises spuria are a group of drought-resistant varieties with a varied color of flowers obtained from heat-loving southern species. Experienced florists can grow them in the Moscow region, although they are more suitable for the southern regions. They bloom in July, later than other irises.
Irises spuria are drought-resistant and thermophilic
The fake iris from the spuria group has blue-purple flowers.
Iris fake from the spuria group has blue-purple flowers
Salt-loving iris from the spuria group has yellow flowers.
Salt-loving iris from the spuria group has yellow flowers
Bearded irises are the most popular and numerous group of varieties with flowers of the most varied colors. Tall, bearded irises originate from the Germanic iris with blue-violet flowers.
German iris - the ancestor of tall varieties of bearded irises
Wabash is a very hardy and winter-hardy old variety with contrasting flowers: the upper petals are white, the lower ones are dark purple.
Wabash is a very hardy and winter-hardy old variety with contrasting white and purple flowers
Babeling Brook is a reliable variety with solid, pale blue flowers.
Babeling Brook is a reliable variety with solid pale blue flowers
Stepping Out has white petals with a contrasting blue-violet border.
Stepping Out has white petals with a contrasting blue-violet border
Feuervogel is a very winter-hardy and unpretentious old variety. The upper petals are light brownish-lilac, the lower ones are dark burgundy-brown.
Feuervogel is a very winter-hardy and unpretentious old variety of brownish-lilac tones
Millennium Falcon is a variety with striped white and purple petals.
Millennium Falcon - variety with striped white and purple petals
Dwarf iris pumila (low iris) - the ancestor of early low-growing varieties of bearded irises, blooming in May.
Dwarf iris pumila - the ancestor of early undersized varieties of bearded irises
The yellow form of the iris, the pumila, is found in gardens and in the wild.
The yellow form of the iris pumila is found in gardens and in the wild.
Ringer is an unusual variety of dwarf iris that has pale yellow petals with a brown border.
Ringer is an unusual variety of dwarf iris with pale yellow petals with a brown border
Cats Eye (Cat's Eye) is a dwarf iris variety with burgundy red flowers.
Cats Eye (Cat's Eye) - a variety of dwarf iris with burgundy-red flowers
Cocoa Pink is a pale pink variety of dwarf iris with a contrasting blue beard.
Cocoa Pink - a pale pink variety of dwarf iris with a contrasting blue beard
The group of bulbous irises includes iridodictiums, xyphyums and junoes.
Dwarf bulbous irises (iridodictiums) bloom first, at the same time as the snow melts.
Iris (iridodictium) reticulated is one of the most common and hardy species, it has many varieties with blue or purple petals.
Iridodictium reticulated - one of the most common and hardy species
Iris (iridodictium) Dunford with bright yellow flowers in the damp climate of the middle lane lives only 2-3 years.
Iridodictium Dunford with bright yellow flowers is beautiful, but short-lived
Vinogradov's iris (iridodictium) is a hardy species with pale yellow flowers.
Iridodictium Vinogradov - hardy species with pale yellow flowers
Tall bulbous irises (xyphyums) bloom in June.
English bulbous irises (varieties of xyphyum broadleaf) with blue-blue and blue-violet flowers are the most frost-hardy and winter well even in the Leningrad region.
English bulbous irises are the most hardy
Spanish bulbous irises (varieties of xyphyums and Lusitania) with yellow and purple petals winter only in subtropical regions.
Spanish bulbous irises winter only in the subtropics
Dutch bulbous irises (hybrids of common and Tangier xyphyums) are white, yellow, lilac, purple. They are often used for forcing, but they winter outdoors only in the southern regions.
Dutch bulbous irises are often used for forcing
Juno is a special group of bulbous irises of Caucasian and Central Asian origin. They grow well in southern areas with long, hot and dry summers. Juno Bukhara (Bukhara iris) with white-yellow flowers is one of the most hardy species of this type in culture.
Juno Bukhara (Bukhara iris) - the most hardy species
In my garden near Kazan, they winter without shelter and every year Siberian irises, marsh irises, the natural form of Japanese iris and several bearded varieties of different heights - from dwarf to tall, including Wabash, Babeling Brook and Feuervogel - bloom every year.
The endless variety of irises attracts experienced collectors, and their ease of care allows even novice gardeners to grow these luxurious flowers.
Iris family, genus Iris.
In the domestic garden classification of irises, there is a clear division into two large groups:
Both are rhizome plants!
To avoid confusion, it is necessary to clarify that at present there is no single classification of the Iris genus.
You might have heard concepts such as
The Russian Iris Society (ROI) refers exclusively to rhizome irises to real irises. The world community thinks differently: for example, if we turn to the well-known publication thePlantList, bulbous irises also belong to the Iris genus, for example, Iris xiphium Iris Xifium and Iris junonia Iris Juno.
Russian scientists believe that the attribution of Juno, Xyphyum to Iris is erroneous, these are completely different plants, as an argument is given the differences in ontogeny (age phases) of plants.
In the genus Xifium, 6 species have been identified, which were widely used in interspecific hybridization. The results of this selection in different countries have led to the introduction of the so-called Dutch, Spanish or English bulbous irises on the market.
They are also found in our gardens, although in view of the differences in climate, mainly English hybrids are popular, less often Dutch ones (they are characterized by weak frost resistance), Spanish bulbous irises are practically not found - they are not winter-hardy at all.
Time will tell who is right - the world community or Russian scientists. But for now, the planting material of bulbous plants continues to come to Russian counters under the name Iris hybrid.
Iris bristly (not bearded) Iris setosa
On the basis of the accepted international classification, three groups of bearded irises are distinguished according to the height of the peduncle: dwarf (up to 40 cm), medium-sized (41-70 cm), tall (more than 70 cm). The varieties of tall bearded irises are the most numerous and popular.
Modern varieties (bred in 1990-2000) are distinguished by powerful branched candelabra peduncles with a large number of buds. Due to this, the total duration of flowering can reach two weeks, and several flowers are simultaneously revealed on the peduncle. But the most obvious advantages are large flowers with a dense texture and strong corrugation of the perianth lobes and a huge variety of original, often difficult to describe, colors.
The variety of the natural world of irises was divided by botanists into 2 types: rhizome and bulbous. Rhizomes, in turn, are subdivided into bearded and beardless or beardless. Each species has its own characteristics and growing conditions. Let's consider each type in more detail.
The large group of adorable irises includes tall, standard, stunted and dwarf plants.
Distinctive features of bearded irises:
Beautiful varieties of bearded irises - a worthy garden decoration
A wave of new varieties of bearded irises simply swept the country in the early 90s. Mass distribution played a cruel joke, turning against the flowers themselves. It was generally accepted that the newest varieties were inferior to the old ones in quality. However, this is an exaggerated opinion, so you should not give up beautiful varieties of irises for the sake of someone's opinion.
Among the huge variety, you can find not only bearded irises, there are also Dutch and netted irises, which bloom in early spring from a planted bulb.
Elegant tall plants up to 50 cm in height. These are hybrid varieties bred by Dutch breeders. Planting material is represented by bulbs covered with scales in several layers. The color of flowers can be snow-white, blue, yellow, blue, orange.
Representatives of the Dutch selection. Can be grown from bulbs. They bloom very early and delight with flowering for more than a month
Purple irises can be found. Flowering begins in mid-May and lasts until early June. By the end of August, the foliage dries up completely. Dutch irises are frost-resistant, but the bushes need to be covered to avoid freezing.
They prefer sunny areas with fertile soil and neutral acidity. Looks beautiful in cut, can be grown in flower beds, flower beds.
This group refers to dwarf plants not exceeding 10-15 cm in height. Such undersized varieties are used to decorate borders, in rabatkas, look beautiful on flower beds.
However, the foliage is low only before flowering. When the specimens fade, the foliage reaches a height of 50 cm. Bloom very early. Thanks to such an early flowering, the people are also called snowdrops.
Irises are divided into two large groups according to the type of root system (reproduction). They are rhizome and bulbous. All irises have the same flower structure - these are 6 petals, of which 3 inner ones are raised up like a dome, and 3 outer ones are beautifully bent outward.In the catalogs you can find the following name of the petals: external - "fouls", internal - "standards" Different types of irises - fouls and standards look different. The leaves of all irises are xiphoid or long lanceolate. Covered with a waxy coating, looks silvery. All types of irises are very flexible to growing conditions. They are quite unpretentious, they can grow for a long time in one place and it is not difficult to grow them.
These are the three most common and popular types of rhizome irises. Bearded irises are the most decorative, and have such a palette of colors and flower shapes that will satisfy even the most capricious flower growers. There are varieties with a crinkled wavy edge of petals, with a color from classic blue to bicolor and even with a rainbow multicolor color. Pumila is a dwarf species with large flowers. And the Siberian ones are incredibly graceful, with small flowers on high peduncles, like flying butterflies.
This group differs from the previous one in that it reproduces not by rhizomes, but by bulbs. Most of them are miniature and bloom early and very early (March-April-early May). In addition to reticulum and Dutch, there are other species, but they are not very winter-resistant.
Iris flowers are very fond of light, but when choosing a variety, you need to pay attention to their relationship with moisture. The Siberian type of Iris grows well on ordinary moist soil, but varieties such as Kempfer, bristly and yellow, like swampy places so that the ground is regularly wet. Varieties of bearded and other irises grow well in well-drained areas. In autumn or spring, Irises are planted in the ground. It is advisable to transplant Irises to another place every 3-4 years, this affects their luxurious flowering, but after 10 years, transplant Siberian Irises.
Irises differ in richness of tones and duration of flowering. This plant boasts a wide variety of varieties and species
Iris bearded. This variety is considered the most popular of the garden irises. The bases of the outer petals are decorated with special stripes of hairs, which stand out strongly against the general background with a contrasting color. Bearded light-loving irises are undersized, medium-sized and large-sized. Their height can vary from up to 70 cm.
Siberian iris. The area of its distribution is vast territories, ranging from the north of Italy to the purest Lake Baikal. Plant populations are also found in the Komi Republic, the Caucasus and Northern Turkey. The rhizome of the Siberian iris at the top has brown remnants of leaf sheaths. The branched stem has several stalk-enclosing leaves. Beautiful flowers are on unequal pedicels. A small box contains light gray seeds.
Iris Dutch... Such a perennial has a special underground organ where stocks of substances are stored instead of rhizomes. Several daughter bulbs are formed annually. The leafy sturdy peduncle reaches a height of 80 cm. The stem has narrow-grooved dense leaves. The color of the flower can be either one-color or two-color. This variety is considered thermophilic and requires shelter from cold weather and winds in winter.
Iris dwarf. This species grows well in feather grass and dry grass steppes. He also enjoys settling in stony calcareous slopes, salt licks and sands. The height of this perennial plant is no more than 15 cm. All its leaves are basal and bluish. The length of the peduncle reaches 3 cm. The dwarf iris blooms in early May. It tolerates dryness well.
Iris marsh... It can often reach one meter in height. Beautiful golden yellow flowers are decorated with brown strokes. This unique variety blooms in May and June. This plant is considered heat-loving and winter-hardy, it prefers direct sunlight. In the wild, marsh iris chooses floodplains and various banks of water bodies. It can often be found anywhere in Europe, in Siberia, the Far East, China and Japan.
Iris xiphoid. This plant is a late flowering species. The height of narrow leaves does not exceed 40cm. Flat flowers have short inner petals and rather wide outer petals. The average height of the peduncles is no more than 70 cm. In natural conditions, it always blooms from mid-July to mid-August. The xiphoid iris with a special thickened rhizome is found in Korea, China and Japan.
In recent decades, breeders have begun to pay more attention to geraniums, and geraniums of hybrid origin have appeared in our gardens. Not all of them are flawless, but there are also real masterpieces. Geranium No. 1 at the moment can be called a variety Jolly bee... Forms a well-growing curtain, crowned with spectacular bluish-lilac, rather large (about 5 cm) flowers with an almost white center. It blooms for a very long time - another annual will envy - from mid-June to October. The bush does not fall apart in the process of growth, as is, unfortunately, often the case with geraniums, which look royal during flowering, and then turn into "ugly ducklings". It looks like a variety Rozanne - flowers and bush shape, blooms very profusely, from June to September. Hybrid geranium Rozanne - one of the best ground cover plants for planting large tracts. It blooms profusely and continuously from June until the first frost and attracts bees.
Breeders are making efforts to replicate success Jolly bee and even divert attention away from this variety. So, for example, a completely new variety of geranium Sibani blue predict great success. In addition to long-lasting blooms, it has large deep blue flowers with even darker, showy veins on the petals. Another novelty - geranium variety Habana blues - they guessed a great future, but it only appeared on sale this year.