Plum varieties for the Leningrad region


The more they say that the plum will not take root in the North-West of Russia, the more you want to plant this tree. The secret to successfully cultivating a delicate plant is to use a regionalized variety.

Difficulties in growing plums in the Leningrad region

Unpredictable weather is in the Leningrad Region, where winter with thaws resembles spring, and summer not every year indulges in generous warmth. Spring is damp and cool here, so there is often bad weather for natural pollinators. The column of the thermometer passes into the plus sector of the scale, usually at the beginning of April, and the average daily 15aboutC are installed from the second half of June. The east of the region is the coldest, and more or less comfortable warmth is in the southwest.

The region is also not rich in agricultural land. Plum prefers soils with a neutral level. Suitable - soddy calcareous soils with a neutral pH of 7. And such lands are located only on the Izhora Upland (Lomonosov, Gatchinsky, Volosovsky regions). The rest are acidic to varying degrees - sod-podzolic (pH 3.3–5.5) and podzolic (pH 4.0–4.5), moreover, poor in phosphorus and nitrogen.

Plum planting in acidic areas is preceded by soil liming.

When planting a plum, the desired height of the groundwater level is 1–1.5 m. But swampy soils and spring floods are common in the Leningrad Region. Such soils need drainage, and the tree is planted at an elevation of 0.6–1.2 m. The diameter of the artificial embankment is from 2.5 to 3 m.

Video: how to plant a fruit tree on a hill

It turns out that the cultivation of plums in the Leningrad region is associated with a certain risk. When choosing a variety, the emphasis is on those properties that will allow the tree to take root in difficult conditions.

How not to be mistaken with a variety

Purchase seedlings from the nursery, where you will be offered a specific variety. Buying online or in the marketplace can be confusing and frustrating.

Meanwhile, a real collective farm Renklode bears fruit annually, and its seedlings serve as an excellent rootstock material. The disadvantage is the crumbling of overripe fruits.

Plum Renklode collective farm does not surprise with external beauty, you just need to try it

Plum varieties groups

The varieties are divided into several types according to quality characteristics: color, size, shape, taste, as well as the physiological properties of trees:

  • Renclaude (France). Characteristic features: yield, in most cases self-fertility, the root system is prone to decay, resistance to frost up to -25aboutC and disease. The height of the tree is from 4 to 6 m. Fruits are spherical, purple or yellow-green in color with a rough skin, sweet. Not transportable, poorly stored. They are used fresh and canned. Popular varieties:
    • Renklod Kuibyshevsky is a medium late variety. A mature tree produces about 20-30 kg of plums, and bears fruit regularly. Pollinated by Hungarian Pulkovo, Volga beauty;
    • Renklod tenkovsky is a partially self-fertile early ripening variety.
  • Mirabel. All varieties (Yellow, Bolshaya, Bona, September, Nancy) are characterized by small bright yellow fruits with a ruddy side and dense pulp. The bone is easily separated. Mirabelle is good canned, used for baking.

    The fruits of the plum varieties of the Mirabelle group are similar in bright color and sweet taste

  • Hungarian. Plums are perfectly stored for up to 1.5 months in the refrigerator, thanks to their dense pulp, they are suitable for freezing, making candied fruits. Wine from Hungarian women is aromatic, has a rich taste. Popular varieties:
    • Hungarian Belorusskaya - partially self-fertile mid-ripening plum; fruits are purple with a waxy coating, medium size; yield an average of 35 kg.
    • Hungarian Pulkovskaya - zoned variety, self-fertile, late; in damp weather, the fruits are prone to cracking.

      Hungarian plum bright and fragrant

  • Teroslum. The fruits are small, with a specific astringency in taste, very dense, therefore they tolerate transportation well. Suitable for making marmalade, jam and preserves. Terosplum is unpretentious to lighting and winds, it can be planted anywhere in the garden, creating a wind shield for other trees. Famous varieties:
    • Ternosliv Dubovsky (Volgograd region) - mid-season variety, fruits weighing 26 g, stored for 2-3 weeks;
    • Summer ternosplum - Middle Volga variety, bears fruit in the 5-6th year, the fruits are well stored, but the pulp of the plums is rather dry.

      The thorny plum makes excellent marmalade and jam

  • Egg plum (England). In shape, the fruits resemble an egg, are not transportable due to the delicate pulp. Suitable for fresh consumption and conservation. Plum eggs come in red, blue and yellow colors:
    • Egg blue - zoned in the Moscow region, has high regular yields;

      Egg varieties have a classic egg shape

    • Egg red is pale in color, tastes much sour than Egg blue;
    • Livonia yellow egg, or Ochakovskaya yellow, is a variety of the Baltic national selection, which is also zoned in Belarus and in the North-West of Russia. The grafted plant bears fruit in the 3-4th year, and the one grown from root shoots - twice as late.

Yellow plums

The basis of the yellow society is made up of mirabelles, followed by other varieties:

  • Firefly (Eurasia-21 x Volga beauty) is a mid-season variety, resistant to diseases and pests. The crops are regular.

    Plum Firefly bears fruit regularly

  • Lodva is an early variety, self-fertile (pollinator - Mara), large fruits - weighing more than 30 g, with a small stone. The pulp has a caramel flavor.
  • Mara is a Belarusian late variety, the bone is poorly separated from the pulp; self-fruitless (pollinated by the usual wild cherry plum, plum variety Vitba).

    Plum Mara is from Belarus

  • Early rennlode is a fast-growing plum with a thin, sour skin of a greenish tint. The pulp, on the other hand, is honey-sweet.
  • Early - a plum of early ripening, the tree has a fan-shaped crown; yield about 9 kg.

Zoned (and not only) varieties

In the Northwest, zoned varieties are grown, but plums from other regions also bear fruit:

  • Varieties, zoned in the Volga region and the Moscow region:
    • Alyonushka is a fast-growing variety; fruits of deep red color, large, with a slight sourness.
    • Smolinka is an early, self-fertile variety; medium-sized tree; fruits are dark lilac, gray from wax bloom; the flesh is greenish-yellow, the stone is difficult to separate.

      Smolinka plum fruits are covered with a wax coating

    • Starting - an early ripe variety, begins to bear fruit in the 4th year; the plant is medium-sized. The fruits are dark red, sweet and sour.
    • Oryol Dream, Oryol souvenir - partially self-fertile varieties, trees bloom in mid-May, fruits are dry.
    • The sissy is an early ripe variety, the fruits are red on the outside and yellow on the inside. Advantages of the Sissy: diminutiveness - height up to 2.5 m; good frost resistance, the stone is easily removed. Disadvantages: shedding of fruits, late entry into fruiting (in the 5th year), flower buds may freeze. It is recommended to grow no further than the southwestern zone of the Leningrad region.
    • Red ball - preferably grown in a warmer area of ​​the region, resistant to clasterosporium.

      For the Red Ball plum, you need to choose the warmest zone

    • The study is disease-resistant, medium-yielding, partially self-fertile. Fruits are oval-ovoid, reddish-purple in color, with a bloom, speckled with subcutaneous dots, the skin is of medium thickness, the flesh is sweet and sour.
    • Volga beauty is a self-infertile variety (pollinators: Skorospelka red, Renklod collective farm); fruits of universal use; average winter hardiness.

      Pollinators are needed for the Volga beauty plum

  • The variety Liizu (Liflyandskaya yellow egg x Sukhkruploom) was bred in Estonia, where the climate is milder, therefore Liisa is grown in any zone of the region except the northern one. Fruits are red-purple, egg-shaped, universal. The variety is self-fertile, for pollination they use Skorospelka red, Violet, Morning plums. Average resistance to moniliosis.
  • Western European varieties Emma Leperman, Edinburgh are self-fertile, vigorous; have large fruits - yellow-green and dark red with a purple tint, respectively. Zoned in the Kaliningrad region.
  • Finnish plums are self-fertile, but pollinators are also planted for them, are winter-hardy, have sweet fruits:
    • Kuokkala - a variety from Jyväskylä with flexible branches; the size of the fruits is not amazing, but there are many of them.
    • Parikkalan Tummaluumu - mid-season variety; pollinator for yellow varieties.
    • Kuntalan Punaluumu - early ripe plum with aromatic fruits; medium-sized.
    • Sinikka (Sinikka) is a late variety, popular in its homeland, and now in the Leningrad region due to the honey sweetness of the fruit, which can compete with southern Hungarians.
    • Vaarin Siniluumu - fruits with brown flesh, the main color is dark blue, sweet.

Self-fertility

The ability to pollinate without the participation of insects is a valuable quality of a hearth tree. There are no stable self-fertile varieties of plum. To obtain high yields, it is advisable to plant 1-2 of any other varieties next to a self-fertile plum. For plums with partial self-fertility, this becomes a must. The pollinator variety should bloom at the same time as the pollinated tree.

If there is no pollinator nearby, then:

  • a shoot of another variety is grafted into the crown, which will serve as a pollinator;
  • among the flowering branches, they fix a plum bouquet in a jar of water, collected from far-growing trees. While it has faded, insects will have time to stain it with pollen on a flowering tree.

Until a certain time, I did not think why my plum, lonely bored in the middle of the garden, had not been standing with empty branches for a single year. But it was noticed that after cold windy or wet springs there are fewer fruits, but not much. I think either the variety is self-fertile (the fruits are large, round, blue), or this is due to the feral Hungarians growing nearby.

Of the most productive self-fertile plums for the Leningrad region, varieties can be distinguished:

  • Spark - late-ripening, with a stable high yield, moreover, they bear fruit seriously at the age of 3-4 years, when other plums are just accelerating; moderately hardy, egg-shaped fruits, yellow with a blush. Pollination is insured by the Red Ball, the Sister of the Dawn, the Dawn.
  • The Moscow Hungarian is a late plum near Moscow, the fruits are dark red, glaucous from a thick wax coating.
  • Hungarian ordinary - a variety of folk selection, medium-sized, distinguished by a late entry into fruiting (in the 5-6th year); moderately resistant to drought and frost. Fruits are of irregular elliptical shape, do not crumble, the pulp is rough, but juicy. Productivity increases in the company with Anna Shpet, Renklode Altana, Hungarian Italian.
  • Timiryazev's memory is a mid-late variety, the fruits are sweet, the stone is easily separated, the frost resistance is average, the plant is susceptible to tick attacks, the yield is high. Recovers quickly from damage.

    Plum Timiryazev's memory quickly recovers from damage

  • Hungarian Pulkovskaya - late variety, dark red fruits with yellow pulp. For safety reasons, it is pollinated with varieties Skorospelka red, Hungarian Moscow, Winter red.
  • Viola is a medium-late winter-hardy variety; the main color of the fruit is green, the integumentary color is blue. Pollinators: Hungarian Kuibyshevskaya, Skorospelka red, Zhiguli.
  • Tulskaya Chernaya is a medium late variety, the average yield is 12-14 kg, the maximum yield is up to 35 kg. Can be propagated by root shoots and green cuttings.

    Plum harvest Tulskaya Black reaches 35 kg

Plums with partially self-fertile:

  • Beauty TsGL - mid-ripening plum, fruit weight 40-50 g; resistant to most diseases. The pollinators are Eurasia-21, Vengerka Voronezhskaya.
  • Krasnomyasaya - has reddish-raspberry fruits weighing up to 50 g; medium-sized, prone to freezing. Re-pollinated with Skoroplodnaya and Ussuriyskaya plums.

    Plum Red meat sometimes freezes

  • The Belarusian Hungarian is a mid-ripening plum, does not suffer from clotterosporia. Pollinators: Crooman, Bluefrey, Victoria, Perdrigon.

Additional factors for choosing a variety

The climate of the North-West is characterized by short showers, fogs, damp dampness, and the sun is in great deficit here. Under such conditions, the plum must have adequate immunity.

Resilience of flower buds

Frosts and winter thaws in the Northwest hit flower buds - a guarantee of the future harvest. The following varieties are weak in this regard:

  • Pchelnikovskaya - mid-ripening self-fertile plum; generally has good winter hardiness, flower buds become most vulnerable at the junction of winter and spring.
  • Pavlovskaya yellow is a relatively resistant variety against fungal diseases, in some years it experiences aphid infestations; remarkable for regular fruiting; flower buds freeze in winter at temperatures below -27aboutC.
  • Primorskaya - a variety of the Ussuri folk selection; yields small in volume (10–12 kg), but regular harvests, yellow fruits, keep their shape during prolonged storage, but lose their taste. Wood resistance to frost is high, flower buds are medium.
  • A gift to St. Petersburg - an early variety, a 10-year-old tree gives 27 kg of yellow tasty fruits with a tendency to shedding; high resistance to clasterosporium; flower buds suffer from recurrent frost.

Flower buds do not freeze in varieties:

  • Stanley is an American cross between the French Pruneau d'Agen plum and the American Grand Duke. The variety embodies the qualities of the Hungarian women and the egg-shaped fruit. The resistance of flower buds to freezing is proved by the 92-year history of Stanley's life.

    Stanley plum can live for a very long time

  • Renklod Tambovsky - remarkable crown, growing more in width than in height, which should be taken into account when planting; fruits are black-purple, bears fruit from the 3rd year.
  • Black Zyuzina - named after the village of Zyuzino, where this variety was bred; ripening period late; the color of the fruit is deep blue, the processed plums retain their rich color.
  • Early rennlode - ripens at the end of July, fruits are greenish-yellow in color, dense flesh with a honey flavor is hidden under a thin sour skin.

Wind resistance

In a region where gusty winds and even tornadoes are not uncommon, the motto for choosing a variety is the lower the better. Do not exceed 2.5 m of plum varieties:

  • Candy,
  • Pyramidal,
  • Renklod tenikovsky,
  • Red ball.

Omsk night, whose height reaches a maximum of 1.4 m, looks like a lilliputian against the background of others. Tall plums (Yakhontova, Anna Shpet) are grafted onto a dwarf or dwarf stock.

Ripening terms

The growing season in the region is 150-173 days. It is clear that early and middle varieties have a better chance of yielding.

  • Early varieties - the first decade of August:
    • The early-fruiting has a fan-shaped crown, small yellow fruits with a blush.
    • Early ripening red is relatively resistant against clasterosporium disease; with high humidity, the fruits lose their sweetness; disadvantages include uncomfortable ripening and shedding of fruits. The desired pollinators include Hungarian Pulkovskaya and Moscow, Renklod kolkhoz, Winter white. Skorospelka itself is red, in turn, is an unsurpassed pollinator for many varieties.

      Skorospelka red plum is a good pollinator for other varieties

    • The tent is characterized by uncomfortable ripening, disease resistance; relative winter hardiness. The color of the fruits is purple, inside they are yellow-red.The pulp has an increased sugar level.
  • Mid-season (August 10-25):
    • Early ripening round - self-fruitless plum, winter hardiness at altitude, disease resistance average, ripening time - medium, medium-sized tree with a spreading crown, dark red-purple fruits with a slight bluish bloom, yellow pulp, sweet and sour, up to 10 g, yield in average 10-15 kg.
    • Nika is a self-fruitless plum; Vengerka Donetskaya, Soviet Renklod are suitable as pollinators. It perfectly resists diseases, with a small harvest the fruits become larger and vice versa with a difference of about 20 g. Fruiting is irregular.

      Nika plum has good disease resistance

    • Bogatyrskaya - medium-sized; fruits are large, universal, transportable. A tree at the age of 5–6 years gives yields from 50 to 70 kg. Disadvantage: branches break with a bountiful harvest.

      The branches of the Bogatyrskaya plum can break from bountiful harvests

  • Late varieties (late August - early September):
    • Tula black - local variety, medium late, but closer to late; self-infertile; fruits are blue to black; has a high recovery capacity after severe frosts; bears fruit regularly.
    • Bolkhovchanka is zoned in the Central Chernozem region; winter hardiness of wood and flower buds is good, self-sterile plum (pollinators: collective farm Renklod, Record); fruits are large, good taste.
    • The Rossoshanskaya Reward is a medium-sized tree with dark red oval fruits; the pulp has a grainy-fibrous consistency, juicy. Plum winters well; annual fruiting.

Given the climate of the Leningrad Region, plum varieties for this region must be winter-hardy, self-fertile, high-yielding, and disease-resistant. Trees with compact crowns are preferable - they are convenient for care and harvesting, and also withstand well winds.

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Regionalized and promising plum varieties for gardeners of the North-West

The correct selection of varieties for each region, each specific garden is decisive in obtaining high yields of plums. Practice shows that seedlings of varieties of this culture, brought from regions with a milder climate, in the North-West, as a rule, freeze out. It is safer to grow on their plots the varieties tested and recommended by the state commission, zoned for each region, and new promising varieties recommended by scientific institutions for the conditions of the North-West region.

Plum varieties to the greatest extent, they should combine such characteristics as winter hardiness, self-fertility, high productivity, palatability of fruits, resistance to diseases and pests. Preference is also given to varieties with small compact crowns, which are suitable for compacting plantings and are convenient for maintaining the crown and collecting fruits. It is advisable to have 4-5 trees in the garden of various ripening periods and with fruits of universal purpose.

The zoned assortment of plums in the North-West region is represented by the following varieties: Ripe red, Ripe round, Hungarian pulkovskaya, Renklod collective farm, Livonia yellow egg (Ochakovskaya yellow) - for the Leningrad, Pskov and Novgorod regions and Western European varieties Victoria, Emma Lepperman, Edinburgh - for the Kaliningrad region.

A long-term study of plums at the Pavlovsk experimental station of the VIR and the Leningrad fruit and vegetable experimental station testifies to the possibilities of successful cultivation in the North-West region of varieties of the selection of the Volga region and some other regions. In the group of promising varieties are allocated here Volga beauty, Peaceful, Friendship, Dark-skinned woman (Kuibyshev Experimental Gardening Station), Volgograd, Ternosliv, Dubovsky, Golden Fleece (Dubovsky fruit and grape stronghold of the Volgograd region) and a variety of folk selection of the Moscow region - Black Zyuzina. Below is a description of the main zoned promising varieties.

Regionalized plum varieties

Hungarian Pulkovo. A variety of folk selection. The tree is vigorous. Fruits of a late ripening period, 20-25 g, oval, dark red-violet with a waxy coating and dark subcutaneous punctures. The pulp is yellowish, fine-grained, juicy, sour-sweet, of satisfactory taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 120 kg / ha. Winter hardiness is high. The best pollinators: Ripe red, Hungarian Moscow, Winter red. The variety is zoned in the Leningrad, Pskov and Novgorod regions.

Victoria. An old Western European variety. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits of medium ripening, up to 50 g, broadly oval, violet-red with a waxy bloom. The pulp is yellow, light fibrous, very juicy, sweet and sour, with a dessert taste. The stone is poorly separated from the pulp. Productivity up to 150 kg / ha, average winter hardiness. The variety is self-fertile. Zoned in the Kaliningrad region.

Livonian yellow egg (Ochakovskaya yellow). An old Baltic variety of folk selection. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits of a late ripening period, 18-22 g, oval, with a neck, greenish-yellow or light yellow with a slight waxy bloom. The pulp is light yellow, tender, juicy, dessert taste. The stone is poorly separated from the pulp. Productivity up to 70-80 c / ha. Average winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Moscow Hungarian, Red Skorospelka. The variety has been zoned in the Novgorod and Kaluga regions.

Collective farm renklod. A variety of early ripening, bred by I.V. Michurin. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits are round, 18-20 g, greenish-yellow with a waxy coating and subcutaneous punctures. The pulp is yellow-green, rather juicy, sweet-sourish. Semi-detachable bone. Productivity up to 120-180 kg / ha. Good winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Skorospelka red, Hungarian Moscow. The variety is zoned in the Leningrad, Pskov and other regions.

Renklod Kuibyshevsky. A variety of medium ripening, obtained at the Kuibyshev Experimental Gardening Station. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits up to 25 g, round, greenish-yellow with a blurred blush and waxy bloom. The pulp is yellow-green, fibrous with excellent dessert taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity 120-180 kg / ha. The best pollinators: Hungarian pulkovskaya, Volzhskaya beauty. The variety is zoned in the Leningrad and other regions.

Early ripening red. An old Russian variety of folk selection. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits of an early ripening period, 18-20 g, round-oval, pink-red with a bluish waxy bloom and subcutaneous punctures. The pulp is yellow, dense, slightly juicy, fine-grained with a slight aroma, satisfactory taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. The variety is partially self-fertile. The best pollinators: Renklod collective farm, Hungarian Pulkovskaya. The variety is zoned in the Leningrad, Pskov, Novgorod and other regions.

Early ripening round. An old Russian variety of early ripening. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits 8-12 g, round, dark red-purple with a slight blue waxy bloom. The pulp is yellow, juicy, with a good sour-sweet taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. The annual yield is up to 140 centners per hectare. Winter hardiness is high. The best pollinator is Ripe red. The variety is zoned in the Leningrad region.

Edinburgh. Western European variety of medium ripening. The tree is vigorous. Fruits up to 32 g, round, dark red with a purple tinge. The pulp is greenish-yellow, juicy, with a good sweet and sour taste. Semi-detachable bone. Productivity up to 250 kg / ha. Average winter hardiness. The variety is self-fertile, zoned in the Kaliningrad region.

Emma Lepperman. Western European variety of medium ripening. The tree is vigorous. Fruits up to 40-45 g, round-oval, greenish-yellow, with a dark pink blush, subcutaneous punctures and with a mild waxy bloom. The pulp is yellowish, crunchy, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 250 kg / ha. Average winter hardiness. Zoned in the Kaliningrad region.

Promising varieties

Volga beauty. A variety of early ripening, obtained at the Kuibyshev Experimental Gardening Station. The tree is vigorous. Fruits up to 40 g, round-oval, reddish-purple with a waxy bloom. The pulp is yellowish-pink, fine-grained, with a good sour-sweet taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 140 kg / ha. Good winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Skorospelka red, Renklod kolkhoz.

Volgograd. The variety has an average ripening period, obtained at the Dubovsky support point of the Volgograd region. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits 23-27 g, round, yellow with a violet-red blush and with a bluish bloom. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet and sour taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 140 kg / ha. Good winter hardiness.

Friendship. A variety of medium ripening, obtained at the Kuibyshev Experimental Gardening Station. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits 25-30 g, round-ovate, maroon with a waxy bloom. The pulp is yellow-green, juicy, good taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 150 kg / ha. Good winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Skorospelka red, Hungarian Pulkovskaya.

Eurasia-21. The variety was obtained in the Voronezh Agricultural Institute. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits up to 30-35 g, maroon, juicy, excellent taste. Productivity up to 180 kg / ha, high winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Skorospelka krasnaya, Pamyat Timiryazev and others.

The Golden Fleece. The variety is of medium ripening, bred at the Dubovsky strong point of the Volgograd region. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits up to 30 g, oval, with a short neck, yellow with a greenish tinge and with a waxy bloom. The pulp is yellow, juicy, of excellent taste. Semi-detachable bone. Productivity up to 150 kg / ha, average winter hardiness. The variety is partially self-fertile.

Peaceful. A variety of medium ripening, obtained at the Kuibyshev Experimental Gardening Station. The tree is vigorous. Fruits up to 25-30 g, round, dark purple with a thick waxy bloom. The pulp is yellowish, juicy, with an excellent sweet and sour taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 200 c / ha, good winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Volzhskaya krasavitsa, Druzhba, Skorospelka red.

The dark woman. A mid-late variety, bred at the Kuibyshev Experimental Gardening Station. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits up to 25-30 g, flat-rounded, dark red with a purple bloom. The pulp is yellow, juicy, good sweet and sour taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity up to 80-100 c / ha, high winter hardiness. The best pollinators: Druzhba, Mirnaya.

Ternosliv Dubovsky. The variety is of average ripening period, bred at the Dubovsky support point of the Volgograd region. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits up to 26 g, round-obovate, dark blue with a strong juicy waxy bloom. The pulp is fine-grained, sour-sweet. The stone separates well from the pulp. Productivity is high, winter-hardy variety.

Black Zyuzina. A variety of national selection of the Moscow region. The tree is medium-sized. Fruits of medium ripening, up to 21 g, round-oval, dark blue with a waxy bloom. The pulp is greenish-yellow, juicy, satisfactory sweet and sour taste. The stone separates well from the pulp. The yield is good and annual. Winter hardiness is high. The best pollinators: Skorospelka red, Hungarian Moscow.

G. Aleksandrova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences


Rating of the best varieties of plums

A new early variety of plum for the Central Black Earth Region. A tree of medium height, with a dense, wide crown. Fruits are rounded-elongated, leveled, weighing 45 - 55 g, red-violet, with a thick bluish bloom, without subcutaneous points, the abdominal suture is poorly expressed. The pulp is juicy, dense, yellow, aromatic, sweet with a slight sourness. The skin is firm, of medium thickness. Transportability is good. The stone is large, easily separated. This plum has good winter hardiness and disease resistance. To set fruit, you need a pollinator that blooms at the same time. Popular in the suburbs.

  • large-fruited
  • free bone separation
  • transportability
  • good winter hardiness
  • average yield
  • requires early flowering pollinator

Good old early ripe plum variety of Kuibyshev selection. The tree is large, grows quickly, forms a spherical medium thickened crown. Fruits are oval, aligned, weighing 30 - 40 g, purple with redness and noticeable subcutaneous dots, with a medium waxy bloom, the abdominal seam is clearly visible, the skin is easily removed from the pulp. The pulp is orange, tender, sweet with sourness. The bone is separated freely. The fruits have a dessert purpose. The fruits are moderately shedding resistant. Average winter hardiness, in unfavorable years flower buds completely die. This plum variety is well suited for cultivation in the Central region and the Volga region.

  • dessert taste
  • good bone separation
  • partial self-fertility
  • vigor
  • affected by clasterosporium
  • weak winter hardiness of flower buds
  • frequent rains lead to cracking of the fruit

An old Voronezh hybrid with genes of cherry plum and 5 types of plums. The tree is tall, with a spreading crown. Due to its powerful growth, it is often grafted onto a weakly growing stock, although self-rooted seedlings are more hardy. Early ripening. Fruits are round, sparsely arranged, weighing 20-30 g, burgundy, with a gray waxy bloom, the abdominal suture is poorly expressed. The pulp is juicy, loose, light orange, sweet with moderate sourness, aromatic. The stone is medium, poorly separated. Has a dining function. Differs in high complex winter hardiness. It is a good rootstock for other varieties and a stable skeleton-forming agent. The yield depends on the weather conditions during the flowering period. Rainfall and lack of heat reduce it dramatically. The hybrid is not capable of self-pollinating and serving as a pollinator for another variety. Pollinated by the collective farm Renklode and the productive Renklode. This plum variety shows itself well in the Central Black Earth Region.

  • high winter hardiness
  • good taste
  • poor bone separation
  • unstable yield
  • very large tree

Moscow variety from free pollination. A tree of medium height, with a spherical, dense and spreading crown. Fruits are oval or ellipsoid, irregular in shape, violet-red with a dense blue-violet bloom, weighing 20 - 25 g, pronounced abdominal suture. The skin is rough. The pulp is very dense, juicy, rich yellow, simple sweet and sour taste. The stone is medium, easily detached. Fruits go well for drying and compotes. This plum variety is characterized by moderate winter hardiness, good resistance to fungal diseases and annual fruiting. It does not need pollinators, but it is itself a good pollinator for other domestic plums.

  • stable yield
  • winter hardiness
  • unpretentiousness
  • self-fertility
  • small fruits of mediocre taste

An early ripe proven variety of plum. Medium-sized tree with a rounded, neat crown. Fruits are round or slightly oval, weighing 30-50 g, deep purple, with a thick waxy coating, subcutaneous points appear well, the abdominal suture is deep and pronounced. The pulp is dense, juicy, bright yellow, sweet with a delicate sourness, traditional plum taste. The stone is medium, it can be separated freely. The purpose of the fruits is table and technical. The first fruiting gives already at 3 - 4 years. Differs in high winter hardiness of wood and flower buds. The crop gives annually, subject to the presence of a pollinator with early flowering (Morning, Early yellow, Egg blue, Smolinka). It is not demanding in care, it is rarely damaged by diseases and pests. The first grade among those recommended for the Moscow region.

  • good bone separation
  • large-fruited
  • early onset of fruiting
  • high winter hardiness
  • in comparison with modern varieties it is inferior in taste
  • pollinator variety required


Homemade plum varieties

Hungarian Pskov

It is a form propagated by amateur gardeners.

Self-fertile, winter-hardy, with good taste.

  • The plums ripen late summer or early autumn, do not crack or rot.
  • They are slightly oval, weighing 25 g.
  • The color is purple-burgundy, with an intense bluish tinge.

Hungarian Pulkovskaya

A folk variety common in the Leningrad region.

Hungarian Pulkovskaya is an old variety that appeared in the middle of the last century.

It is also found under other names: Pokrovka, Zimovka, Zimnitsa, Winter red ... In 1959, the variety was entered in the State Register.

  • Breeds successfully undergrowth... It is a good pollinator for other varieties of domestic plum.
  • Stands out reliability, self-fertility and excellent yield.
  • Winter hardiness - at an average level.
  • Trees are durable, tall (up to 5 m ), with a sparse spreading crown, do not develop well in swamps and heavy clays.
  • Ripening later (second - third decade of September), extended, without shedding. Plums weighing up to 25 g, oval, with a distinct seam.
  • The skin is thick, with a strong waxy bloom in color from reddish-purple to blue-violet. Detachable bone, medium size. The pulp is light yellow, juicy, sour-sweet. The taste is satisfactory.
  • Aphid infestation - low, perforated spot - medium ... In damp weather, the fruits crack, rot, get sick with "pockets".

Ochakovskaya yellow

Another name is Latvian yellow egg. An old folk variety, can be propagated by shoots.


Our "northern grapes"

It is not for nothing that they call him northern grapes, because in its medicinal properties and usefulness, it is in no way inferior to grapes, except in taste. Gooseberry was known in Russia as early as the eleventh century! In the grand princely gardens in the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, it was grown in Moscow in large quantities.

This berry was so popular that special plantations were established, on the site of which Bersenevskaya embankment and Bersenevsky lane are now located, in the names of which the old name of gooseberry berries "bersen" has been preserved. And only in the sixteenth century gooseberry began to be bred first in Europe, and then, two centuries later, in North America. So gooseberry is a truly Russian berry. Its advantages are its unpretentiousness, endurance, early maturity, productivity, durability and usefulness, in addition, it is simply a delicious berry.

It grows well in almost all areas, including the Northwest. Unlike black currants, some gooseberry varieties less winter-hardy, and the growth of the current year, that is, the young ends of the branches, can freeze to the level of snow cover at temperatures below -33 ° C, although the gooseberry crown usually withstands frosts down to -40 ° C. Winter thaws with subsequent frosts without snow are also unfavorable. The roots can freeze under such conditions even at temperatures below -3 ... -5 ° C. Usually, the root system is able to withstand up to -2 ° C. Gooseberry flower buds, like black currant, endure severe frosts down to -35 ° C without damage, buds - only -6 ° C, flowers -3 ° C, and young ovaries - only -2 ° C. So with severe spring frosts, the entire crop can be lost.

Sometimes gooseberries are mulched in the fall to protect their root system from death in frosty, snowless winters, as well as against pests hibernating under bushes. But in the spring, it is imperative to remove the mulch from the bush, firstly, so that additional roots do not form in the mulch layer, which will still die next winter, and the plants will waste their energy on them, and secondly, so that the pests that hibernated under the bush die.

Gooseberries do not like stagnant waters, excessive waterlogging, strongly acidic soils. Prefers to grow in the sun, but tolerates a little shade. He does not like the neighborhood of black currant, but he completely reconciles, like raspberries, with apple trees, but he can be planted no closer than 1.5-2 m from these trees. Gooseberries are also friendly to the neighborhood of red currants. Since its sucking roots lie at a fairly large depth (about 40 cm), gooseberries do not need constant watering in dry weather, unlike black currants. However, with a lack of moisture, the gooseberry sheds its leaves prematurely, and its berries become smaller.

It differs from red and black currants, big lovers of phosphorus, the need for increased doses of potassium, which should be taken into account both when planting and when feeding. It is usually recommended to apply 20 g of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under each bush once a season immediately after fruiting. When feeding with potassium, it is useful to know that potassium salt contains 40% potassium, and 100 g of fertilizer (half a glass) should be applied, potassium sulfate contains 50% potassium, and it is enough to add 80 g (less than half a glass) in potassium carbonate contains about 45% pure potassium, you will need to add about 90 g of this fertilizer potassium nitrate contains about 14% nitrogen and 38% potassium, half a glass of fertilizer is enough in the ash contains only about 10% potassium, so you will need to add about 400 g of ash (4 glasses). You should be aware that gooseberries do not tolerate chlorine and sulfur. It will shed its leaves prematurely if fed with potassium chloride, and immediately shed its leaves if treated with sulfur against pests or diseases.

Gooseberries are planted only in the fall, best in September. Before planting, the roots must be immersed in water for 2-3 hours so that they are saturated with moisture. If possible, add Kornevin to the water, which promotes root formation. A hole is dug with dimensions of 50x50 cm, a depth of at least 40 cm. It is filled up to half the height with a mixture of soil dug out of the hole and well-rotted compost, which will require at least 8-10 kg per hole. Add half a glass of double granular superphosphate and two glasses of ash to it. Other fertilizers should not be applied in the fall, since autumn rains and winter thaws will wash them off into the lower layers of the soil. When planting, the roots are carefully straightened on a small mound, which is made in the center of the pit.

Gooseberries can be planted vertically, but it is better to plant them obliquely so that zero shoots come out of the ground faster. It is capable of giving additional roots, therefore, when planting, the root collar is deepened by 3-5 cm.Then the hole is completely covered with soil that was dug out of the hole and watered well. When the earth settles, it is poured additionally. I am critical of the recommendation to trample the soil around the seedling after planting. There is no better way to fill the voids in the root zone with soil than watering, and trampling only leads to poor air flow to the roots, and this is undesirable in the initial period of plant survival, so we will do without trampling. After watering, which is done in several stages, it is necessary to mulch the soil surface under the bush with any dry soil with a layer of about 7-8 cm.

After planting or before it, but the bush must be shortened by cutting off the ends of the branches, no matter how sorry they are. No more than 3-4 buds should be left on each branch above the ground, and about the same should be in the soil. Such a strong pruning during planting promotes the formation of lateral shoots at the base of the bush and a good, and most importantly, fast and correct formation of the plant. In the future, much will depend on the timely and correct pruning of the bushes.

Gooseberry fruit buds live for a long time, about 8 years, but they will bear fruit only if there is a good growth (it is considered bad if it reaches only 7-8 cm at the end of summer). Watch this carefully. The growth is clearly visible, the bark at the grown ends of the branches is lighter. The smaller the new growth, the weaker the shoot, the more it is necessary to prune this branch, dropping down to the first strong lateral branch with good growth. The apical bud withdraws all nutrients and, if the branch is weak (it has a thin end), then no fruit is formed, and the yield is reduced. Therefore, it is imperative to shorten weak shoots.

The bush only branches when shortening zero shoots, that is, those that grow from the ground. Each new zero shoot must be shortened by a quarter of its length. Make sure that the cut is one centimeter above the strong bud on the outside of the branch, otherwise the shoot that comes from the bud below the cut will grow into the crown and will have to be removed. Zero shoots are shortened next spring. Pruning is done in March, before the sap begins to flow. Or it can be done in late autumn, when the plant has retired. But it is impossible to do a shortening pruning in the middle of summer or in early autumn, since it will cause a new growth, and it will not have time to woody before frost and dry out. So you just ruin the escape.

If there are no fruits on the branch, then it should be removed before the first strong branching (usually to the branch from which this sterile shoot started). If the branch is outdated and ceases to bear fruit, then it must be cut to the level of the soil, without leaving the hemp.

For the first 2-3 years, the gooseberry usually develops a root system, and the crown hardly grows. Then the rapid growth of the aerial part begins, and a lot of overgrowth appears. The bush is not able to feed all the shoots, so it will needlessly thicken the bush and dry out. It is better to remove it immediately, especially the one that appears in the center of the bush. All extra shoots are cut out at the level of the soil, without leaving hemp, otherwise pests and pathogens will quickly settle in the left hemp. In addition, branches on the ground should be cut.

While you are forming a bush, you need to leave 3-4 young zero shoots annually, then gradually over 5 years the plant will form 20-25 strong branches of different ages. From this moment, abundant fruiting begins. In a properly formed bush in the prime of its strength, there should always be 20-25 fruiting branches. Gooseberry bushes should be planted at a distance of 1.5 m from each other. Old, broken, diseased and weak branches should be removed annually. Usually, the branch grows old by 8-9 years, and fruiting stops on it. In the future, shorten each shoot emerging from the ground by a quarter of its length, remove the growth in the center of the bush, cut out the excess branches, especially those growing inside the bush, thin out the bush.

Annual growths in fruiting branches are not shortened, because this reduces the yield. They are shortened in early spring only if they have turned black or dried out during the winter. The ends turn black if they are affected by powdery mildew. The ends of the branches dry out if the young growth did not have time to woody before the frost. To prevent this from happening, pluck out the apical bud (the topmost bud at the end of the branch) at the very beginning of July to stop the outflow of nutrients to the top.

Old shrubs can be rejuvenated by vigorous pruning. In late autumn, cut a third of the branches in the bush to ground level. Add 2-3 buckets of humus. This will cause zero shoots to grow from the soil. The next fall, shorten the zero shoots that have grown over the summer by one quarter of their length, and remove another third from the old branches. Then, next fall, remove the rest of the old shrub.

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