The whitefly, or scientifically aleurodida (Aleyrodidae), is a small flying insect that is a vicious enemy of garden and flower crops. The pest belongs to the Sternorrhyncha suborder and the Aleyrodidae family. The population of these individuals has about one and a half thousand varieties. Translated from Greek, the family name means "flour". The thing is that the body of the pest is covered with a waxy powdery coating.
Whitefly is a carrier of dangerous fungal diseases. In a short time, the pest colony can infect vegetable and berry plantings, as well as destroy bushes. The adults are very prolific and can even enter the greenhouse.
Whiteflies are tiny parasites with snow-white wings that inhabit different climates. Depending on the territorial location, their appearance is slightly different. At a young age, pests are yellowish-greenish larvae covered with a fleecy bloom. The eggs feed on the sap of young leaves, sucking on the back of the plate with the help of wax glands, and pressing tightly to the stem. In search of food, the larvae crawl in different directions and quickly fill healthy plantings.
A few weeks later, a molar lepidoptera is born from an oval and flat larva - a butterfly with antennae, wings and long legs. Her body is colored reddish yellow interspersed with dark spots. In adults, four wings are formed, which fold in the shape of a house. The surface of the body is protected, like pollen, by a whitish powdery coating.
The plant that the whitefly has occupied can be identified by a number of signs:
Whiteflies prefer warm, humid climates. Similar conditions are typical for greenhouses and greenhouses. It is here that pests feel at ease. At temperatures below 10 degrees, they die. Eggs are more resistant to cold and can withstand even frosty weather. In the natural environment, pests are eaten by ladybugs, bugs and lacewing - their biological enemies.
Aleurodids are considered very dangerous insects, as they act as carriers of fungal and viral infections. If you do not take active measures to destroy them, the plant can get sick with curl, gray mold, mosaic, powdery mildew, or pick up other diseases that often lead to the death of the crop and are considered intractable.
How to deal with a whitefly. VIDEO
Horticultural owners with a wealth of experience and knowledge recommend preventive measures to prevent the appearance of the whitefly pest in the garden and vegetable garden. This approach will be more effective than a long and persistent insect control. Consider the main methods of prevention in the fight against whitefly:
If quarantine measures for seedlings have not helped, and whiteflies have firmly chosen the greenhouse, you will have to resort to chemicals. To stop the spread of the parasite and its larvae by biological methods can be effective only if the foci are single and small in number. It is quite problematic to get rid of the massive colonies of aleurodids using folk methods. Undoubtedly, with numerous accumulations of pesticides will be much more effective than natural remedies, but one should not forget about their high toxicity.
Safe remedy for pests! SKIPIDAR from whitefly, carrot and onion flies, aphids, caterpillars.
Below we list the main insecticidal agents and preparations for the destruction of whiteflies:
In summer, whitefly pests prefer to attack plants that grow in ordinary beds. With the arrival of autumn cold weather, they hide in greenhouses, greenhouses or indoors among indoor flowers.
Vague yellow spots appearing on the leaf blades indicate the appearance of whitefly or larvae on the tomatoes. The spots are usually sticky to the touch. They remain in the place of accumulation of pests. In order to prevent the spread of the colony, the leaves are regularly examined from all sides. When the first traces of a whitefly are found, action is taken immediately.
To get rid of the whitefly, which damages greenhouse tomatoes, a soap solution will help. The foliage is first thoroughly washed with cool water and then sprayed with concentrated soapy water. For this purpose, tar soap is rubbed on a grater and dissolved in water. The treated leaves are left in this position for an hour, then the solution is washed off. Such a folk remedy is safe for vegetables. To provide the tomatoes with reliable protection, the procedure is repeated many times.
You can expel whitefly pests from tomato bushes using glue traps, which must be evenly placed at different ends of the greenhouse. To reduce the number of pests, fly sticky tapes are hung. They are impregnated with a special compound that attracts insects. The described traps will help solve the problem if we are talking only about adults. To destroy the larvae on tomatoes, the bushes are sprayed with a garlic solution or infusion of dandelion roots or leaves.
Whitefly in the greenhouse that helped get rid of it
If the colony is growing rapidly, it will not be possible to remove insects from the greenhouse without chemicals. A little liquid dishwashing detergent, shampoo or shavings of laundry soap are added to insecticide solutions. Then the mass becomes sticky and, upon contact with the parasite, fetters its movements.
In greenhouses where vegetables are grown on a large scale, the growth of the whitefly population is biologically limited using predatory parasitic entomophages. These include encarsia wasps, which eat the eggs of this pest. One individual is able to cleanse 1 sq.m. of parasites. greenhouse area.
Whiteflies cause significant harm to cucumbers in the greenhouse. Both larvae and adults are dangerous. A strong and long-term effect can be achieved by two or three times the treatment of the bushes with a chemical preparation. Small foci can be tried to remove using folk methods. Since vegetables tend to build up toxins, this will be safer. However, it is unlikely that it will be possible to exterminate insects that have settled in a greenhouse with pesticides or natural remedies the first time. The parasite is very tenacious, so next year it will easily take over the plantings. Also, gardeners are advised to remember about preventive measures.
Traces of the appearance of whiteflies on cucumbers in a greenhouse:
If you lightly fiddle with the bush, you will notice a swarm of flying white moth-like moths. If insects have just begun to appear, you can stop their reproduction using folk methods. To achieve a sustainable effect and forget about the problem forever, the treatment of the bushes will have to be repeated every week. Multiple spraying will leave no chance for parasites to survive in greenhouses. During the procedure, do not forget to thoroughly moisten the seamy side of the sheet plates.
The soap solution is highly effective against whitefly. The sponge is immersed in the solution and the parts of the plant on which the larvae are bred are rubbed. The advantage of this method is that the treatment with soapy water allows you to remove both the larvae and the sooty fungus. Cucumbers will respond gratefully to the procedure, the leaves will receive a full portion of oxygen through the pores.
With a massive accumulation of whitefly on cucumbers, chemicals are used in the greenhouse. For example, Fufanon, Detis, Aktaru, Verticillin. Dissolve the substances according to the instructions. Sticky tapes are also hung in greenhouses.
Whitefly-infected tomatoes that are grown outdoors have exactly the same characteristics as greenhouse crops. In both cases, the fight against the pest is carried out according to the same principle. The use of chemicals is relevant in the case when the treatment with folk remedies did not give any effect. If the crop is on the verge of death, insecticide treatment is no longer necessary.
To protect the garden and city from the appearance of the whitefly, it is important not to forget about the main preventive measures:
If insects are found on seedlings, it is necessary to spray the plant with agrochemistry or treat the ground parts with folk remedies several times. Only disinfected seedlings are allowed to be transferred to the beds.
If whiteflies have managed to settle on bushes that have already been planted, they are fumigated with sulfur. Eggs of aleurodids and flying moths are afraid of sulfur. Tomato bushes are sprayed with this folk remedy once a week. If the colony has grown on a large scale, the bushes are sprayed with a powerful chemical. Fufanon, Mospilanom will do. Processing is carried out in cloudy weather, when there is no wind and rain outside, otherwise the water will wash off the substance before it has time to be absorbed. Whitefly has the ability to develop immunity to pesticides, so it is recommended to periodically change the drugs.
Cucumbers grown without film in the vegetable garden are very vulnerable to whitefly. They are dangerous due to the fact that they are considered the main vectors of diseases. Flying from sick bushes to healthy ones, they infect them with chlorosis, yellow cucumber mosaic, curliness and jaundice. At the first symptoms of the presence of whitefly on cucumbers, treatment is quickly started. Due to the high humidity and temperature, the fertility of the colony increases. If measures are not taken promptly, the female can lay about 130 eggs within one month.
If whiteflies are bred on cucumbers, an integrated approach is used. They use folk remedies, pesticides and mechanical tricks. However, if prevention is carried out on time, cucumbers will be under reliable protection from whitefly, even in the open field. Plantings that could not be saved from the larvae are sprayed with soapy water. After an hour, the leaves are rinsed with clean water. The larvae remaining on the back of the leaf are harvested by hand. A bed of cucumbers is weeded after the procedure. One treatment will not be enough, spraying is repeated after a while, so as not to fear for the harvest.
The most effective folk remedy for whiteflies on cucumbers is dandelion squeeze and garlic solution. To restrain the reproduction of individuals, the bushes are sprayed with a phytohormone diluted in water called Bud once every 1.5 weeks.It contains boric and maleic acid. Of the pesticides in the fight against insects, Iskra and Tsitkor are used. Foliage treatment is carried out on a calm day in the absence of rain. Since whiteflies quickly develop resistance to chemicals, experienced summer residents are advised to alternate means.
Forget about the whitefly in your area! An easy solution to the whitefly problem.
It is very simple to understand that a flock of whiteflies chose cabbage. It is enough to shake the leaves, and white moths will fly in different directions. The seamy side of the leaf plates can be covered with translucent larvae. They are destroyed with soapy water. Rubbing the leaves with a soft sponge, wash off the soap with water.
Folk remedies help to remove whiteflies from cabbage. Experienced gardeners advise using an infusion of garlic or dandelion root. With the help of a spray bottle, cabbage leaves are sprayed with infusion. Sticky tapes, hung on the site, save not only from flies, but also serve as an effective trap from the whitefly. If all of the above measures do not work, and midges continue to attack the garden, the cabbage is treated with chemicals. The main thing is not to overdo it with the dosage. The most rapidly effective agrochemicals include: Fitoverm, Fufanon, Iskra, Aktara, Aktellik and Confidor.
The resulting white coating on the surface of the leaves indicates a whitefly infection of the strawberry. Gradually, the growth of the plant slows down, the foliage withers and falls off. Sick bushes do not give a full harvest, berries and vegetables rot before they ripen. In addition to adults, insect larvae feed on cell sap, which stick to the underside of the plates.
Sick bushes are washed with a solution prepared from shavings of laundry soap. Also, instead of soap, it is allowed to use flea shampoo. When the liquid is slightly absorbed, the procedure ends by rinsing the bushes.
If you don't have sticky tape on hand, the traps are easy to DIY. To do this, you need to take a sheet of cardboard or plywood, cut it into pieces and paint it yellow, which attracts insects. Next, the surface is lubricated with any sticky agent, for example, petroleum jelly or honey. Ready-made traps are placed in the beds. The parasites hovering over the bushes touch the cardboard with their wings and stick.
Peppermint repels pests of whiteflies well. They cannot stand the smell of mint. Therefore, it is recommended to plant the plant between the rows on a strawberry plantation. Garlic tincture is also helpful. Peeled chopped garlic is poured with hot water and infused for about a week. Then the mixture is filtered and diluted with water. The resulting solution is sprayed with strawberry bushes.
If the colony of aleurodides has grown strongly, insecticidal preparations are purchased. The infected vegetative mass is sprayed with Aktellik, Pegasus, Aktara, Confidor or Rovikurt dissolved in water. In addition, the problem can be solved biologically. Whiteflies that harm garden strawberries and strawberries are afraid of natural enemies - encarsia and macrofus bugs, which feed on larvae. Predators exterminate the colony of parasites on the site, after which, in search of food, they move to other crops.
Whitefly attacked raspberry bushes have exactly the same characteristics as other crops. The leaves are covered with a whitish coating, sticky to the touch, which the larvae secrete. Lack of cell sap and nutrients, as well as loss of turgor pressure, lead to drying out, discoloration and wilting of the aboveground parts. Weakened raspberry bushes bear fruit worse.
To combat the whitefly pest, folk remedies are first used. Because even the safest chemicals are still toxic and can accumulate in berries. However, if the plantings of raspberries are completely affected by insects, you cannot do without chemicals.
If whiteflies are bred on the grapes, the bushes are washed with soapy water or treated with dandelion infusion, garlic solution. Folk remedies are used at least once a week. After harvesting grapes, the bushes are allowed to be sprayed with a solution of Aktara or Fufanon.
Often, the whitefly attacks indoor plants and flowers. Fuchsia is under threat - one of the representatives of the Cyprian family. This perennial deciduous shrub is cold resistant, so the pot can be moved to the balcony to kill pests. Midges are afraid of the cold and do not tolerate temperature extremes. However, if they have already managed to lay eggs on the leaves, it will not be possible to save the plant in this way. The leaves are wiped on both sides with a wet sponge and the eggs are collected.
To combat whitefly and its larvae, it is effective to use a safe folk remedy - sugar syrup. Dissolve 2 tsp in one glass of warm water. sugar and the leaves are treated with the resulting liquid. In the fight against adult whiteflies, Actellik has proven itself well.
Once the whitefly has settled on the hibiscus, neighboring houseplants are vulnerable. Females reproduce and fly from one flower to another in the apartment. Infestation and pest control should be prevented as soon as possible. The remains of eggs and adults are destroyed with a soap solution and dandelion infusion. For greater efficiency, the treatment is repeated several times. If the moth has multiplied throughout the flower, instead of folk remedies, it is better to use an insecticide, for example, Aktara.
Whiteflies attack houseplants as often as garden and horticultural crops. As a result of improper care, poor ventilation in the room and waterlogging of the soil, midges quickly settle on flowers. Infected bushes are treated with a soap solution and rinsed with running water. To consolidate the effect, a flower pot with hibiscus is taken out onto the balcony and additionally sprayed with a powerful insecticide.
It is best to destroy the whitefly until the population has grown. A week later, from tiny larvae, adults hatch, capable of moving around and feeding on vegetables and flowers. Stopping the spread of winged individuals is problematic. To prevent infection, once a week, the leaves are wiped with a damp sponge, paying special attention to the inside of the plates, where the parasites prefer to lay their eggs. The maximum number of larvae is removed.
Taking proper care of your plant will reduce the chances of whitefly appearing. The mechanical method of destroying the pest is applicable only in the case of single plantings. To get rid of insects in greenhouses and greenhouses, you will have to use chemical reagents.
Aleurodids die at low temperatures. Diseased flowers and vegetables are taken to a cool room, where the air temperature is from 8 to 10 degrees. Freezing only kills adult whiteflies, however. Eggs are resistant to cold, burrowing deeper into the ground, they can hibernate. When the ambient temperature rises again, the larvae will become active and continue to suck out cell sap from plant tissues.
HOW TO FIGHT WITH THE WHITE WING WITHOUT CHEMICALS !!!!!!! IN THE GREENHOUSE, BY HAND MEANS, A SIMPLE WAY
Traditional methods of control are very effective in combating whitefly, if the signs of damage are insignificant, and are aimed at disrupting the life cycle of insects.
On the territory of Russia, 4 types of whiteflies are most often found:
Entomology books provide detailed descriptions of the tobacco whitefly. It is this species that is considered the most dangerous quarantine insect that managed to emigrate to all continents. The parasite can carry about 100 different viruses.
In hot summer weather, an adult moth lives for about two weeks. Under favorable conditions, one female lays 50-300 eggs. The tobacco whitefly occupies melons, industrial, vegetable and flower crops, fodder and medicinal herbs, and does not even disdain weeds. Sometimes the pest comes across on berries, shrubs, fruit and citrus trees. This whitefly species threatens crops grown commercially in large greenhouse complexes.
It's hard to find a bigger problem than a whitefly in a greenhouse. Small insects are unremarkable at first glance, but if you do not fight them, then you can lose the entire crop by autumn. Plants in the greenhouse are most often attacked by these midges, since there are favorable conditions for their reproduction. Most often, tomatoes, potatoes, cucumber, pepper, eggplant are affected. The greenhouse whitefly is no different in appearance from its counterpart, which settles in the open field.
An adult insect and a larva feed on plant juices, thereby inhibiting its growth and development. As a rule, whiteflies will settle on a bush as a whole colony, multiplying rapidly and causing irreparable damage. Therefore, when the first signs appear, you need to immediately take on the destruction of the pest. But this is not the only reason this little midge is scary. Its secretions are excellent soil for the sooty fungus that spreads throughout the bush. And already we have to fight with two troubles.
In the greenhouse, the whitefly reproduces even better than in the open field, since all the conditions for its habitat are created here: there is no wind, warmth, high humidity and a lot of juicy food. The insect is small and dies at temperatures less than + 10C. The life cycle is rather short. The greenhouse whitefly lives for about 30 days, but during this time the female manages to lay up to 130 eggs. Within a month, all stages of development go through: pupae turn into larvae, and those, in turn, into adult midges. The difficulty in identifying the pest is that it hides on the inside of the leaves. Therefore, a sign of its appearance is the darkening of the leaf from the appearance of a sooty fungus and inhibition in the growth of the plant itself. In autumn, when it gets cold, the greenhouse whitefly dies, but the larvae hibernate in the ground and wake up with the onset of warmth.
Immediately, we note that it is very difficult to fight this insect. Adults are generally difficult to destroy, and the larvae are not so easy to kill. In addition, there are no effective preventive methods to prevent the appearance of the whitefly (although greenhouse prevention can and should be carried out). However, not everything is so sad. Over the years of fighting the pest, gardeners have invented a lot of folk remedies that, if used correctly, can give good results.
Infusion of tar. To prepare a remedy for whitefly, take 30 milliliters of birch tar and try to mix it with 10 liters of water. We are trying, since tar is poorly soluble in water. Then, with the help of a broom (the sprayer is not suitable, because the tar clogs the nozzles) we process the vegetables. However, there is an easier way to deal with the pest: instead of tar, take tar soap. It dissolves well in warm water, besides, such a solution does not pollute the sprayer and helps to get rid of pests for a while.
Garlic infusion. Another home remedy for whitefly control. We peel two large cloves of garlic and grind them under a press. Fill the garlic with a liter of warm water and leave for 24 hours. This infusion should be carried out three times processing plants with an interval of seven to eight days.
Infusion of tobacco. To obtain this product, we need tobacco leaves, which must be well dried. Pour tobacco (about 30 grams) with a liter of warm water and insist in a dark, warm place for five days. Then we decant the liquid and treat the plants with the resulting preparation every three days until the insects die.
A solution of ammonia. First of all, we will warn you - in no case use pure ammonia - this can lead to plant burns. Add one tablespoon of ammonia to nine liters of water. Plants can be processed no later than a week before flowering.
Apple vinegar. Most insects are intolerant to vinegar and it is actively used in pest control. However, to combat whitefly, it is better to use apple cider vinegar - it does not harm the plants. We prepare the mixture in the ratio: 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar to 1 liter of pure water. To increase the effectiveness of the product, add 30-40 grams of soap solution. The garden is processed several times with an interval of 3-5 days.
Whitefly traps. A fairly effective method of pest control is the device of glue traps. With the help of this fairly simple tool, you can destroy most of the insects and protect your site from the whitefly. You can buy such a trap at a pharmacy, the most popular of them are: Pheromone, Bona Forte, ARGUS.
The most favorable conditions for insect breeding are high humidity and warm air.Therefore, the greenhouse room is always under threat, where it is always humid and warm. Spread outbreaks occur in hot summers with frequent rains. Small midges are not able to withstand a severe cold snap. Temperatures below 10 C are already fatal for them. But eggs are adapted by nature to preserve the genus and calmly tolerate cold in the ground.
The following factors guarantee the appearance of the whitefly in the greenhouse:
Whitefly is more terrible indoors than in exhaust gas, but, nevertheless, it is necessary to fight with it. If you are not a supporter of "chemistry", then you can use special trapping plates, which are sold in stores. The principle of their operation is as follows - the whitefly is more attracted by the yellow color in which the plates are painted, it flies on it and sticks, since a special glue is applied to the trap. It is easier to carry out processing with chemicals, for example, Aktara or Aktelik. I do not advise you to delay the processing, because they have a waiting period, i.e. the period when eating processed fruits and vegetables is not recommended. It is quite possible to process it now, there is plenty of time before the tomatoes, peppers and eggplants ripen, and it is better to fight pests while there are few of them.
Of the chemical methods, insecticides will help in the fight against whitefly, for example, I use Fufanon for many pests, you can also hang sticky tape from flies near the plant, inspect the plant daily and manually remove insects and their eggs. To prevent insects from flying in different directions, they must be collected in a cool place and early in the morning, under such conditions they are less mobile (sleepy) and it is much easier to collect them.
For 30 years, I encountered a whitefly only last year (I think that I brought “Good Assistant” with purchased land - I grew seedlings at home). She started up at home, on pepper. Because I didn't know what it was, I sprinkled it from aphids. Disappeared. But, as I now know, there are eggs left that are not affected by conventional remedies. As a result, the whitefly was everywhere at the dacha: tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants, bell peppers (least of all), flowers, especially zinnias, lavatera, catchment. Thanks to this “kind helper,” the whole summer cottage was poisoned both morally and in the full sense of the word. While it was still possible, I sprayed it with chemicals in 4–5 days. I tried from below, under each sheet. All to no avail. Then it became impossible to use chemistry. Although late, but still remembered about Trialon (washing paste in Soviet times) and found an old one in the barn. I pointed to the eye (
3 tbsp 10 liters of water). I sprayed it. And here there really was a RESULT: which one immediately adhered to the sheet and died, others had time to take off and fall. But the larvae, apparently, did not die anyway, and everything was already so overgrown that you could not sprinkle it under each leaf ... Now I will start poisoning it as soon as I see at least one. I think maybe in early spring to sprinkle the beds themselves? After reading the tips, I bought Mospilan, Aktar. Apploud is also advised, but it is nowhere to be found. You also need to stock up on pasta (Trialon, apparently, is not released, there is a "South" pasta).
I read that whitefly is attracted to yellow and you can take advantage of it. Spread a sheet of yellow paper with a sticky, long-drying substance (for example, petroleum jelly) and place near the pots. The sheets will have to be changed periodically. So you can significantly reduce the number of this infection.
It is quite possible to get rid of the whitefly in the garden, using the entire arsenal of biological, mechanical, folk and chemical means, be sure to take into account the degree of their effectiveness at different stages of pest development.
The whitefly lives on the underside of the leaf plates and lays eggs there. The insects themselves and their waste products are dangerous. Adults secrete sweet substances, where soot fungus settles. Having multiplied strongly, the pests can destroy all plants in the greenhouse.
Whitefly is especially dangerous for:
To prevent whitefly from breeding in the greenhouse, it is important to continue fighting it after harvesting:
To protect the plants in the greenhouse from the invasion of the whitefly, it is necessary to regularly inspect them and take preventive measures. Active pest control will help prevent its reproduction and preserve the harvest.
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