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This is a very unpleasant viral disease of bulbous crops, which is transmitted from plant to plant through the sap when they are cut with the same tool. An infection that gets on the blade of the instrument with the juice of a sick lily is not destroyed either during sterilization or when processing with a disinfectant (alcohol).
Infection can also occur with the help of flying female aphids, through nematodes that live in the ground. Mosaic-affected lilies have a pale color of leaves, transparent, as if not stained, stripes on them. Stripes appear in flowers, uncharacteristic light spots.
Mosaic control measures: Use disposable tools when cutting lilies or breaking off the stems by hand. Destruction of aphids, nematodes. It is impossible to cure a plant infected with a virus. Such diseased plants must be destroyed, together with the adjacent soil, they must be burned.
The disease manifests itself in the form of brown spots (first light, then darkening) on the leaves, stems and flowers of lilies. Botrytis disease is caused by spores of microscopic fungi that are spread from plant to plant. This disease develops only in rainy, humid weather. It is most dangerous for lilies if its outbreak occurs at the beginning of the growing season, in May - June, especially if the weather is cool.
For the North-West region, this is a very urgent danger. However, botrytis can also infect lilies in warm, rainy weather. Diseased plants darken, leaves quickly lose turgor, droop, photosynthesis is disrupted or even stops. The disease affects only the aerial part of the plant; the bulb does not die. In dry and hot weather, the risk of illness is minimal.
To destroy the spores of the fungus, you will have to give up the principles of natural farming and process the soil and the lilies themselves with copper-containing solutions: HOM or oxychoma. As a preventive measure - a discharged planting, the plants should be ventilated and dry quickly after rains and dew. If the disease manifested itself after the flowering of the lilies, then it is enough to cut and burn the stems with leaves.
It is also a fungal disease, but already of lily bulbs. Infection with them occurs through the soil, which may contain spores of the microscopic fungus Fusarium. Under favorable conditions for the fungus, it first affects the roots, then the bottom, and then spreads to the entire lily bulb.
Where does this ill-fated mushroom come from? At the beginning of growth, lily bulbs release organic acids into the soil with their roots, with the help of which lilies dissolve soil minerals to feed them. The spores of the fungus react to these acids, their hyphae begin to grow towards the bulb.
If lilies are grown in the same place constantly, then the accumulation of fusarium will gradually begin in the soil, which will produce a large number of long-lived spores. They will not be active until the lily bulbs appear in the soil. Fusarium spore germination conditions are favorable for too moist soil (without drainage) with an acidic reaction (pH below 6.5). Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers also leads to the development of the disease. It is categorically contraindicated for watering lilies with mullein solution.
Diseased bulbs, along with the adjacent soil, are dug up and burned. Observance of crop rotation is necessary, i.e. do not plant bulbs on those beds where lilies have already grown. If there are any suspicions about the place where you intend to plant the lilies, then it is best to leave it for a year under fallow, and close up coniferous litter in the soil. The spores of the fungus will germinate and, not finding the bulbs, will die.
Lilies get the most from the red lily beetle
This "bug" is especially fond of lilies, although he does not disdain other plants. This insect feeds not only on the buds, but also on the leaves and bulbs of lilies. Their elongated red-orange little bodies cannot be overlooked on green, shiny leaves, one has only to set oneself the task of catching and destroying these pests. The chitin of lily beetles is quite durable, spraying with chemicals is not effective, the best and easiest way is to collect the beetles by hand. If you inspect the plantings carefully and often, then soon the beetle can be completely exterminated. These pests have their own natural enemies - wasps. But it's better to rely on yourself, your eyes and hands.
Not only can aphids be a carrier of mosaic from plant to plant, it, feeding on plant sap, strongly deforms the buds and leaves of lilies. With aphids, when detected, it is possible and necessary to fight with systemic pesticides. As a prophylaxis against aphids, fat, non-skimmed milk is used. Milk stuck on the leaves covers them like latex and prevents the aphids from piercing the film with their proboscis. We must not forget about the ladybirds, which are our faithful helpers in the fight against aphids.
Lily bulbs purchased from vendors in the southern regions can be a big problem in our gardens, as these bulbs are almost always infested with bulbous thrips. Thrips are small oblong black insects, young thrips are orange-pink in color. Lilies infected with thrips lag behind in development, and sooner or later they die. Such "southern" bulbs must be carefully examined before planting, kept in one of the approved insecticidal preparations, and only after that they must be planted in the garden.
Mice, rats and moles
Let's start with moles. It is they who are rummaging through our gardens and orchards, building their own underground passages, disrupting planting plans, mixing planting material. Bulbs, and other plants as well, fall into wormholes and die. Moles do not feed on the roots and bulbs of plants, they look for protein foods, for example, earthworms, and we have enough of them. Mice and rats move along the paths laid by the moles for themselves, but these pests gladly eat the bulbs of lilies, while, as a rule, the most valuable and beautiful varieties.
Help in the fight against these enemies of lilies - cats. Although cats and dogs cannot be called friends of the garden - they dig the ground, break the beds, and their excrement is poison for any plant. From moles, no matter how sophisticated scientists and inventors were, they did not really come up with effective means. You can try soaking the fabric with a solution of bleach or chloramine and plugging pieces of its entrances into the wormholes, and perhaps they will go to the neighbors. And then they will take it and return ...
Slugs. If for the winter you decide to insulate the planting of lilies with a thick layer of mulch, then get ready for the fact that an army of slugs can crawl under it for overwintering. In the spring, they will happily eat tender shoots, and the growth point of the lily will be destroyed. In this case, flowering is postponed until next year. The fight against slugs is becoming more acute from year to year, the people are not idle. But slugs are coming ... We continue to collect them by hand, solder them with beer and sprinkle them with coniferous waste on top of the mulch - slugs are unlikely to want to crawl onto these thorny heaps.
Spraying the plantings with a solution of epin or zircon will save from frost. Any plant treated with these wonderful stimulants looks completely different next to its "untreated" counterparts. Strong, hardy, with good immunity, they bloom brighter, their flowers are larger, pests and diseases are bypassed. Plants should be sprayed several times, starting in spring, and before each expected problem - frost or very hot weather.
Often, gardeners grow lilies not only for themselves, for their own pleasure, but also to support the family budget - for cutting for bouquets or for selling blooming lilies along with a bulb. In order for the lily flower to be perfect, without spots, without damage from cold rains or hail, shelters made of lutrasil, spunbond or other nonwoven materials are installed over the plantings.
In order to get an earlier flowering of lilies and be the first to enter the market with their products, the bulbs are planted in boxes in February-March, grown in them, and then these boxes are transferred under a film to a greenhouse, and even later to open ground. Sawdust can be used as a substrate
If you want to delay the flowering of these plants and be the only owners of flowering lilies in September, keep the bulbs in refrigerators or basements. At the same time, they must wait for their turn to land, put, as they say in the people, "on the bottom" so that the sprout comes out straight. In addition, they must be sprinkled with wet peat or sawdust from drying out the bulbs. They also feel great in sphagnum.
If you are cutting lilies, do not root them. The leaves of the plant until the end of the season should be engaged in photosynthesis, i.e. after cutting, part of the leafy stem should remain.
Irina Tuzova, Leading Specialist of the NIKA Nursery
tel. 7 (812) 640 85 13, (812) 952 09 15, www.nikaland.ru
For the full growth and development of lilies throughout the summer period, the following options for spring feeding are recommended:
Experienced florists and gardeners do not recommend using fresh manure or mullein as fertilizer for lilies. Such feeding contributes to the appearance of various infectious or fungal diseases. In addition, the aggressive microflora of this fertilizer can cause rapid rotting of the bulbs and the death of the entire plant even before the beginning of the flowering period.
Pests and diseases of lilies
Lily pests. In the conditions of central Russia, rodents are reputed to be one of the serious pests of lilies, which often spend the winter under dry shelters of lilies and feed on the leaves of wintering rosettes.
To counteract these pests when sheltering lilies, they put poisonous baits or pieces of rags soaked in kerosene, the smell of which the rodents cannot withstand.
Among insects, green aphids cause great harm to lily crops. If you do not track and kill her in time, then young lily plants, which are severely affected by aphids, stop growing and developing, become weak. For this reason, the fight against aphids must be carried out at the very beginning of its occurrence, by spraying the plants with anabasine sulfate solution or an aqueous DDT emulsion.
Diseases of lilies. Lilies are less susceptible to fungal diseases than other flowering plants such as gladioli or dahlias. If you keep the planting of lilies in a cultivated form and obtain healthy planting material from trusted sources, you can cultivate lilies for years without affecting their diseases.
But certain types of lilies, such as Daurian lily, Henry lily, Martagon and white (the latter is especially common), are subject to a disease that is caused by the fungus Botrytis. This disease is easy to see. First, slight brown spots with a dark rim appear on the leaves, which grow very quickly and become light, spreading to the entire leaf, after which the leaf becomes dead. From the leaves, the fungus passes to the trunk and buds. After the loss of all leaves, the plant shrinks, ends growth and flowering. With appropriate measures, the disease is allowed to be eliminated, and the lilies subsequently recover. The best means of struggle is three times spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid and two times spraying with soda ash (70-80 grams per bucket of water). In order to prevent all loose leaves and other plant residues from the bed, on which the lilies grew, you need to carefully collect and put on fire, and sprinkle the bed with wood ash.
In addition to botrytis disease, lilies also get sick with a viral disease - mosaic. Lilies infected with mosaic do not recover and serve as a source of infection for other healthy plants, especially through insects. Lilies that are affected for several years sometimes do not present any signs of the disease, continuing their growth and normal flowering, that is, they are often simply impossible to distinguish from healthy lilies.
Subsequently, with the intensification of the disease, whitish spots and stripes begin to appear on the leaves. The leaves curl up little by little, the plants begin to lag behind in formation, become dwarf and ugly. Such lilies must be immediately dug up and burned. There are no effective means in the fight against this disease. All types of lilies can get sick with mosaics, but not all can withstand the disease evenly. In particular, the most attractive lilies - Filipino, special, long-flowered, are strongly amazed by the mosaic and unsatisfactorily withstand it.
Lily bulbs are affected by Fusarium. This disease is caused by a fungus that initially infects the roots, and is subsequently transmitted to the "bottom" of the bulb. The spores of the fungus remain in the ground and infect adjacent bulbs. The best way to protect plants from mosaic and fusarium disease is to grow local resistant varieties of lilies from seeds.
In amateur gardens, it is best to grow the most constant and undemanding lilies from seeds first, such as saffron, tiger, "Northern Palmyra", white, regale, Kostroma and others. Subsequently, having accumulated experience, there will be a desire to grow more delicate species and forms.
The Amazonian lily or eucharis is a light-loving houseplant. Temperatures over 18 degrees are considered the most favorable for growing this flower. But sudden changes can lead to the formation of small flowers, a stable temperature of 7-10 degrees is fraught with the fact that the leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the bulbs rot. When it comes to watering, the Amazonian lily does not like excessive drought and moisture. Therefore, it is best to carry out bottom watering, and be sure to pour out the remaining moisture in the pan and wipe it dry. Spraying the plant should be treated very carefully. Make sure that no water gets on the flowers of the plant, otherwise brown spots may appear on it.
Symptoms of Amazonian lily disease
The Amazonian lily belongs to hardy crops, therefore it is rarely affected by pests (scale insects, thrips, spider mites). If this happens, treat the leaves of the plant with soapy water, and then spray with an appropriate insecticide. But the most common problems of this flower, perhaps, include the lack of inflorescences. There are two main reasons. The first is too spacious a flowerpot. The plant spends too much effort on the development of the root system, and not on the ejection of inflorescences. Therefore, in order for the buds and flowers of the lily to develop well, the plant must be kept in a cramped pot. The second reason is the long absence of a dormant period. The Amazon lily periodically needs rest.The plant must be placed in a semi-dark place, reducing watering and feeding at this time.
Another pressing problem among plants is the question of why the leaves turn yellow. For lilies, this is a completely natural process, however, if this happens on a massive scale, then decisive action must be taken. First of all, check the room temperature to see if it matches the growth conditions of the Amazon lily. Balance watering, most often the leaves of the plant turn yellow due to a lack or excess of moisture. If that doesn't work, it's probably the root system. Carefully remove the plant from the soil and inspect it. If damaged areas of the roots are found, they must be cut off, and the wounds must be treated with activated carbon powder and the plant must be planted back in fresh soil.
Remember, the Amazonian lily contains the alkaloid lycorine, which is poisonous to humans. Therefore, after the transplant, be sure to wash your hands well with soap and water.
On the leaves, rounded spots of a brown-brown color appear, which eventually increase in size and dry out, leading to the death of the whole leaf. Gradually, the disease moves from the lower leaves to the upper ones, affecting the buds and part of the stem. If the weather is humid, then in the affected areas it is possible to see a gray plaque of mycelium with spores. The spread of the disease occurs along with infected planting material and with uncleaned plant debris.
If the lesion is significant, then the disease can damage the bulb itself. In this case, brown spots with a light center are visible on it. Wet weather favors the development of the disease.
Lily species Henry - comes from the Chinese province of Hu-bei, Gui-Zhou.
There she was first seen by the Irish botanist Augustine Henry, who was collecting samples of the best plants for the collection of the British Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Thanks to the researcher, it acquired its name.
The plant belongs to a rare multi-flowered hybrid variety, but easily distinguishable externally.
Stem elongated, slightly curved, well leafy, with numerous root processes.
In the natural environment, it can reach up to 120-190 cm.The bulb is large, red-violet, 15-20 cm in diameter.
Leaves are leathery, deep dark green, oblong-lacent, grow up to 10-18 cm long. Drooping branches.
The flowers are large, apricot-colored with dark reddish beards, turban-shaped. With good care, they can reach a diameter of 8-9 cm. The pollen is brownish.
Lily Henry photo:
Bulbous viral diseases are spread by pests (aphids and thrips) or by the growers themselves through infected garden tools.
A fairly common disease of lilies, which is carried by aphids.
Cucumber and tobacco mosaic viruses appear as light streaks and ring spots on leaves and flowers. As a result of the defeat, the lily stem is deformed, stops growing.
Regularly inspect lilies and remove suspicious leaves, destroy specimens affected by mosaics. Disinfect garden tools. In order to control the vector of the disease (aphids), spray the plantings with a 0.3% solution of Karbofos.
This virus settles inside the cells of lilies. Most often, aphids are transferred from tulips.
The variegation virus disrupts the pigmentation of the petals, as a result of which flowers appear with strokes, strokes, spots of a different color. Diseased bulbs of the next generation decrease in size, the plants weaken, the variety gradually degenerates.
Spray plantings with a 0.3% solution of Karbofos to protect them from aphids. Regularly inspect lilies and remove suspicious leaves, destroy specimens affected by mosaics. Disinfect garden tools.
The occurrence of this disease in lilies is provoked by a whole complex of viruses.
Lilies infected with this virus are characterized by thickening and yellowing of the stem and the absence of flowers.
Spray the plantings with a 0.3% solution of Karbofos to protect them from aphids. Regularly inspect lilies and remove suspicious leaves, destroy specimens affected by mosaics. Disinfect garden tools before any manipulations with bulbs and aboveground parts of plants.