Types and varieties of irises for garden plots: moisture-loving and dry-loving, rhizome and bulbous


Irises are very popular garden perennials with bright, unusual flowers. Their flowering, depending on the species, can last from mid-spring to mid-summer.

Variety of garden irises

Most irises are rhizomatous plants, only a few species, allocated in a special group, form bulbs. From the point of view of growing conditions, all irises can be divided into two main types: moisture-loving and dry-loving.

In the modern classification, many plants from closely related species of the Iris family are classified as irises, although not all experts agree with such a combination.

In the middle lane, most of them bloom from early to late June, except for a few earlier (Russian, Pumila, all iridodictiums) and later (xiphoid, domestic, forked, spuria) species.

Moisture-loving species

Moisture-loving irises in nature grow along the banks of reservoirs and damp meadows. In the garden, they need regular, abundant watering.

Marsh iris (airovidny) is a winter-hardy species with yellow flowers that grows along the banks of reservoirs throughout Russia.

Iris marsh grows along the banks of reservoirs throughout Russia

Winter-hardy iris smooth with blue flowers grows along the banks of reservoirs in Siberia and the Far East.

Iris smooth grows along the banks of reservoirs in Siberia and the Far East

Iris bristly with blue-violet flowers - the most frost-resistant of all irises, grows in the damp meadows of Eastern Siberia and North America.

Iris bristly with blue-violet flowers - the most frost-resistant of all irises

Multicolored iris is a very winter-hardy North American species with blue-blue or lilac-purple flowers that grows along the banks of water bodies.

Iris multicolored - a very winter-hardy North American species

Mint Fresh is a variety of multicolored iris with painted white and lilac petals.

Mint Fresh - a variety of multicolored iris with painted white and lilac petals

Spectacular Louisiana irises with reddish-lilac, blue-violet and white flowers normally winter only in the subtropics of the Krasnodar Territory.

Louisiana irises have very low winter hardiness

The frost-resistant and unpretentious Siberian iris with violet-blue flowers grows in wet meadows throughout Russia.

Frost-resistant and unpretentious Siberian iris grows in wet meadows throughout Russia

Snow Queen (Snow Queen) is an old variety of Siberian iris with white flowers.

Snow Queen (Snow Queen) - an old variety of Siberian iris with white flowers

Cambridge is a very hardy old Siberian iris with blue-blue flowers.

Cambridge is a very hardy old Siberian iris with blue-blue flowers

Coronation Enthem is a Siberian iris variety with vibrant purple-blue flowers.

Coronation Enthem is a variety of Siberian iris with vibrant purple-blue flowers

Sultan Ruby is a variety of Siberian iris with dark lilac petals.

Sultan Ruby - a variety of Siberian iris with dark lilac petals

Lavender Bounty is a variety of Siberian iris with delicate lilac flowers.

Lavender Bounty - a variety of Siberian iris with delicate lilac flowers

Iris xiphoid (Kempfer's iris) grows in damp meadows in the Far East and East Asia. Its natural form with dark purple flowers is quite winter-hardy in central Russia when planted in elevated areas without stagnant water and regular watering in drought. It blooms in July, later than most other species.

Iris xiphoid (Kempfer's iris) grows in damp meadows in the Far East and East Asia

The garden forms of Kempfer's iris with flowers of various colors are known as Japanese irises. They have low winter hardiness, require dry wintering and abundant watering during the flowering period.

The garden forms of Kempfer's iris with flowers of various colors are known as Japanese irises.

Indoor iris with orange flowers, better known as Chinese belamcanda, blooms only at the end of July. His winter hardiness is average.

Domestic iris is better known as Chinese belamcanda.

Dry-loving species

Dry-loving irises naturally grow in dry meadows, in steppes and on rocky slopes. In the garden, they need sunny areas with good drainage, and watering is required only with prolonged drought.

A winter-hardy species from Eastern Siberia - iris (pardantopsis) forked with pale purple flowers blooms in early July.

Winter-hardy species from Eastern Siberia - Iris (pardantopsis) forked

Garden hybrid of forked and domestic irises - Noris pardankand.

Garden hybrid of fork and home irises - pardankand Noris

Iris Russian is a winter-hardy undersized species with narrow leaves and blue-blue flowers from Siberia and Eastern Europe. It blooms early, already in May.

Iris Russian - winter-hardy undersized species with narrow leaves

Iris cereal is a thermophilic narrow-leaved species with blue-violet flowers from southern Europe.

Iris cereal - thermophilic narrow-leaved species

Irises spuria are a group of drought-resistant varieties with a varied color of flowers obtained from heat-loving southern species. Experienced florists can grow them in the Moscow region, although they are more suitable for the southern regions. They bloom in July, later than other irises.

Irises spuria are drought-resistant and thermophilic

The fake iris from the spuria group has blue-purple flowers.

Iris fake from the spuria group has blue-purple flowers

Salt-loving iris from the spuria group has yellow flowers.

Salt-loving iris from the spuria group has yellow flowers

Bearded irises are the most popular and numerous group of varieties with flowers of the most varied colors. Tall, bearded irises originate from the Germanic iris with blue-violet flowers.

German iris - the ancestor of tall varieties of bearded irises

Wabash is a very hardy and winter-hardy old variety with contrasting flowers: the upper petals are white, the lower ones are dark purple.

Wabash is a very hardy and winter-hardy old variety with contrasting white and purple flowers

Babeling Brook is a reliable variety with solid, pale blue flowers.

Babeling Brook is a reliable variety with solid pale blue flowers

Stepping Out has white petals with a contrasting blue-violet border.

Stepping Out has white petals with a contrasting blue-violet border

Feuervogel is a very winter-hardy and unpretentious old variety. The upper petals are light brownish-lilac, the lower ones are dark burgundy-brown.

Feuervogel is a very winter-hardy and unpretentious old variety of brownish-lilac tones

Millennium Falcon is a variety with striped white and purple petals.

Millennium Falcon - variety with striped white and purple petals

Dwarf iris pumila (low iris) - the ancestor of early low-growing varieties of bearded irises, blooming in May.

Dwarf iris pumila - the ancestor of early undersized varieties of bearded irises

The yellow form of the iris, the pumila, is found in gardens and in the wild.

The yellow form of the iris pumila is found in gardens and in the wild.

Ringer is an unusual variety of dwarf iris that has pale yellow petals with a brown border.

Ringer is an unusual variety of dwarf iris with pale yellow petals with a brown border

Cats Eye (Cat's Eye) is a dwarf iris variety with burgundy red flowers.

Cats Eye (Cat's Eye) - a variety of dwarf iris with burgundy-red flowers

Cocoa Pink is a pale pink variety of dwarf iris with a contrasting blue beard.

Cocoa Pink - a pale pink variety of dwarf iris with a contrasting blue beard

Bulbous irises

The group of bulbous irises includes iridodictiums, xyphyums and junoes.

Dwarf bulbous irises (iridodictiums) bloom first, at the same time as the snow melts.

Iris (iridodictium) reticulated is one of the most common and hardy species, it has many varieties with blue or purple petals.

Iridodictium reticulated - one of the most common and hardy species

Iris (iridodictium) Dunford with bright yellow flowers in the damp climate of the middle lane lives only 2-3 years.

Iridodictium Dunford with bright yellow flowers is beautiful, but short-lived

Vinogradov's iris (iridodictium) is a hardy species with pale yellow flowers.

Iridodictium Vinogradov - hardy species with pale yellow flowers

Tall bulbous irises (xyphyums) bloom in June.

English bulbous irises (varieties of xyphyum broadleaf) with blue-blue and blue-violet flowers are the most frost-hardy and winter well even in the Leningrad region.

English bulbous irises are the most hardy

Spanish bulbous irises (varieties of xyphyums and Lusitania) with yellow and purple petals winter only in subtropical regions.

Spanish bulbous irises winter only in the subtropics

Dutch bulbous irises (hybrids of common and Tangier xyphyums) are white, yellow, lilac, purple. They are often used for forcing, but they winter outdoors only in the southern regions.

Dutch bulbous irises are often used for forcing

Juno is a special group of bulbous irises of Caucasian and Central Asian origin. They grow well in southern areas with long, hot and dry summers. Juno Bukhara (Bukhara iris) with white-yellow flowers is one of the most hardy species of this type in culture.

Juno Bukhara (Bukhara iris) - the most hardy species

In my garden near Kazan, they winter without shelter and every year Siberian irises, marsh irises, the natural form of Japanese iris and several bearded varieties of different heights - from dwarf to tall, including Wabash, Babeling Brook and Feuervogel - bloom every year.

The endless variety of irises attracts experienced collectors, and their ease of care allows even novice gardeners to grow these luxurious flowers.


Irises Iris

Iris family, genus Iris.

In the domestic garden classification of irises, there is a clear division into two large groups:

  • Bearded irises
  • Non-bearded irises

Both are rhizome plants!

To avoid confusion, it is necessary to clarify that at present there is no single classification of the Iris genus.

You might have heard concepts such as

  • Rhizome irises
  • Bulbous irises
  • Dutch irises

The Russian Iris Society (ROI) refers exclusively to rhizome irises to real irises. The world community thinks differently: for example, if we turn to the well-known publication thePlantList, bulbous irises also belong to the Iris genus, for example, Iris xiphium Iris Xifium and Iris junonia Iris Juno.

Russian scientists believe that the attribution of Juno, Xyphyum to Iris is erroneous, these are completely different plants, as an argument is given the differences in ontogeny (age phases) of plants.

In the genus Xifium, 6 species have been identified, which were widely used in interspecific hybridization. The results of this selection in different countries have led to the introduction of the so-called Dutch, Spanish or English bulbous irises on the market.

They are also found in our gardens, although in view of the differences in climate, mainly English hybrids are popular, less often Dutch ones (they are characterized by weak frost resistance), Spanish bulbous irises are practically not found - they are not winter-hardy at all.

Time will tell who is right - the world community or Russian scientists. But for now, the planting material of bulbous plants continues to come to Russian counters under the name Iris hybrid.

Iris bristly (not bearded) Iris setosa


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF IRIS

On the basis of the accepted international classification, three groups of bearded irises are distinguished according to the height of the peduncle: dwarf (up to 40 cm), medium-sized (41-70 cm), tall (more than 70 cm). The varieties of tall bearded irises are the most numerous and popular.

Modern varieties (bred in 1990-2000) are distinguished by powerful branched candelabra peduncles with a large number of buds. Due to this, the total duration of flowering can reach two weeks, and several flowers are simultaneously revealed on the peduncle. But the most obvious advantages are large flowers with a dense texture and strong corrugation of the perianth lobes and a huge variety of original, often difficult to describe, colors.


Variety of species

The variety of the natural world of irises was divided by botanists into 2 types: rhizome and bulbous. Rhizomes, in turn, are subdivided into bearded and beardless or beardless. Each species has its own characteristics and growing conditions. Let's consider each type in more detail.

Bearded irises - kings of the garden

The large group of adorable irises includes tall, standard, stunted and dwarf plants.

Distinctive features of bearded irises:

  • Coloring. You can find flowers, ranging from snow-white color to dark charcoal. Breeders have not bred only one variety of irises - there is no pure scarlet color.
  • Texture. The petals are both translucent and dense. You can find petals with a wax texture
  • The form... Thanks to breeding work, you can buy flowers of a classic shape, and if you want something original and unique, then there is the opportunity to have varieties with beautiful, foamy lace of openwork petals on your site. These flowers look like a soaring bird.
  • The size. Among the wide range represented by low and tall varieties, you can choose the one that will be appropriate in landscape design and which will attract with its appearance.

Beautiful varieties of bearded irises - a worthy garden decoration

A wave of new varieties of bearded irises simply swept the country in the early 90s. Mass distribution played a cruel joke, turning against the flowers themselves. It was generally accepted that the newest varieties were inferior to the old ones in quality. However, this is an exaggerated opinion, so you should not give up beautiful varieties of irises for the sake of someone's opinion.

Among the huge variety, you can find not only bearded irises, there are also Dutch and netted irises, which bloom in early spring from a planted bulb.

Dutch irises (xyphyums)

Elegant tall plants up to 50 cm in height. These are hybrid varieties bred by Dutch breeders. Planting material is represented by bulbs covered with scales in several layers. The color of flowers can be snow-white, blue, yellow, blue, orange.

Representatives of the Dutch selection. Can be grown from bulbs. They bloom very early and delight with flowering for more than a month

Purple irises can be found. Flowering begins in mid-May and lasts until early June. By the end of August, the foliage dries up completely. Dutch irises are frost-resistant, but the bushes need to be covered to avoid freezing.

They prefer sunny areas with fertile soil and neutral acidity. Looks beautiful in cut, can be grown in flower beds, flower beds.

Net irises (iridodictiums)

This group refers to dwarf plants not exceeding 10-15 cm in height. Such undersized varieties are used to decorate borders, in rabatkas, look beautiful on flower beds.

However, the foliage is low only before flowering. When the specimens fade, the foliage reaches a height of 50 cm. Bloom very early. Thanks to such an early flowering, the people are also called snowdrops.


The main types of irises: rhizome and bulbous

Irises are divided into two large groups according to the type of root system (reproduction). They are rhizome and bulbous. All irises have the same flower structure - these are 6 petals, of which 3 inner ones are raised up like a dome, and 3 outer ones are beautifully bent outward.In the catalogs you can find the following name of the petals: external - "fouls", internal - "standards" Different types of irises - fouls and standards look different. The leaves of all irises are xiphoid or long lanceolate. Covered with a waxy coating, looks silvery. All types of irises are very flexible to growing conditions. They are quite unpretentious, they can grow for a long time in one place and it is not difficult to grow them.

Rhizome irises: bearded (Germanica), Pumila (dwarf) and Siberian

These are the three most common and popular types of rhizome irises. Bearded irises are the most decorative, and have such a palette of colors and flower shapes that will satisfy even the most capricious flower growers. There are varieties with a crinkled wavy edge of petals, with a color from classic blue to bicolor and even with a rainbow multicolor color. Pumila is a dwarf species with large flowers. And the Siberian ones are incredibly graceful, with small flowers on high peduncles, like flying butterflies.

  • Bearded irises - have the largest flowers, their leaves form a fan, and the peduncles are very high up to 120 cm - 130 cm. They winter well, grow quickly. And their most characteristic feature is the "beards" on the lower petals, going from the center of the flower to the edge. They bloom from mid-late May to late June. Each peduncle has 3-5 buds, which open sequentially. Each flower remains decorative for up to 5 days, and flowering lasts up to 20 days. The most spectacular irises are varieties: Pink Tafferty, Radiant Apogee, Orange Harvest, Natchez Trace, Edith Woolford, Red Zinger. About the features of agricultural technology - in our article.
  • Pumila / dwarf irises - pumila is a group of modern undersized varieties. They have strong peduncles, on which flowers bloom somewhat smaller than those of Germanicus irises, but for such crumbs they are huge, about 1/3 of the total plant height. They are perfect for the foreground of a flower bed, they do not need to be tied up even in rain and wind. Their height is from 25 cm to 35 cm. Flowering lasts as long as that of bearded irises, but it starts 2 weeks earlier (May-June). They are distinguished by their special resistance to our winters and unpretentious care. Check out the adorable varieties: Banbury Ruffles, Brassie, Plenitude, Tickled Peach.
  • Siberian irises - actively come into fashion on the wave of gardens in a natural style. In terms of the variety of varieties, they are not inferior to the previous irises. Their upper petals are not as pronounced as in bearded ones, they are not so pompous, but light and graceful. Their leaves are long, thin with a pointed tip, retain their decorative effect until winter, up to 60 cm. Thin and rigid peduncles (up to 70 cm) hold the flowers tightly (2-3 buds). They dance like butterflies over the foliage. This is a very aesthetic kind of irises, easy to grow, as if created for admiration and contemplation. Favorite beers: Butter and Sugar, Shakers Player, Soft Blue, White Swirl. Siberian irises bloom later than bearded and dwarf irises in June, up to 50 days.

Bulbous irises: reticulata (iridodictum) and hollanda

This group differs from the previous one in that it reproduces not by rhizomes, but by bulbs. Most of them are miniature and bloom early and very early (March-April-early May). In addition to reticulum and Dutch, there are other species, but they are not very winter-resistant.

  • Iris Reticulata - or iridodictum (lat. Iridodictyum reticulata), the earliest species. If you have heard of snowdrop irises, then this is it. In catalogs you can find another name of it - reticulated iris. These irises are a real miracle. Not all the snow has melted yet, but they are already blooming, at the same time as the crocuses. They have a wonderful aroma and resemble butterflies that suddenly flocked to the last snow carpet. By the shape of the flowers, these are the most classic irises. The first to appear is a peduncle with a height of about 20 cm, flowers - up to 10 cm. Then leaves appear (up to 30 cm), which at the beginning of flowering are below the peduncles, and then catch up with them in growth. Flowering lasts up to two weeks. They are completely unpretentious, grow without transplant for 5-6 years. The cutest varieties: Alida, Purple Gem, Joyce.
  • Iris Hollanda - This is a group of hybrid irises that reproduce only by bulbs, they were isolated as a separate species Iris hollandica. Bulbs planted in autumn - bloom in early May. Plant height from 40 cm to 60 cm, depending on the variety. There are narrow-leaved, and there are broad-leaved. Flowers up to 10 cm. Nuance: if you plant the bulbs in the spring, then flowering will begin in 2.5 months. Dutch irises can also be grown at home for distillation for the March holidays. Excellent varieties: Romano, Royal Yellow, Blue Magic. Do not forget to cover planting sites with compost or fallen leaves for the winter.


Growing a plant

Iris flowers are very fond of light, but when choosing a variety, you need to pay attention to their relationship with moisture. The Siberian type of Iris grows well on ordinary moist soil, but varieties such as Kempfer, bristly and yellow, like swampy places so that the ground is regularly wet. Varieties of bearded and other irises grow well in well-drained areas. In autumn or spring, Irises are planted in the ground. It is advisable to transplant Irises to another place every 3-4 years, this affects their luxurious flowering, but after 10 years, transplant Siberian Irises.


Varieties and types of irises

Irises differ in richness of tones and duration of flowering. This plant boasts a wide variety of varieties and species

Iris bearded. This variety is considered the most popular of the garden irises. The bases of the outer petals are decorated with special stripes of hairs, which stand out strongly against the general background with a contrasting color. Bearded light-loving irises are undersized, medium-sized and large-sized. Their height can vary from up to 70 cm.

Siberian iris. The area of ​​its distribution is vast territories, ranging from the north of Italy to the purest Lake Baikal. Plant populations are also found in the Komi Republic, the Caucasus and Northern Turkey. The rhizome of the Siberian iris at the top has brown remnants of leaf sheaths. The branched stem has several stalk-enclosing leaves. Beautiful flowers are on unequal pedicels. A small box contains light gray seeds.

Iris Dutch... Such a perennial has a special underground organ where stocks of substances are stored instead of rhizomes. Several daughter bulbs are formed annually. The leafy sturdy peduncle reaches a height of 80 cm. The stem has narrow-grooved dense leaves. The color of the flower can be either one-color or two-color. This variety is considered thermophilic and requires shelter from cold weather and winds in winter.

Iris dwarf. This species grows well in feather grass and dry grass steppes. He also enjoys settling in stony calcareous slopes, salt licks and sands. The height of this perennial plant is no more than 15 cm. All its leaves are basal and bluish. The length of the peduncle reaches 3 cm. The dwarf iris blooms in early May. It tolerates dryness well.

Iris marsh... It can often reach one meter in height. Beautiful golden yellow flowers are decorated with brown strokes. This unique variety blooms in May and June. This plant is considered heat-loving and winter-hardy, it prefers direct sunlight. In the wild, marsh iris chooses floodplains and various banks of water bodies. It can often be found anywhere in Europe, in Siberia, the Far East, China and Japan.

Iris xiphoid. This plant is a late flowering species. The height of narrow leaves does not exceed 40cm. Flat flowers have short inner petals and rather wide outer petals. The average height of the peduncles is no more than 70 cm. In natural conditions, it always blooms from mid-July to mid-August. The xiphoid iris with a special thickened rhizome is found in Korea, China and Japan.


Garden geranium hybrids for planting in a flower garden

In recent decades, breeders have begun to pay more attention to geraniums, and geraniums of hybrid origin have appeared in our gardens. Not all of them are flawless, but there are also real masterpieces. Geranium No. 1 at the moment can be called a variety Jolly bee... Forms a well-growing curtain, crowned with spectacular bluish-lilac, rather large (about 5 cm) flowers with an almost white center. It blooms for a very long time - another annual will envy - from mid-June to October. The bush does not fall apart in the process of growth, as is, unfortunately, often the case with geraniums, which look royal during flowering, and then turn into "ugly ducklings". It looks like a variety Rozanne - flowers and bush shape, blooms very profusely, from June to September. Hybrid geranium Rozanne - one of the best ground cover plants for planting large tracts. It blooms profusely and continuously from June until the first frost and attracts bees.

Breeders are making efforts to replicate success Jolly bee and even divert attention away from this variety. So, for example, a completely new variety of geranium Sibani blue predict great success. In addition to long-lasting blooms, it has large deep blue flowers with even darker, showy veins on the petals. Another novelty - geranium variety Habana blues - they guessed a great future, but it only appeared on sale this year.


Watch the video: How To Hybridize Iris


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