Raspberries grow in almost every area, but not all gardeners manage to get bountiful harvests from them. The most common cause of a small amount of berries is errors in agricultural technology. How to avoid them and maximize the potential of this culture, we learn from the article.
Since ancient times, people have used raspberries as a healthy delicacy. Its seeds were found by archaeologists during the excavation of settlements of the Bronze and Stone Ages. The love of the ancient Greeks and Romans for this plant is also documented. They collected berries not only for consumption, but also for the treatment of various diseases. The raspberry was also popular among the Slavic tribes: evidence of this is the numerous mentions of it in the works of oral folk art.
In ancient times, people collected raspberries not only for eating, but also for the treatment of various diseases.
The first written mention of raspberries as a garden plant dates back to the 4th century. However, this culture became widespread only in the 16th century, when Western European monks began to tame it. They transplanted forest bushes to their plots, looked after them and selected the best forms. At the beginning of the 17th century, written descriptions of varieties of this culture with white and red berries already appear, and in 1826 a catalog with a description of 26 varieties was published in London.
On the territory of Russia, forest raspberries were planted in gardens even under Yuri Dolgoruk, but its first cultural forms appeared here only in the 17th century. Monasteries and boyar estates quickly became recognized centers of malnutrition. Moreover, in many of them, they not only harvested, but also engaged in breeding work. As a result, by 1860 the number of cultivated varieties increased to 150.
Today raspberries are cultivated in many countries of the world. It is grown both in large farms and in small private gardens. The recognized leaders in its industrial production are:
The work on raspberry selection does not stop either. Today there are a huge number of varieties of this culture. Among them, you can find plants with red, yellow and black color of fruits of different ripening periods, including those with remontant type of fruiting..
Growing raspberries begins with the choice of planting material. Young plants should have a well-developed, fibrous root system without any outgrowths or bumps and intact stems 8–12 mm in diameter. It is advisable to purchase them in large specialized stores or garden nurseries - this will help to avoid misgrading, which sellers often sin at small markets or fairs.
In large nurseries, raspberry seedlings are stored in cold greenhouses in winter.
After buying seedlings from a gardener, a new exciting life begins. Just sticking raspberries into the ground and forgetting about them before the start of fruiting will not work. For a plentiful harvest, a newly-baked raspberry breeder must follow the basic rules of agricultural technology.
Planting in a permanent place is one of the most important steps in growing raspberries. Errors made at this time will certainly affect the quality and quantity of the crop, and in some cases can lead to the death of the plant. You can plant raspberries in open ground in the spring, immediately after the establishment of above-zero temperature, or in the fall - at least a month before the onset of cold weather.... In regions with a cold climate, preference should be given to spring planting, and in the warm south, autumn planting is also acceptable.
Raspberries prefer well-lit, wind-protected areas. Most often, it is planted along fences or walls of buildings, but at the same time you need to ensure that they do not shade the plants.... For this, the landing is located at a distance of at least 3 m from the buildings.
If you plan to plant raspberries near a fence made of corrugated board, the distance to it should be at least 3 m
Raspberries are not particularly demanding for the composition of soils. It bears excellent fruit on loamy, sandy loam, chernozem or other soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Only areas with a high level of groundwater and very dense clay soil, which contribute to the stagnation of moisture, are not suitable for it.
When choosing a place to grow raspberries, you should pay attention to the nearest neighbors. You should not plant it next to strawberries or strawberries, since these crops have common diseases and are affected by the same pests. In addition, the roots of raspberries and strawberries are located at the same depth, which makes the bushes compete in the extraction of nutrients.
The close proximity to cherries, currants and sea buckthorn also negatively affects raspberries. Due to these plants, which deplete the soil, it may lack nutrients, which will certainly affect the quantity and quality of berries.
Raspberries respond well to planting next to apple trees, honeysuckle, pears, plums and barberries, and plants such as garlic, marigolds, parsley, basil, chamomile and calendula even protect the raspberry from the attacks of insect pests. Dill, which attracts pollinating insects, can significantly increase the yield of raspberries. Experienced gardeners often plant sorrel on the border of the raspberry grove, because it is able to limit the spread of growth over the site.
Many gardeners believe that garlic protects raspberries from pest attacks.
Many people are worried about the scattered raspberries ... Last year, in early spring, on the advice of friends from the Czech Republic, I sowed sorrel in two rows along the perimeter of the raspberry tree - this year only two escaped across the border)) but the sorrel has nowhere to go.
Do not place the raspberry tree in areas previously occupied by representatives of the Solanaceae species. At least 2 years must pass between planting these crops. The best precursors for raspberries are legumes and grains..
It is better to plant raspberries in open areas where it is possible to approach it from all sides. It is convenient both when caring for her and when picking berries.
There are two main ways to plant raspberries: bush and trench.
The bush method consists in planting each plant in a separate hole at a distance of 1-1.5 m from each other... It is ideal for growing tall varieties with a strong, broad crown. In order to plant raspberries in a bush method, you must perform the following steps:
For planting raspberries, 50 × 50 cm pits are enough
Raspberry seedlings should not be buried
During the compaction of the earth, do not press hard on the root of the raspberry seedling.
Mulch will prevent drying out of the soil around the raspberry seedlings
The trenching method of planting raspberries is considered more time consuming. However, it allows you to save space on the site and get more berries due to the even distribution of nutrients between the bushes. In addition, raspberries planted in this way are easy to tie to a trellis.
The trenching method is often used in large farms that grow raspberries on an industrial scale.
Planting raspberries in trenches is carried out in several stages:
In order to make the trench even, use a stretched cord
Only healthy parts of plants can be used as a layer of organic matter when planting raspberries.
Mineral fertilizers must be added to the soil intended for planting raspberries.
Raspberry seedlings in the trench should not be placed too close to each other
Sawdust can be used as mulch for raspberry seedlings.
Regardless of the chosen planting method, the area of the raspberry tree must be limited. To do this, sheets of iron, slate or other durable material are dug in along its perimeter. Failure to comply with this rule can lead to uncontrolled growth of raspberries and the appearance of its growth in the most inappropriate places.
You can plant raspberries in pits or trenches, but I have long since given up planting in pits. I chose planting in trenches, although it is more laborious, but the entire area where raspberries are planted is equally provided with the necessary nutrients, which has a beneficial effect on the harvest.
Raspberries are a fairly drought-resistant plant, but with a lack of moisture, its yield decreases significantly, and with an acute deficit, the bushes weaken and may eventually die. Young plants with an insufficiently developed root system are especially in need of water. During the first year after planting, they are regularly watered, constantly keeping the soil moist.
Young raspberries in the first year after planting need to be watered frequently
For adult plants, 5–7 waterings per season are enough:
Watering raspberries should be rare, but abundant: it is necessary to wet the soil to a depth of 20–40 cm. This usually requires 3-4 buckets per square meter. m landings.
A rich raspberry harvest is impossible without fertilization. It is produced according to the following scheme:
Phosphorus and potassium are essential for raspberries to increase yields
For feeding raspberries, you can also use ready-made complex fertilizers for berry crops. When using them, you must follow the instructions.
Pruning is a mandatory agronomic technique for growing raspberries. It is held twice a year: in spring and autumn. However, it is not recommended to relax control in summer. During the entire growing season, it is necessary to remove excess root shoots in a timely manner. This can be easily done with a sharp bayonet shovel, which is used to cut the root that feeds the extra shoot.
During autumn pruning, remove:
In the fall, remove two-year-old raspberry-bearing shoots: brown, lignified
In addition, the remaining annual shoots are shortened by 10-15 cm, which contributes to the cessation of their growth and accelerates maturation.
The result should be separate bushes, consisting of 5-7 healthy and strong annual shoots. All excess growth is also mercilessly removed - this will prevent excessive thickening of the plantings, which negatively affects the number and size of berries, and also makes it difficult to care for the raspberry tree.
Autumn pruning of remontant raspberries, intended for a one-time autumn harvest, is carried out using a different technology... It consists in mowing all ground shoots, leaving stumps no more than 2-3 cm in height. This operation is carried out in late autumn or early winter, after the first frost.
Spring pruning begins immediately after the snow melts. Its purpose is to remove shoots that have not survived the winter. Partially damaged stems are cut at the level of the first healthy bud, and the dead ones are removed completely. Too long shoots are shortened. The height of 1.5–1.8 m is considered optimal for fruiting.
Own method of spring pruning of summer raspberries was developed by the outstanding raspberry grower Alexander Georgievich Sobolev. It is carried out in two stages:
By this formation, a well-leafy bush with a large number of fruit twigs and ovaries is obtained.
Double pruning raspberries to increase yields
All removed raspberry shoots are burned. The fire is guaranteed to kill pests and pathogenic fungi spores that may be inside or outside the stems.
Raspberries, like many other berry crops, often suffer from diseases and pests. To combat them, the bushes are treated according to the following scheme:
A solution of Bordeaux liquid helps against many pests of raspberries
Most often, raspberries are propagated vegetatively. It allows you to preserve the varietal characteristics of the plant and, compared to seed, takes much less time. The vegetative way involves the use of:
Root offspring are young plants with their own root system, but still dependent on the mother bush. They are most often used for breeding raspberries. In large farms, root suckers are obtained from specially grown mother plants, which are not allowed to bear fruit.
Raspberry root offspring are associated with the mother bush
In private plots, root suckers are selected on a fruiting raspberry tree. They do it this way:
Root offspring of raspberries are dug up in early autumn and planted in a new place
Nettle is a young growth of raspberries, formed from the adventitious buds of horizontal roots... It appears at a distance of 2-3 m from the mother bush without any action on the part of the gardener. Usually it is destroyed, but if it is necessary to obtain new plants, it serves as an excellent planting material.
When multiplying raspberries with nettles, several rules must be observed:
If everything is done correctly, then at the end of June a large amount of root growth will appear around the bush. Then they act as follows:
The nettle is transplanted to the garden bed after it grows to 6-12 cm
By the beginning of autumn, the shoots will turn into a young bush with a developed root system, which can be planted in a permanent place next spring.
Raspberries, like most other berry bushes, are easy to propagate with green (summer) cuttings. To get them:
Green raspberry cuttings are harvested from the tops of the shoots
Green raspberry cuttings are planted in a greenhouse, providing them with shading and constant humidity
Propagation by root cuttings is often used when growing raspberry varieties that produce a small amount of growth. Its use is also advisable in the case of severe damage to ground shoots by diseases or pests.
Root cuttings are harvested in early autumn. For this, the following activities are carried out:
Raspberries are easily propagated by root cuttings
Seedlings obtained from root cuttings will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place in a year, next fall.
Growing raspberries from seeds is a very long and laborious process, in addition, it does not guarantee the preservation of the varietal characteristics of the mother plant.... This method of propagation is widespread only among breeders who receive new varieties and hybrids of raspberries as a result.
Growing raspberries from seeds includes several stages:
Raspberry seeds can be prepared by yourself or bought in a specialty store
The top shelf of the refrigerator is ideal for stratification of raspberry seeds
At a temperature of +20 ° C, raspberry shoots appear in a few weeks
Raspberry seedlings 10 cm high dive into separate containers
Raspberries are planted in open ground only a year after germination.
Raspberry seeds just do not sprout to sprout, scarification is needed (weakening of the seed shell, for example, 15 minutes in concentrated sulfuric acid), then cold stratification for a couple of months and then, when sowing, there will be quite friendly shoots. If you just sow, it is possible that something will sprout, and in the 2nd and 3rd years as well.
Gardeners cannot be denied their ingenuity and ingenuity - in order to create optimal conditions for raspberries, they practice different ways of cultivating it.
Most often, raspberries are grown on a trellis. With this method, the bushes are kept in an upright position, due to which good illumination and ventilation of the plantings is achieved, the yield increases and the risk of diseases is reduced.... In addition, in such a raspberry plant, the berries do not touch the ground, which means they do not get dirty or rot from contact with cold and moist soil.
When cultivating raspberries, two types of trellises are used:
A single-strip raspberry trellis is a series of vertical supports with a stretched wire
For a single-strip trellis, a wooden stake or a small diameter metal pipe can be used as a support. With two-lane, the situation is much more complicated. 3 types of structures are used as supports for it:
It is easy to make a T-shaped trellis with your own hands
The main disadvantage of the V-shaped trellis is the change in the angle of inclination over time.
The Y-shaped trellis for the winter is folded together with the bushes, and in the spring it gradually rises as needed
Raspberries must be grown only on a trellis, this has been proven by the experience of millions. When planted in even rows, with poles and wires, your raspberries are capable of producing 6-8 times more berries every year, and you get the highest possible berry quality. All your efforts become meaningless if your green factory (raspberry plant) is not able to show its natural advantages and drags on its existence like a wild raspberry.
With separate technology of cultivation of raspberries, one-year and two-year-old bushes of this crop are grown on plots that do not border each other.... On one of them, all root shoots are carefully removed, leaving only fruiting stems. After the end of the collection of berries, all the raspberries are mowed and the site leaves for the winter absolutely clean. In the second section, young shoots are grown. After a year, everything changes. In the first section, annual shoots appear, and in the second, last year's shoots begin to bear fruit.
This method of growing raspberries avoids unnecessary thickening of the plantings. In addition, annual shoots can be safely treated with drugs that prevent the appearance of diseases and pests, without fear of poisoning ripening berries.... But the split technology also has disadvantages. The main one is the laboriousness of removing root shoots in areas with two-year-old shoots.
The stanza method of growing raspberries was developed by A.G. Sobolev. Its distinctive feature is the change in the vertical position of fruiting shoots to a semi-horizontal one. They are placed in a circle at a height of 30-40 cm from the ground. The combination of this cultivation method with double spring pruning allowed Sobolev to collect up to 4 kg of berries from one raspberry bush.... At the same time, the duration of fruiting increased to 90 days.
In addition, the shale method allows one-year and two-year-old raspberry shoots to be grown in the same area, avoiding mutual oppression. Due to the fact that all fruiting raspberry stems are arranged horizontally, in a circle, the center of the bush, in which the young growth grows, remains free. At the end of summer, two-year-old shoots are removed, and annual ones come to replace them. And so on ad infinitum.
A distinctive feature of the stale method is a change in the vertical position of fruiting shoots to a semi-horizontal one.
Agricultural technology of raspberries in different regions may have their own characteristics. It is especially influenced by climatic conditions.
In the Moscow region and central Russia, most of the raspberry varieties grow and bear fruit well, but some of them do not tolerate the cold winters of this region. In order to avoid freezing of the shoots, they are bent to the ground. Plants prepared in this way quickly find themselves under the snow, which perfectly protects them from the cold.
To avoid freezing of shoots, in central Russia, raspberries are bent to the ground in the fall.
In Siberia, winter temperatures are even lower than in the middle lane, so simply bending down the shoots is not enough here. You can save them only by wrapping them in a covering material and throwing them with spruce branches. Of course, there are especially winter-hardy varieties that easily tolerate Siberian frosts without shelter, but most of them do not have a good taste and high yield.
In Siberia with severe frosts, it is better to cover raspberries for the winter with spruce branches
In the Kuban and Ukraine, the situation is diametrically opposite. Here raspberries most often suffer from summer heat and drought. In such conditions, drip irrigation shows itself very well. According to experienced gardeners, it is able to increase yields by 15-25%. To minimize water consumption, planting raspberries in these regions must be mulched.
In arid regions with a hot climate, planting raspberries must be mulched to save moisture
The mild climate of Belarus is well suited for the cultivation of raspberries. But the excess moisture characteristic of this region can lead to the development of fungal diseases. In order to reduce the likelihood of infection, you must:
In order to prevent diseases, it is important to avoid thickening of the raspberry
Raspberries are not a very capricious crop, which even a novice gardener can easily cope with growing. But if you pay a little more attention to it, raspberries will surely thank you with a bountiful harvest of tasty and healthy berries.
Since childhood, I have been fond of growing various plants and have achieved considerable success in this matter. I would be very happy to share my experience.
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Modern, especially remontant varieties of raspberries, as a rule, have high (up to 1.8 m), sometimes flexible shoots with rather long fruit branches. And since all gardeners prefer to grow large-fruited varieties, which, moreover, give several harvests during the season, the raspberry bushes simply cannot withstand the load - they bend and sometimes break.
To avoid loss of yield and maintain a healthy look of the bushes, it is recommended to tie raspberries to trellises and it is better if it is a well-made structure, and not a simple wooden peg. Of course, not all gardeners have the time, and sometimes the desire, to make and then install a raspberry trellis. However, it should be understood that only low-growing bushes with a small amount of berries or single bushes can be tied to the peg. But high remontant varieties need a good trellis, otherwise, under the influence of the wind and the weight of the berries, the shoots will fall, and the harvest will simply be lost.
It is necessary to install the trellis immediately after planting the seedlings, and it is better to plant young bushes immediately under the trellis at a distance of 50 cm from the structure. This option is considered the most acceptable, since then the bushes will grow and it will be more difficult to install a support. If raspberries are planted in the fall, then the bushes, as a rule, are already cut off, and it is not necessary to tie them up - it is better to transfer this event to the spring, when the lateral processes appear. Further tying of the bushes is carried out as branches grow throughout the season.
In the area allotted for raspberries, I apply organic fertilizers (4 buckets per 1 m 2), I dig up the earth, level it with a rake and break it into beds (the bed is 0.6 m wide, row spacing - The higher the growth of the raspberry, the wider the row spacing should be.
It is better to plant raspberries in spring, at the beginning of April. For planting, I select not replacement shoots, but shoots that are far from the main bush. Its root system is more powerful, which contributes to the rapid development of seedlings.
I make planting holes for raspberries in the middle of the beds in one line through each hole I put up to 0.5 liters of ash, mix it thoroughly with the soil. After planting, I slightly compact the soil and water it at the rate of 10 liters of water per plant.
Externally, the trellis is a structure of small pillars, between which a metal wire or rope is pulled in several rows. There are two main types of such structures: single-lane and two-lane.
A single-strip design is a tensioned wire or twine between supporting elements.Such trellises are used to hold the shoots, and each stem must be tied up separately.
A similar option can be used for small plantings of raspberries. In turn, single-lane designs are subdivided into several more types, depending on the method of fixing the bushes:
Structurally, all types of single-strip trellis practically do not differ.
Two-lane designs are ideal for tying up large shrubs. Visually, such trellises are a stretched metal wire or rope between two parallel rows of sticks. The distance between the wires can be from 50 centimeters to 3 meters. Such trellises allow not only to tie up shoots, but also to form plantings of raspberries.
Two-lane designs are divided into the following types.
When the crop ripens, the raspberry tree may not withstand the load and bend from the wind. This complicates the care of the berry. In this situation, a very decent agricultural technique is used - a raspberry garter to the supports, which are used as a trellis. If the raspberry tree has already been formed, it's time to start installing the trellis. Then your bushes will begin to bear a good harvest.
Amateur gardeners do not always use a trellis when growing raspberries. There is always enough trouble in the garden, and some get by with a garter of bushes to supports in the form of stakes, or even without them. Sometimes they even get good harvests. But this only applies to low-growing varieties with thick, upright stems and not very large berries.
Most modern raspberry varieties are quite tall. They have a shoot length of about 1.8 m. In addition, they all have long fruit branches. And since gardeners try to choose varieties with large berries, these thin branches do not withstand such a load.
Tying is indispensable. During the ripening of the crop, heavy berries tilt the bushes to the ground, and gusts of wind aggravate the situation. A simple tapestry can fix everything.
The benefits of a tapestry are obvious. When growing raspberries on a large scale, the device of trellises is a mandatory agricultural technique, as a result of which:
There are adaptations not only for raspberries, but also for grapes. They simplify the conduct of such raspberry care activities as:
The tapestry is really comfortable. It is only necessary to build the correct structure once and use it for several years.
Here you can see photos of handmade birdhouses.
The trellis is made of pillars with wire stretched in several rows. There are two main groups of tapestries:
There are adherents of both designs. Experienced gardeners find that using a single-plane trellis is less effective. But it is successfully used in small areas.
Read also about the size of the birdhouse at this link.
Its purpose is to hold the raspberry bushes between the poles with a stretched string. Depending on the method of tying raspberry shoots, they are divided into:
In fact, this is the same structure of posts and rows of twine or wire. The difference is in the ways of tying bushes. All species are designed to hold raspberries during the growing season. There are subtleties with the use of a horizontal trellis.
It is also used to prepare raspberries for winter. After installing the trellis, in early spring, last year's shoots are tilted to the soil and fixed in a horizontal position. After this operation, the fruit branches along the entire length of the shoot begin to grow vertically, and the buds at the base remain dormant. This method of forming a bush simplifies the process of sheltering raspberry plantations for the winter.
A serious disadvantage of one-sided designs is that each stem has to be tied up or secured with wire separately. In small areas, this is not so important, but for owners of large raspberries, this is a significant disadvantage.
The existing sizes of polycarbonate greenhouses can be found here.
For large berry growers, it is better to use an improved trellis shape - two-lane. She, in turn, also comes in different forms:
A two-lane trellis, in addition to its main function - supporting fruiting bushes, makes it possible to correctly form a raspberry tree. It consists of two parallel rows of wire, stretched at a distance of 0.50 cm to 3 m. This design does not allow the plantings to thicken, helps to spread powerful shoots to the sides, which has a positive effect on the yield.
The essence of this construction is clear from the name. The base of such a trellis is pipes, beams, any trims of reinforcement, fixed perpendicularly. The wire is pulled along the edges of the protruding bar. When forming a bush, fruiting shoots are placed on opposite sides of the trellis. The center remains free. Over time, it is occupied by young growth.
In this design, the two bearing planes are inclined. The second name of the trellis is two-lane inclined. Bushes are formed in the same way as in the previous type of trellis. It should be noted that the distance between inclined planes should not exceed 2 meters.
This is a modern version of raspberry supports. It has blade-like details. They are movable because they are hinged. This design is convenient to use and can change the angle of inclination of the structure. In this case, the blades can be lowered or raised.
Such molding has found application in farms where machine harvesting is practiced. Among gardeners and summer residents, she did not take root. The reason for this is the difficulty of keeping branches with berries above it and poor accessibility of row spacings. Mulching, pruning and fertilizing is highly complicated.
You can also learn more about concrete outdoor flower boxes in this article.
Repaired raspberry varieties are grown in two ways: for one or two harvests per season. The tapestry is required in both cases. Modern remontant varieties bear fruit so well that without tying up the bush simply cannot withstand such a load, and part of the crop will end up on the ground.
Tapestries for remontant varieties are no different from those described. Practice shows that it is convenient to use two-lane trellis. Then, 2-year-old shoots with the first harvest are laid on one plane, and young shoots, which will yield a harvest in the fall, are placed on the second.
For vigorous varieties, trellis in the form of a T are used. The distance between the posts is 8–10 m. The length of the transverse slats depends on the width of the row in the raspberry bushes, and ranges from half a meter to a meter.
The V-trellis supports are installed in the center of the row. Make a slope of 20-30 degrees, and then pull the wire in 2 rows on each side. Good results are shown by the use of a moving Y-shaped trellis with the ability to change the angle of inclination.
When arranging trellises on large plantations, it should be borne in mind that on remontant varieties grown for the autumn harvest, such a structure is installed temporarily. It has to be removed for continuous mowing of shoots.
How high should the raspberry trellis be? The optimum support height is 1.8–2.5 m. It is suitable for any type of construction. When choosing supports, you need to count on them to be stable.
The distance between the supporting elements is usually between 75 cm and 3 meters. It is chosen depending on:
Raspberries are tied up in two places at different heights. There are several options. The scheme is chosen based on the characteristics of the raspberry variety. Most often this is done like this: the first row is tied up at a height of about a meter, the second - 1.5-1.70 cm (for tall varieties). Or use the following scheme: the first row - at a height of 50 cm, the second - 1.2–1.5 m (for medium-sized varieties).
The following materials are used as supports:
We also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of planting a hedge.
Having chosen the type of support, they begin to mark the site. It is necessary to decide at what distance the supports will be installed. Then proceed directly to the installation.
The bottom row of wire is needed in the first year on any variety to protect the plantings from strong winds, usually tying up the shoots is required. In subsequent years, everything depends on the variety and on agricultural technology.
For remontant raspberries grown only for the autumn harvest, the T-shaped trellis is most convenient. They mount it a little differently.
It is possible that you will be interested in installing gabions with your own hands.
The video shows the simplest tapestry for raspberries:
The use of intensive technologies for growing raspberries is impossible without the use of special agrotechnical devices. Tapestries are an opportunity to expand the range of products grown on a limited area. If you want to increase the yield of the raspberry tree and reduce the time for its care, install a simple structure in the form of a trellis on your berry. This process is laborious, but it justifies itself by a significant increase in productivity. You may also be interested in reading about the technology of installing trellises for climbing plants with your own hands.