Catawissa onion - rocambole onion, Sow, maintain, harvest ...

Catawissa onion or rocambole onion,a perpetual onion!

The catawissa onion or rocambole onion is like its cousin rocambole garlic. It is a perpetual vegetable. To harvest it, we pick its aerial bulbils placed at the top of herbaceous stems. The young leaves can be cooked, you will use them like the scallion, or like the "greens" of young onions.

It is an interesting herbaceous vegetable plant because it is perennial by its bulb. It produces year after year, from the month of February, herbaceous stems ending in 2 to 3 stages of bulbils easy to harvest. The bulbils measure up to 3 cm and are more numerous at the top of the stem than at the "lower levels". The stems of the Rocambole onion can be up to 80 cm high. Catawissa onion is also called catawissa scallion or families onion.

Catawissa is a small town in the United States of 1500 souls. In Europe it was long thought that the Catawissa onion originated in the Americas, but in reality rocket garlic is a plant native to West Asia.

Botanical name of rocambole onion:

• Allium cepa Linnaeus - variety proliferum

Plant type:

Family : alliacee - alliaceae
• Cycle: Perennial
• Hardiness: Hardy plant (-18 ° C)
Foliage : Persistent
Exposure : Sun
Ground : Light, humus and loosened
• Harbor : Upright stems
• Rooting: Roots
• Origin: West Asia
• Toxicity: no

Special features and health advantage:

• Health & nutrition: the rocambole onion is anti-infectious, antiscorbutic, antiseptic, bactericidal, digestive, nutritious, pectoral, stimulant, tonic, dewormer ...
• Essential oil : Maceron contains essential oil.
• Vitamins: Rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, B5, C, E, PP
• Mineral salts : Contains mineral salts such as barium, bromine, calcium, Chlorine, iron, fluro, iodine, magnesium phosphorus potassium, sodium ...
• Crop rotation: The carambola onion is a perennial onion. It can stay in place for many years.
• Toxic: No
• Honey plant: The flowers are little visited by bees and other pollinators ...

Advantage in the garden:

• Very easy to grow.
• One of the much sought after perennial vegetables.


Small bulbs, about 3 cm in diameter, at the top of herbaceous stems 80 cm high.

What soil to plant the maceron:

• Light soil, humus and made loose.

When to plant bulbils?

• In place : in autumn September October, or at the end of winter, in February - March.

How to plant Catawissa onions?

• Work the soil without turning it over
• Make the soil fine, light and loose
• Incorporate potting soil if necessary.
• Place the Rocambole onion bulbils by hand, 1 to 2 cm deep.
• Push them lightly into the earth and space them 30 cm apart.
• Lines 40 cm apart.
• Cover lightly with potting soil.

What exposure for the Catawissa onion?

• This culture does not fear extreme cold.

Harvest and conservation?

• Bulbs planted in spring: harvest 6 months later, around August for the storage onions.
• Bulbs planted in autumn: harvest 11 months later, same period.

• Bulbils can be stored like onions or shallots, once cut, place them in a dry and cool place, they can be stored without problem until the end of winter.
• Bubles can also be harvested, but they do not keep over time, plan to harvest as needed.

A word from the amateur gardener:

The first year, each plant will give 3 to 4 stems, much more the second year of cultivation.


• Hoe and weed in hot weather.
• Mulch the stump in case of severe drought.
• Watering in case of drought, only on the ground.


• Perpetual cawissa onion
• Egyptian rocambole onion, slightly different, coppery in color and smaller in size. The plants are also less productive.

Good company in the vegetable garden

• Avoid planting Catawissa onion or rocambole onion or perennial onion near legumes (as with onions).

• Plant near Carrots, beets, Lettuce, Tomatoes, strawberries….

Crop rotation?

• The rocambole onion is a perennial plant that stays in place for several years. The longer this period, the longer you will have to wait to cultivate it again in the same place.

Diseases of Catwissa's onion:

• Mildew:
> The disease often appears in storms.
> To prevent the development of the disease: Treat preventively with lithothamne powder - available in organic cultivation, as soon as the stormy episode is over.

And on the recipe side?

• Cook the young leaves braised in butter, or cook them like spinach.
• The larger leaves can replace celery in soup dishes, meat stuffing, stew, waterzoï, marinated mussels….
• The roots are eaten raw or cooked in water and then seasoned with vinaigrette ...

Quick sheet:


Theonion or onion [N 1] (Allium cepa), pronounced / ɔ.ɲɔ̃ /, is a species of biennial herbaceous plants of the family Amaryllidaceae, widely and for a long time cultivated as a vegetable plant for its bulbs of strong flavor and odor or for its leaves. The term also refers to the bulb of this plant harvested as a vegetable. By extension, it sometimes colloquially designates in gardening the bulbs of other plants, generally inedible (for example: tulip onion).

Onion is used both as a vegetable and as a condiment.

The bulb of the onion consists of thickened bases of leaves wrapped around each other. In general, we speak of onion for all Liliaceae bulbs, such as tulips.

The shallot is a plant very similar to the onion but it has a greater number of vegetative points per bulb. The flavor of shallot is also stronger than that of onion

Spring onion

An aromatic herb with a finer flavor than onion or shallot, Allium fistulosum is found under the names of scallions, cive, chiboule or even scallion in the South-East. Cultivated for its green leaves that it produces in abundance, this perennial native to China is very present in Asian cuisine. Scallion, also called cive or Spanish onion, is a plant offering multiple applications in cooking. Its leaves are also used as a flavoring or as a condiment. The taste of ... Here are its main characteristics: it forms tufts 40 cm high it is cultivated for its aromatic leaves having a sweeter taste than that of onion and shallot its flavor is between that of onion and that of chives bran.

Spring onion (Cive): planting, sowing, maintaining and harvesting

  • Everything is eaten in the onion: the pseudo-bulbs, the stems and the flowers. The fragrance evokes that of onion, but much finer, more delicate, with a slight hint of garlic. The white part of the scallion is used like the onion, while the green part is generally considered a fine herb.
  • these and white onion bulbs. However, green onions are smaller and appear underdeveloped than regular onions. They also have a milder, milder flavor and taste than generic onions. Chives are a spice native to.
  • those that have the appearance of leek. When ripe, the bole can reach up to 50 cm long by 2.5 cm in diameter and bear 15 cm of green leaves

For a long time, chives and scallions were confused, bearing the same name indifferently, but also called "cive". In addition, depending on the region, it may be called cive, Spanish onion, chiboule or fistulous garlic. In the south-east of France (and in Alain Ducasse's cuisine), it is called cébette There is not one but spring onions! There are three main varieties: common red, white and stem onion. The latter is an absolute must that is found a lot in Asian cuisine. We can also find rarer ones like the red (or yellow) cive of the Antilles The white part of the spring onion tastes a bit like onion, the green part tastes like leek. In a Chinese cookbook I read that we could replace the spring onion by the green of young leek. But I never tried, I find spring onion at the market all year round

. Its flavor is between that of onion and chives. The white part of the scallion is used like the onion, while the .. Performer spring onion will produce dark green foliage and very small white bulbs extending from the stem. This variety is to be sown from March to July and to be harvested 3 months after sowing, according to the needs. The white part and the leaves, finely chopped, can decorate your salads Conservation of the Scallion: If the onion is buried, rinse with water at room temperature, dry with a clean cloth and when it is dry, store it in the Snood or Unwrap it (never in the plastic bag), in the drawer or in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator so that it is split

Spring onion recipes - Kitchen / Madame Figar

  1. The common scallion (Allium fistulosum) is an aromatic herbaceous plant possibly native to China but which grows spontaneously in Siberia. It is perennial but most often cultivated as ..
  2. CHIVE ONION (Cebettes, bunching) Parade Allium fistulosum L. Description Type Koshigaya or spring onion. For bundling. A variety of spring onion that does not bulbate and has well-erected, dark green foliage. It is intended for sale in bundles. Very nice color separation between green and white. Variety suitable for both the South and the North of France. Full.
  3. . Sponsored support. Mashed celery, potatoes, chives and toasted almonds. 0/5 out of 0.
  4. Depending on the variety, the taste of the different scallions is similar to white onion, garlic or shallot. The bulbs and stems are cooked like white onions, raw or cooked (quickly). The leaves are used like those of chives. Flowers and flower buds can be stored in vinegar and eaten as a condiment. Scallion varieties.
  5. To know about the scallion Very similar to the onion, both in appearance and in its fine and pronounced taste, the scallion is a wonderful aromatic plant that is easy to grow. We call "cive" in English or in some regions but we differentiate the varieties according to whether they are "white" or "common red"

The spring onion is a perennial plant whose foliage has a strong flavor of onion. Perfect for making soups, sauces, ready meals, raw vegetables. Scallions bloom pink in partial shade. Note that it keeps aphids away from the environment where it is planted. Scallions or green onions are non-mature onions with a semi-developed or unformed bulb. They can be thinly sliced ​​and served raw in a salad or as a garnish for hot foods. They are also good cooked and are often added to stir-fries and other Asian dishes. Scallions are also called green or winter onions. 4. Shallots. ONION Spring onion Parade. Allium fistulosum L. Reference: OIG16. From. 3,15 € tax excl. In stock. Add to basket See the advice sheet. ONION Rossa lunga di Firenze (long red Florence) Allium cepa L. Reference: OIG33. From . € 4.95 tax excl. In stock. Add to. Scallion onion (or spring onion) is a variety of onion that does not form a bulb and whose dark green foliage remains upright. It is in fact picked before the leaves stop growing and the bulb begins to grow in the ground. How to choose the right product The bulbs of the spring onion are not very marked (20 to 25 mm). They group together to form a tuft 30 to 80 cm high and about thirty centimeters wide. They are eaten raw and their flavor is strongly reminiscent of onion. The long dark green leaves are cylindrical and hollow

There are several names for the perennial onion (Allium fistulosum) such as spring onion or stem onion that produces barrels. From the leek and onion family, it resembles the large chives. It produces seeds for the seedlings of the following year. It also divides, in the same way as shallots The onion scallion or cive (Allium fistulosum) can be harvested for its bulb, but we prefer its hollow stems, more fleshy than those of the chives that we use in the same way. Vincent Morin is head gardener in the vegetable garden at the Château de la Roche-Guyon (95) and cultivates fruits and vegetables according to the principles of permaculture. The cultivation conditions of. If Scallion were to run for delegate, it would say it is an alternative to shallot and onion. Ciboule brilliantly enhances meat and fish dishes. Its leaves are used cooked or raw as onion in sauces, omelets and salads, but also with raw vegetables The Welsh onion or Allium fistulosum is a perennial herbaceous plant with a strong scent of fistulous garlic, better known under the name of spring onion or cive. Its cylindrical bulb and its hollow, green and thick stems are widely used in cooking to flavor dishes in sauce and its summer bloom adorns gardens. Scallions have larger shafts than chives and look a lot like rocambole onion as well as spring onion. The main difference is that the onion rocambole bulbs at the top of the stems, that the onion onion (which is also an Allium fistulosum) is usually pulled up for harvest, while the onion is cut and stays in place. It exists.

Virtues of spring onions - Oorek

  1. The Ishikura Long White Onion Onion Scallion is a variety of perennial spring onion native to Japan that is related to the stem onion. It does not produce a bulb but very long white barrels that are eaten raw, finely chopped or cooked like onion. It is a star of Asian dishes and is also very suitable for Western cuisine. The sowing period is spread out from.
  2. A revisited tarte flambée where scallions replace onions and where Saint Marcelin brings a gourmet touch. Soba noodle broth with tofu and spring onion. Soba noodles are Japanese noodles that are definitely worth a look. In Japan, in winter, they are eaten in broth. To test, it is nourishing, Timbale of salmon laap pa. A typical recipe.
  3. A variety of spring onion that does not bulbate and has well-erected, dark green foliage. It is intended for sale in bundles. Very nice presentation with colors between green and white. Can be done in the open field or in a tunnel
  4. Koshigaya type or spring onion. For bundling. A non-bulbous variety with well-erect, dark green foliage. It is intended for sale in bundles. Very nice color separation between green and white. Variety suitable for both the South and the North of France. Full field or [
  5. Onions Scallion. There is 1 product. Sort by: Relevance Relevance Name, A to Z Name, Z to A Price, ascending Price, descending Filter Showing 1-1 of 1 item (s) Active filters. Organic Long white Ishikura onion 2.5g. Price € 2.72 Quick view Showing 1-1 of 1 item (s) Back to top Receive special offers. You can unsubscribe anytime. You will find for that.
  6. between the onion and the chives. It is also called the cive or the green shallot. It is a delicious vegetable that is eaten entirely from the bulb to the leaves. Its pronounced taste and its slightly swollen shape make them similar to onions

Here is my guide to growing scallions. You will find everything you need to know about scallions, from sowing to harvest, including size and .. The spring onion, between chives and onion Rightly occupying a prominent place among seasoning plants, the spring onion, Allium fistulosum (not to be confused with spring onion from China: Allium tuberosum) belongs to the alliaceae family, such as garlic, onion and shallot

Spring onion: sowing and planting - Oorek

Onion is a universal flavoring, consumed in all regions of the world. There are several varieties, some of which are particularly rich in antioxidants. Do you know which ones? It is less strong, and has a finer flavor than the common onion, which is more sensitive to cold. Scallion seeds. - The plant goes to seed the second year, and it is in August that it must be harvested, it is collected and treated like that of an onion. It keeps good for three years 30 grams contain. Scallion onion. The onion, an undisputed player in the Bejo range. Bejo provides onion producers with the most productive and healthiest varieties, perfectly adapted to the markets, they guarantee you the optimization of your margins. See more. Scroll down. Type of range. Conventional Organic (1) Region. East (1) North (1) West (1) South (1) Color. White (1.

CIBOULE (s. F.) [Si-bou-l '] Vegetable plant, of the genus of the onion (allium fistulosum, L.). Onion merchant knows himself in spring onions, that is to say everyone knows their stuff and is not easily deceived. Perpetual Onion / Red-footed onion A red-footed onion Aromatic with large, hollow, cylindrical leaves reminiscent of chives, the leaves are nevertheless larger than those of the latter. Their sweet onion taste is appreciated and add at the end of cooking to retain all of its aromas.

Difference between chives and green onions

CIBOULE feminine name. 13th century, cibole. Borrowed from the Provencal cebula, from the low Latin caepulla, cepulla, diminutive of caepa, “onion” (see Cive). 1. botany. Common name for a species of garlic from the Liliaceae family, the bulb of which is smaller than that of the onion. The spring onion serves as a condiment. 2. Pop. and aged. Syn. by Ciboulot. You can click anywhere. Indeed, this plant is a variety of small onion whose bulb is not developed in the shape of a ball but elongated like a fine pear. Its leaves, called "stems", form a tube like those of its cousins, scallions and chives.

Spring onion: organic and biodynamic seeds Germinanc

  1. Name: Scallion Other names: Cive, Spanish onion, Chiboule, Fistulous garlic The scallion is a herbaceous plant of the Alliaceae family. It is cultivated for its aromatic leaves. The onion grows in the form of tufts 30-40 cm high. Its leaves are flat
  2. Perennial plant grown as an annual or biennial, the scallion is similar to the onion, with the difference that its bulb is much less developed. It is therefore its hollow leaves and the base of its stems that arouse the interest of gourmets.
  3. ONION: A quiet week. The GMS circuit allows producers to sell the goods. On the other hand, large calibers are always complicated to market following the closure of restaurants. Overall the prices are unchanged. At present, Alsatian producers have shipped around 50% of their stocks. Dry yellow ONION Alsace cat.I 40-60mm fillet 1kg: 0.51 = 0.
  4. Between onion and chives! With a softer flavor than onion, scallion, also called cive, is an aromatic plant that you will appreciate having in your vegetable garden, both for its ease of cultivation and for the abundance of its harvest. reminiscent of onion (white or red part, depending on the variety) or chives (green part) and is eaten.
  5. Cive or country onion or scallion, is a variety of onion widely used in West Indian cuisine for sauces, accras ..
  6. How to grow onions. Onions are popular vegetables among home gardeners because they can be used in many ways, they are easy to grow and require little space. Moreover, their season of ..

Scallion (onion) (vegetables

Forms a fairly long white bole with sturdy, cylindrical onion foliage but does not form a bulb. The fine flavor of Ishikura long white spring onion is surprising and aromas well in exotic dishes. Sow preferably under glass or outdoors on a seedbed until mid-May Tel: 0479847352. VAT: 0736327493. Account: BE12 1030 6337 2592. [email protected] spring onion si.bul female Kind of small onion whose aromatic leaves are used in cooking to spice up sauces Sainte-Menehould sauce. - [] dilute your sauce with milk or cream, season it with a bunch of parsley and spring onions, half a bay leaf, a few mushrooms and shallots, put it on the fire [] spring onion n. f. winter onion n. mr. cive n. f. Terms used in some contexts: shallot n. f. Quebec current language. green onion n. mr. Quebec current language. Historically, the spellings shallot and shallot have been widely used together, and by the 19th century both were relatively common. However, it is the spelling with a single t that is commonly accepted in nos.

Spring onion (ingredient) - Everything you need to know about spring onion 750

  1. The stems of the Rocambole onion can be up to 80 cm high. The onion of Catawissa is also called scallion of Catawissa or onion of the families. Catawissa is a small town in the United States of 1500 souls. In Europe it was long thought that the onion of Catawissa originated from the American continent, but in reality Rocambole garlic is a plant native to Asia.
  2. White Onion ISHIKURA Stem onion, or leek onion Does not produce bulbs but long barrels of small diameter (2/3 cm). Renowned in Asian cuisine, it is eaten raw or cooked
  3. Onion, whether white, red or yellow, is an old bulb plant that is easy to grow. In summary, what you should know: Name: Allium cepa Family: Liliaceae Type: Perennial, biennial Height: 80 to 100 cm Exposure: Sunny Soil: Light, drained. Health: benefits and virtues of onions From planting or sowing to harvesting onions, maintenance does not.
  4. Scallions have a slight onion flavor. the scallion produces flowers in spherical umbels, most often white and sometimes red. What soil to plant the spring onion: • Any type of soil, cool but not wet. • Whatever the climate, scallions grow in all regions. When to sow the seeds? • In the ground: In March. How to sow it? Sowing in full.
  5. If you find growing onions by seedlings or onions too demanding, try Egyptian onion, also call noggin onion (Allium x proliferum, syn. Allium cepa proliferum), a hybrid between classic onion (A. cepa) and scallions (A. fistulosum). It is a perennial onion that is planted from a bulbil
  6. ORGANIC spring onion 25 € / kg. 709503-onion-spring onion-organic-25E-kg. ORGANIC spring onion 25 € / kg. Bunch: € 2.50 White onion with its foliage.

Scallion (Allium schoenoprasum) is a perennial plant. The origin is probably found in Siberia and East Asia. Scallion seeds can be sown in all types of soil. There are several known kinds of allium, such as white onion (allium fistulosum, item 01030), Chinese garlic onion (allium tuberosum, item 01028), and of course onion (allium. Leek-stemmed onion 'Ishikura' (Allium Fistulosum) is an intermediate variety between leek and scallion (large chives). This onion has rapid growth, long white stems and dark green foliage. It enriches the flavor of soups and many dishes Spring onion and chives Aromatic plants of the same family as onion and garlic. Originally from China, formerly called respectively "cive" and "civet", they are cultivated all over the world. Their green stems, hollow but fleshy, grow in tufts The onion or onion [N 1] (Allium cepa), pronounced / ɔ. ɲɔ̃ /, is a species of biennial herbaceous plants of the Amaryllidaceae family, widely and for a long time cultivated as a vegetable plant for its bulbs of strong flavor and smell or for its leaves. The term also refers to the bulb of this plant harvested as a vegetable. By extension, it sometimes means.

Spring onion. - Marmito

Productive variety of stem onion type. Does not form a bulb but a white barrel of 30 cm. Heat resistant. Its fine and surprising flavor perfumes exotic dishes, ideal in salads or in tempura. Sowing from February to October. When the young plants are the size of a pen, transplant them. Clear spring sowing, in place from February to April in rows spaced 25 apart. Onion onion quotes Selection of 1 onion citation and proverb on the spring onion theme Discover a saying, a word, a good word, a proverb, a quote or phrase onion spring onions from books, speeches or interviews. 1 quote

Cut the onions onions and sauté them quickly in a spoonful of olive oil. Cut the friend of the salads into small cubes. Season the mesclun with olive oil and strawberry vinegar. For the dressing, add the mesclun, dried fruits, cheese, spring onions. Place the strawberries by cutting the larger ones in half and sprinkle the dish with chopped dill. Well. For this last method, we plant bulbils, these small onions with a diameter of less than 2 cm, which grow faster than if we start from seeds. The crunchy stems and the sweet flavor of white onion replace chives or scallions that are slow to restart after the cold winter. They are.

Green onion - What are the differences with ono

) 1690 (Fur .: it is said that a man places himself in a row of onions, when he places himself in a row where there are people of greater condition than him) 1654 in a row of onions “rows on a same line (people) ”(Scarron, Virgile travesti, livre 5 ds OEuvres, ed. 1786, t. 4, p.310) 1855 aux petits onignons (Al Also called new onion or spring onion, the green onion is an aromatic plant from the Amaryllidaceae family. Its antioxidant properties make it a healthy ingredient to favor in our cuisine, especially from July to October when it abounds. It is best to consume it raw to enjoy all its flavors DOG TOMATO SAUCE Ideal for grilling For 4 people Preparation: 10 minutes Add to my Favorites INGREDIENTS 3 country onions (chives) 2 tomatoes 1 onion 2 cloves of garlic 4 branches of parsley 1 lemon 15 cl of oil 1 teaspoon of vinegar 5 cl hot water Salt, pepper PREPARATION Peel the onion and the onion. nsi as parsley and chili.

Scallions, a herbaceous and perennial plant, belong to the Amaryllidaceae family. It is cultivated because of its aromatic leaves, moreover, it is used as a condiment, with a more pleasant taste than shallot and onion. The plant has common names such as cive, scallion, chiboule, Spanish onion, or garlic. Scallions offer a milder flavor. Organic red spring onion. The red scallion is a perennial herbaceous plant, with large cylindrical, hollow leaves, larger than chives. The tunic of this spring onion is red. Its taste is close to onion, but sweeter The Rocambole onion is a perennial plant native to the eastern Mediterranean basin and Egypt which has the characteristic of multiplying both by separating the bulb in the ground, and by the formation of bulbils at the top of the stems. These stems, when drying, break off and allow the bulbils to spread over the soil and take root. It is a very hardy plant in the cold and.

R76-potato-salad-onion-scallion_ss.jpg. The red onion, we like it especially raw, sliced ​​into rings, in all salads, salty or sweet. Chopped and seasoned with lemon, olive oil and coriander on a toast with fresh cheese. Also dare our Burgers with pork, horseradish and red onions. The red onion turns dark garnet and melts when cooked. The white part of the scallion can be used like the onion. The white part of the spring onion is used like an onion. The green leaves of the onion can be used like chives, but in lesser quantities. The green leaves of the spring onion can be used like the chive, but in smaller quantities because the taste is stronger. We have a green coriander sauce. Spanish onion in cooking: Ciboule Cive is used for salads, soups, sautéed noodles, in fresh cheese in the form of a condiment or as a replacement for onion whose taste is stronger. It is found in Asian cuisine but also Russian. Scallion cive can be frozen. All the information mentioned is given for information only.

Video: Performer spring onion - Allium fistulosum

Scallions (Allium fistulosum L.) is a perennial herbaceous plant of the Amaryllidaceae family (ex Liliaceae), cultivated for its aromatic leaves and used as a condiment, with a sweeter taste than onion or shallot. Its common names are spring onion, cive, Spanish onion, chiboule or fistulous garlic The scallion (Alium fistulosum), also called scallion, is a perennial herbaceous plant cultivated for its aromatic leaves and used as a condiment, with a milder flavor and fragrance. and finer than the onion or the shallot COMMON RED TARGET Very fine taste! Neighboring onion, forms an elongated bulbous bulge, coppery red. Delicious taste and great finesse


  • 1 botany
    • 1.1 Description
    • 1.2 Varieties
    • 1.3 Protected designations
  • 2 History
  • 3 Culture
    • 3.1 Diseases and pests
  • 4 Composition
  • 5 Use
    • 5.1 Tearing
    • 5.2 Kitchen
    • 5.3 Conservation
    • 5.4 Some classic recipes
  • 6 Economy
  • 7 Toxicity
  • 8 Calendar
  • 9 Notes and references
    • 9.1 Notes
    • 9.2 Références
  • 10 Annexes
    • 10.1 Articles connexes
    • 10.2 Références taxinomiques
    • 10.3 Liens externes

Description Modifier

L'oignon est une espèce herbacée, vivace par son bulbe unique, cultivée comme une annuelle ou bisannuelle (floraison la deuxième année). C'est une plante haute de 60 à 100 cm , dont les feuilles de couleur verte sont cylindriques, creuses (ce qui distingue cette espèce du poireau et de l'ail, autres espèces cultivées appartenant aussi au genre Allium). La tige florale dressée est également creuse. Elle présente un renflement vers sa base.

Le bulbe est relativement gros, de forme sphérique, parfois plus ou moins aplatie.

Les fleurs petites (de 4 à 5 mm de large), de couleur blanche ou verte, sont regroupées en une ombelle sphérique, en position terminale sur la tige. Les fleurs ont une symétrie trimère, à trois sépales, trois pétales et six étamines. L'ovaire unique est divisé en trois loges. Le fruit est une capsule s'ouvrant par trois valves, libérant chacune généralement deux graines. On peut compter environ 600 fleurs par ombelle.

Chez certaines variétés, il arrive que des bulbilles se développent à la place des fleurs.

Les graines sont noires, anguleuses. Il y a environ 250 graines par gramme. La durée de germination est faible (2 ans).

Variétés Modifier

Plus de 1 000 variétés d'oignons (ou échalions) sont inscrites au Catalogue européen des espèces et variétés [ 1 ] . Parmi celles-ci, près de 50 variétés sont inscrites au Catalogue officiel français [ 2 ] dont 3 sur la liste SVI [ 3 ] (auparavant liste des anciennes variétés pour amateurs).

Les nombreuses variétés d'oignons sont généralement classées, du moins en France, selon la couleur du bulbe (liste non exhaustive) :

Appellations protégées Modifier

En France, l'oignon doux des Cévennes a obtenu le label AOC en 2003 [ 5 ] . L'oignon de Roscoff a reçu ce label le 22 octobre 2009 (logo rose avec le sigle blanc de l'Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité dessous) [ 6 ] . Les marchands d'oignons rosés de Roscoff qui traversaient chaque année la Manche pour les vendre dans le Sud de la Grande-Bretagne étaient appelés les « Johnnies » [ 7 ] .

En Espagne, la Cebolla Fuentes de Ebro (es) (oignon des sources de l'Èbre) a fait l'objet d'une demande de classement AOP en 2009 [ 8 ] , accordée fin 2010 [ 9 ] . L'appellation couvre environ 150 ha sur six municipalités, comprenant les Fuentes de Ebro, situées dans la province de Saragosse (Aragon).

En Italie, le cipollotto nocerino (it) (petit oignon de l'Agro nocerino-sarnese (it) en Campanie) est classé AOP depuis 2008 [ 10 ] et la Cipolla Rossa di Tropea Calabria (oignon rouge de Tropea - Calabre) est classée IGP également depuis 2008 [ 11 ] .

L'oignon provient sans doute d'une espèce sauvage d'Asie centrale [ 12 ] , [ 13 ] . Sa domestication remonte à plusieurs milliers d'années elle aurait eu lieu dans la région du Baloutchistan, ou de façon plus large de la Palestine à l'Inde [ 14 ] .

L'oignon est connu dès l'Antiquité. En Mésopotamie il figure dans les plus anciennes recettes de cuisine qui soient parvenues à l'époque contemporaine [ 13 ] . En Égypte, la culture des oignons est représentée sur des décorations de tombes dès la Ve dynastie. L'oignon est une offrande religieuse que l'on place sur les autels, et auprès des morts. Par sa croissance et sa reproduction à la verticale, il symbolise la résurrection solaire. L'oignon est utilisé pour ses propriétés désodorisantes : placé dans la bouche du défunt, il la purifie et « illumine » son visage. L'oignon est associé aux serpents et aux hirondelles. L'oignon est un « anti-serpent » qui les maintient en hibernation tant qu'il reste sous la terre. Le départ des hirondelles indique le moment de semer des oignons, et leur retour le moment de les récolter [ 15 ] .

L'oignon était apprécié des Grecs, des Gaulois et des Romains et n'a jamais cessé d'être utilisé [ 16 ] . Il fait partie des plantes dont la culture est recommandée dans les domaines royaux par Charlemagne dans le capitulaire De Villis (fin du VIII e ou début du IX e siècle). Le voyageur, chroniqueur et géographe arabe Ibn Hawqal, ayant visité la Sicile au milieu du X e siècle, s'étonna de voir la consommation quotidienne immodérée d'oignons crus par les Siciliens, et il écrivit à leur sujet : « […] l'abus qu'ils font de l'oignon et le mauvais goût dérivant de leur habitude de manger excessivement de cet oignon tout cru car entre eux il n'y a personne, à quelque classe qu'il appartienne, qui n'en mange tous les jours dans sa maison matin et soir. Voilà ce qui a corrompu leurs intelligences, altéré leurs cerveaux, abruti leurs sens, changé leurs facultés, rétréci leurs esprits, gâté le teint de leurs visages et changé tout à fait leur tempérament, au point qu'ils voient tout, ou du moins la plupart des choses, autrement qu'elles ne sont en réalité [ 17 ] . »

La pelure d'oignon était utilisée jadis en musique pour la confection du mirliton, d'où l'un de ses noms : « flûte à l'oignon » (nom utilisé encore aujourd'hui en anglais : onion flute).

La culture de l'oignon peut être réalisée sous différents climats, notamment tropicaux et tempérés, mais les rendements sont plus élevés dans les régions où l'on observe une alternance des saisons. La germination a alors lieu pendant la saison fraiche et la maturation pendant la saison plus chaude [ 18 ] .

L'oignon est une plante assez facile à cultiver en climat doux et peu humide [ 19 ] . Le rendement moyen de l'oignon jaune est d'environ 2 kg par mètre de culture, dans ces conditions [ 20 ] .

Il préfère les sols légers, sableux, peu argileux et demande une exposition bien ensoleillée. Il convient de respecter un délai de 3 à 5 ans avant d'installer des oignons sur une parcelle où une plante de la même famille (ail, échalote, poireau) a été cultivée les années précédentes. Il craint l'humidité qui provoque l'asphyxie des racines et le pourrissement du bulbe. Il ne faut donc pas l'arroser, sauf au moment de la formation des bulbes et en cas de forte sécheresse. Il demande peu de fumure, éviter d'apporter une fumure organique à l'installation.

Les oignons peuvent être soit semés, soit plantés sous forme de bulbilles pour les oignons jaunes, soit sous forme de plants racinés pour les oignons blancs et rouges. Les plants d'oignons sont mis en terre soit au printemps pour une récolte l'été suivant, soit à l'automne pour une récolte au printemps de l'année suivante. Les distances recommandées au Niger sont de 50 cm entre les rangs et de 20 cm entre les bulbes sur le rang [ 21 ] .

La récolte se fait, selon les variétés et les dates de semis ou de plantation, quand les oignons sont mûrs et que leur feuillage est desséché [ 22 ] . Afin de bien les conserver, il faut les faire sécher assez rapidement. Les oignons plus colorés peuvent être conservés longtemps en caisse dans un endroit sec et aéré.

Les jeunes oignons peuvent aussi être récoltés précocement pour être consommés rapidement.

Video: Walking Onions - Grow these in your veggie patch for a year round harvest

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