The grapes are a real decoration of the personal plot. Its leafy vine makes a magnificent gazebo. Aesthetic pleasure when admiring the chic ripening bunches is replaced by no less pleasant feelings experienced when eating berries. However, before you can enjoy the juicy berries, you need to plant a vineyard. Then take care of him, form bushes, plant and propagate. Do you think it's difficult? Not at all! Leaving is pretty simple.
The agricultural technology of this crop is simple, but some nuances that affect the yield still exist.
Proper grooming begins with a garter. The vine, whether it is of medium vigor or vigorous, cannot develop normally on the surface of the soil, so it is tied up. Before carrying out the garter, you need to identify the branches that require fixation. These should be woody vines, not green shoots.
There are several ways to tie, each of them has not only advantages, but also disadvantages.
The first garter is performed after reaching the shoots of 50 cm. In total, 3-4 procedures will be required, after which the bush will not significantly increase in growth, which means that there is no need to fix the vine.
Before familiarizing yourself with the rules for pruning a bush, you should familiarize yourself with the basic principles of this procedure. In the first year after planting the seedling, a strong and healthy vine (shoulder) is grown. In the fall, it is not cut off, it is through it that the entire flow of nutrients will be in the future, followed by distribution along the shoots.
Young shoots are diverted from the shoulder in the next year of development. In autumn, when pruning, the 3 strongest branches (sleeves) are left. The interval between the sleeves developing from the upper buds should be within 80 cm. Fruit shoots germinate on them annually. They are pruned at the end of the season.
There are many ways to form a grape bush. They are conventionally divided into covering and non-covering. The first group includes cordon and fan moldings, and the second includes standard and arbor trimming schemes.
It is necessary to form a bush from the first or second year of development of the seedling after planting, and continue for 3-6 years. The duration of work on the trunks is determined by the biological characteristics of the variety and the climate of the region.
Stampless molding is more suitable for regions with harsh climates, it is possible even in summer. The essence of the method consists in growing a strong shoot in the first year, followed by an autumn pruning. From the surface of the soil and above the grafting site, you need to leave 2 eyes (or 3 for insurance). In the second year, the shoots that have grown from the eyes are cut as follows:
In the spring, the vine is tied to the trellis in a horizontal way. After harvesting in the fall, you need to remove the fruit vine under the twig, resulting in two young shoots. In subsequent years, the molding principle was repeated.
This method is suitable for regions with difficult climatic conditions. It differs from the Guyot method in that 3-6 sleeves remain on the shoulder, and sometimes more. The vines are tied on a trellis in the form of a fan, hence the name of the molding method. Depending on the length of the sleeves, branches can be modeled in different versions:
For the first two years, the bush is formed in the same way as according to the Guyot method. In the third season, they are taken to create sleeves. The primary goal is to grow 2 shoots on each vine. In autumn, the grown branches are cut to the length of the sleeve, but not less than 50 cm, and then they are tied to a trellis in the form of a fan.
Regardless of the chosen method of pruning a bush, it is recommended to adhere to important rules:
Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology does not protect against the development of typical diseases and pest attacks, so many gardeners resort to spraying the bushes with special preparations. Sometimes processing is the only guarantor of the safety of the crop.
The most delicious varieties of crops are especially susceptible to attacks by infections and insects. Prolonged rains can also cause damage to the berries. And in conditions of high temperature and high humidity, the fungus develops quite quickly.
The choice of modern drugs for diseases and pests is very large, but sometimes it is enough to do with the usual means: Bordeaux liquid or a solution of copper sulfate. When using complex fungicides, it will be possible to protect against several types of fungal infections at once. Among gardeners, the drug Topaz is popular, which prevents such dangerous diseases as mildew and powdery mildew.
Preventive work should be carried out in the spring. Spraying is planned for the evening. The bush is processed from top to bottom, then the plant is better saturated with the composition used. The procedure is repeated before flowering. The drug Strobe has proven itself well.
After the grapes have faded, it is important to have time to spray the fungicide. As soon as the berries are formed to the size of peas, you need to treat the bushes with a Bordeaux mixture (colloidal sulfur, copper oxychloride), but this time only brushes are allowed to spray.
In total, 4 preventive treatments are carried out during the season. If signs of disease or insects are found, the treatment is done after rain in 2 hours or the bushes are sprayed in a cyclic manner.
Watering the grapes is done not so often, but abundantly. You should focus on soil moisture. Do not get carried away with water procedures, excess moisture provokes the development of fungus. Grapes especially need watering after planting seedlings, before flowering and in autumn after harvest.
An intensively developing vine requires feeding with a nutrient mixture. During the growing season, the following fertilizers are used:
As a spring feeding, it is appropriate to use solutions based on manure or poultry manure instead of mineral substances.
To enrich the soil with micronutrients, it is recommended to apply manure once every 3 years in combination with wood ash, superphosphate, ammonium sulfate. The mixture is evenly distributed on the surface of the soil, after which the site is dug up. Autumn work on fertilizing the soil becomes more frequent, depending on the content of sand (sandy loam type - once every 2 years, sandy type - annually).
Grapes are among the crops that are more suitable for a temperate climate. However, thanks to the efforts of breeders, it became possible to grow bushes in regions with severe weather conditions. If the variety has a low resistance to frost or the winter temperature threshold drops below 15 °, work is carried out in the fall to create a shelter that protects the plant from freezing.
It is impossible to predict the vagaries of the weather, so growers in the fall harvest cuttings for winter storage. In the event of the death of the bush, there remains a chance to save the variety for further cultivation.
All grape varieties are conventionally divided into groups indicating the degree of plant resistance to frost:
Taking into account the belonging of the variety to one or another group, one of the more suitable methods of shelter is chosen:
When using agrofibre, the fact that the material is able to protect only from short autumn or spring frosts is taken into account. When creating a winter shelter, it is recommended to combine this option with wooden shields or dusting with earth.
It is not worth rushing or delaying the work on warming the vine: with early wrapping, there is a high probability of branches becoming rotten, and shifting work to a later time is fraught with freezing of individual parts or the entire bush with a sharp drop in temperature.
Of the large number of grafting methods, the following options are popular among gardeners.
It is necessary to vaccinate in the period - February - March month. The procedure is performed in a room with sterility. A week before the operation, the cuttings are taken from the storage area, and then soaked for several minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. Then the cuttings are wrapped in wet burlap and sent to storage at a temperature of 10-15 °.
The stock is prepared 10 days before vaccination. As a rule, the strongest seedling is chosen. Its root system is shortened to 10-15 cm. Then the stock is wrapped in a damp cloth and stored at a temperature of 10-15 °.
The process of joining the stock with the scion is carried out quickly so that more moisture is retained in the tissues of the blanks.
The docking point can be tightly bandaged or fixed with tape. The ideal conditions for the coalescence of the two parts are created with a figured cut that forms the grooves. When docked, they are tightly connected, forming a single vascular system, along which the movement of nutrients is restored.
The stem is taken as a basis, located as close to the ground as possible and having sufficient thickness. A hole is made in it with a drill, the diameter of which is equal to the used handle. Immediately after making a hole, a soaked and cleaned stalk is installed. The docking point is fixed with wax or plasticine. Below is a simple diagram.
In this way, a last year or older shoot is implanted, as well as a stem obtained from an annual green vine. The inoculation site is marked between the second and third nodes, a longitudinal split of about 3 cm is made.
The prepared stalk is inserted into the deepening and the inoculation is carefully bandaged, after which it is moistened. An important condition for survival is a temperature regime of 22-26 °. The procedure is carried out with disinfected instruments and quickly, so as not to let the working material dry out.
The work is carried out in the spring during the period when the juice begins to move (until May). The essence of the procedure involves removing the old vine by cutting it off and creating a split in place of the cut (depth 2-3 cm), where 1-2 scions are inserted.
The stock on the knot is pulled with twine and the docking place is poured with wax or covered with plasticine. A film is covered over the stock and everything is covered with earth. After the development of the first shoots, the hilly part can be raked out.
Reproduction takes place with the help of cuttings, grafts with stock and layering. The seeds are used only for breeding work. The grown seed shoot develops poorly and bears fruit with small berries that do not have a good taste. However, for the collection of genetic material, seeds are of real value.
Embossing is the procedure for removing the top of a growing shoot that has foliage. The purpose of the operation is to redistribute nutrients between all organs of the grapes, while the growth processes are slowed down by 3-4 weeks.
At least 16 healthy and well-developed leaves are left on the vine. Pruning short and keeping only 5 leaves above the brush will not provide the plant with sufficient micronutrients. And correct chasing stimulates the formation of large bunches and berries, the timely ripening of fruits and vines on replacement knots.
Terms of the procedure:
Knowing the intricacies of growing grapes, you can grow several bushes of different varieties on your site, even for beginners. Any gardener is especially happy when he reaps a generous crop, which he can proudly boast to friends or neighbors.
Grape care is a whole range of activities, including watering, feeding, treatment against diseases and pests, pruning, preparation for the beginning of the growing season and for the dormant period. And if winter work consists only in snow retention and pruning of uncovered grape varieties, then the rest of the seasons are full of constant work in the vineyard. Spring, summer and autumn have their own characteristics and in order to get a decent harvest, you need to know how to properly care for the grapes throughout the growing season.
So, what activities are included in the list of basic grape care in spring:
Video: caring for grapes in spring
Already in the first year of life, grapes needs careful, but careful and intensive care, which will have a positive effect on the further survival of the plant and the acceleration of fruiting.
In the first year after planting, the seedling needs to be provided with regular loosening of the soil, balanced watering, processing with special substances, as well as a number of work on the formation of the future plant.
As soon as the kidneys start to come to life, the care of the grapes should be especially plentiful. At this stage, it is necessary to carefully loosen the soil near young plants, getting rid of the weeds that have appeared.
If young leaves begin to unfold, the grape stem must be cleaned of the soil layer. A hole is made around the bush, which contributes to the effective hardening of the plant and simplifies the removal procedure in June. If in the first year of life the care of the grapes is not good enough, the rhizome will begin to grow very strongly, but it will not be able to fully develop, which makes it vulnerable to the effects of frost. After finishing the June processing, the bush needs to be huddled again, and after the August pruning of the surface roots, the deepening made earlier is added 10 centimeters.
Of the three or four shoots formed in June, the strongest remains, which will soon become the basis for a powerful bush. In order for the survival and growth of the vine to be as successful as possible, it is watered at the rate of 10 liters per bush. The intensity of watering is determined by the weather conditions in your area. In any case, feeding should be carried out at least 1 time per week. Along with watering, winegrowers practice feeding the crop with highly effective fertilizers based on superphosphate and nitrogen. Such a procedure will become good stimulation for more productive development of green mass.
Caring for grapes after winter starts with simple steps:
Until the vine begins to form green leaves and new shoots, it is important to have time to carry out a dry garter of the fruiting part to the trellis. If you didn't manage to do it in time, the culture will be subject to the following troubles:
In the spring care of grapes, namely the performance of garter measures, soft fabrics or twine, or special devices, which are sold in specialized stores, are used. As a garter material, nylon rope or fishing line cutting into an actively developing vine must not be used.
In the process of tying, future fruit-bearing branches are bent to the lower horizontal row so that green shoots can grow vertically and evenly. The same is done with the nearest replacement shoots. The second garter will be relevant in the period when the young growth reaches a length of 25 centimeters. Further care is to fix shoots to supports and trellises. You need to repeat the garter every 10-14 days so that the shoots do not have time to hang down and fall off. The procedure should be very intense during the development stage of heavy bunches.
For several years after planting, the grape bush gives in to formative measures, in the process of which it is given a special shape. Depending on the varietal characteristics and frost resistance, the following forms are distinguished:
The choice of a method for forming a bush is determined by both the growing region and the characteristics of the variety. In any case, when carrying out trimming and shaping work, the gardener needs to take into account the fact that the next year's harvest will be laid on a ripe vine from wintering eyes.
Uniform bush formation The vine begins in the first year of life and can last for several years. The exact term is determined by the selected type of form.
In the future, the vine needs to be corrected in the fall, removing most of the summer growth, including some perennial, weak, damaged and old shoots.
Taking into account such a feature that the grape varieties grown in our regions do not tolerate winter well, a universal method of forming was invented for them, which implies stemless cultivation... Combination of the technique is practiced today. with a fan formation, which allows you to get the shape of the bush known today. Correct formative measures provide the grower with a special light rejuvenation and green pruning. As a result, the vine easily takes cover for the winter and gives solid yields when grown both in the Kuban and the Urals, where winters are very harsh and unpredictable.
The first spraying of the vine, which is intended to eradicate sources of danger, captures the area under the vine and the woody part of the bush. It is important to understand that the success of such a procedure depends on the timeliness of the garter. Mildew development begins during the first spring precipitation, which creates ideal conditions for the development of dangerous fungal microorganisms. In the spraying process, the following compositions are used:
Safe and inexpensive medications such as Fitosporin can be used to combat dangerous home-grown grape pests. The latter option fights well against pathogenic fungal formations and bacterial infections. If the soil under the vineyard and in the aisles is completely processed, instead of basic loosening it is covered with a layer of mulch.
Prevention of all kinds of diseases is carried out in dry weather using the same drugs as in early spring, at the stage of young leaves formation.
The timing of further activities is determined by weather conditions and the health of the plants. It is important to have time to spray the plant two weeks before flowering. If there is no precipitation, the bushes should also be thoroughly sprayed, otherwise there is a risk of drying out... In this case, you need to thoroughly spray the culture so that the drugs fall deep into the crown.
Throughout the growing season, the vine needs certain nutrients. It is important to understand that the need for them is constantly changing, so this feature must be taken into account when choosing suitable feedings.
Like many other cultivated garden plants, grapes need to be provided with access to:
You must understand that grape care cannot be correct if all feeding activities are not completed on time. Vine at the age of one age needs feeding twice a year:
If the bushes begin to actively bear fruit, they need to be fertilized three times a season:
If you applied organic fertilizers in the fall, then in the spring it is better to reduce their concentration by half.
The intensity of watering is determined by the presence of shelter or not.
It is known that perennial grapevines react very strongly to any drying out of the soil. Therefore, you need to take care of them in a special way, providing free access to a source of moisture as the upper layers of the earth dry.
Watering grapes is often combined with feeding work, during which the arrangement of holes in the ground or drip irrigation systems is practiced.
Growing a vine at home is quite simple, however, in order for the harvest in the fall to be truly large, the plant needs to be properly cared for and cared for. If you do not follow the key rules for maintaining a vineyard, most likely it will simply overgrow with green mass and stop bearing fruit, becoming a common weed for the backyard.
Spring maintenance of your grapes involves preventive spraying. For the first procedure, use a 1% solution of the drug "Ridomil", a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate and Bordeaux liquid, as well as a 0.5% solution of the drug "Tsineb". Novice gardeners use an inexpensive and safe for health drug "Fitosporin". After processing, mulch is created. Follow-up activities take place at least 2 weeks before flowering and 3 weeks before harvest. Spraying times vary depending on the weather and crop conditions.
In order for the culture to take root as quickly as possible and begin to develop in a new place, you need to know how to plant grapes correctly.
First you need to prepare the ground. This is done about a month before the expected landing date. The site is cleared of debris, weeds, plant debris. The soil is dug up, introducing 10 kg of manure and 200 g of wood ash per square meter. After 2-3 days, the surface of the site is leveled and beds or trenches are made for future bushes. Install trellises. Holes are dug 15 days before planting.
Planting works are carried out according to a single technology, but the details differ depending on the season and on the type of soil.
The choice of seedlings must be taken very carefully, because the future fate of the vineyard depends on the quality of the planting material. There are several important factors to pay attention to:
During storage, the roots of seedlings often dry out. This problem can negatively affect the adaptation of the plant, as well as significantly slow down its growth. To correct the situation, the roots are soaked in water. You can add natural honey or a growth stimulant to the water.
Also, before planting the bushes, they must be hardened in order to prevent death from hypothermia. To do this, the seedlings must be taken out into fresh air for two weeks and left in a place well protected from the wind. On the first day, air baths last about half an hour. Every day the stay on the street becomes more and more prolonged and at the end of the term the seedlings are left for the whole day. Moreover, in the first week, it is better to protect the plant from direct sunlight.
Immediately before planting, excess shoots are removed from the seedling, leaving 2-3 of the strongest ones. They are shortened by 2 kidneys. This is done in order to facilitate adaptation and further development of the bush. They also examine the root system, cutting off the broken off roots and part of the lateral ones, which may interfere with planting.
The grape planting scheme depends on its varietal characteristics. The early varieties are not as tall, massive and do not grow as much as the later ones. Accordingly, when planting early varieties, the distance between the bushes may be slightly less (about 1.5 - 2 m), and for late and high varieties, much more (2.5 - 3 m). The distance between the rows is about 1.5 m. If you plant the plants closer, they will interfere with each other, some will lack light and nutrients. This can lead to stunted growth, and in the worst case, the death of the bush. The distance from buildings is at least 1 m, from tall trees and dense bushes 2 - 2.5 m.
Planting grapes in clay or black soil is somewhat different from planting in sandy soil. The main difference is in planting depth and watering abundance. At low temperatures, sand freezes much faster. Also, sandy soil reacts more quickly to changes in temperature conditions even during the day, heats up during the day and cools down at night, and such drops are quite harmful for the root system of grapes. In addition, sand retains moisture and nutrients much worse.
The depth of the planting pit in clay soil is about 0.8 m, and in sandy 1 - 1.1 m. The bottom of the pit in chernozem (clay) is covered with nutritious soil mixture (the upper fertile soil layer mixed with fertilizers) with a layer of 20 - 25 cm. In the sand this layer is preceded by a dense layer of clay with a thickness of at least 20 cm.
The rest of the procedure is identical. A small embankment is formed at the bottom of the planting pit. A seedling is installed on it, carefully straightening the roots. Fall asleep with nutritious soil mixture. Tamp down slightly.
After planting, the bush in clay soil is watered with 3 buckets of water, 4 buckets are required in sandy soil. Watering grapes planted in the sand is done more often and more abundantly so that the plant receives a sufficient amount of moisture.
To get a good harvest of grapes in the middle lane, you can use the secrets and tricks of experienced winegrowers who know how to properly grow grapes.
Grape seedlings with a closed root system can be planted in open ground when the danger of frost has passed. 2-3 days before that, we stop watering them so that the clod of earth does not collapse. We prepare in advance, within the common trench, planting holes with a depth of 30 cm and the same diameter. At the bottom of each pit we put a battle of red brick or lumps of clay, and on top we pour sand mixed with fertile soil with a mound. Carefully place the plant with a lump of earth on a mound. Place a handful of ash and a handful of barley in the root area. Then we fill the hole along the second eye of the seedling, border the near-stem circle with bumpers in the form of a "plate", water and shade the plant to its fullest.
If the transplant is necessary in the spring, pour 10 liters of hot water into the prepared planting pit. When the water is absorbed, add earth with sand and gravel to the bottom. We prepare the bush: we leave on it two sleeves with one-two-year-old vines on each, remove the rest. It is necessary to dig in the bush at a distance of at least 50 cm from the center, trying to preserve the roots as much as possible. If the soil in the garden is loamy, you can transplant the bush along with the lump, but I have sand, and I can't. Therefore, after digging, I update the root cuts, spread a clay chatterbox in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate and dip the roots into it.
Such a bush will take root easier when transplanting, especially if you also add a handful of barley to the root area. Barley has long been used by farmers of Russia to stimulate the survival of seedlings, including grapes. Scientists explain this by the fact that barley sprouts rank first among cereals in terms of the concentration of antioxidants and contain the natural antibiotic hordecin. In the process of germination, barley releases volatile phytoncides that disinfect the environment. Barley sprouts contain many essential amino acids and phosphorus, which accelerate root development.
If in your area the soil is poor in iron, then do not regret a few rusty nails or cans, fired at the stake (the form of iron, which is formed during firing, is better absorbed by the plant). We lay the bush obliquely together with the sleeves and bases of annual shoots, bringing them out just above the level of the pit. Cut the tops of the vines into three eyes, covering the cuts with garden pitch or wax. Water the bush and cover it on top with a non-woven material. A transplant can be carried out in late autumn, then covering the bush with a traditional air-dry shelter.
If in the spring the vine on one of the grape bushes broke or you had to prune, cover the cut with red lead paint on natural linseed oil, adding chalk and boric acid to it, and the "crying" will stop. Varieties in the north have a less intense "cry" than in the southern regions, but this measure in any case will save you harvest, and grapes - strength. A modern solution to this problem is the "Living Bark" balm.
There are few diseases and pests of grapes in the north, but this is still. For those wishing to have environmentally friendly berries, I advise you to use not "chemistry", but biological products. Perfectly heals oidium in grapes by spraying with 10% mullein infusion, as well as a solution of milk or whey 1:10 (developed by winegrowers in the USA). At the beginning of the trellis, I advise you to plant a rose. She suffers from the same diseases as grapes, and in case of danger, she is the first to signal the need for treatment.
To protect the grape harvest from birds, use old CD-disks, protective nets. Hang them only after the berries start ripening, and remove them immediately after harvesting, otherwise the birds will get used to it.
In late spring, when frosts are no longer expected, we finally open the bushes, tie the vines to the lower wire of the trellis and carry out the first watering. Wine (technical) varieties under the age of three and all table varieties are best watered not superficially, but in pipes dug between the bushes - 4 buckets of warm water with the addition of 0.5 liters of dry ash per bush. We do the second watering a week before flowering. The third watering is after flowering. After the start of coloring the berries, it is no longer possible to water the grapes. And only in late autumn, a week before the shelter, it is necessary to do water-charging irrigation: the fourth for all table and young plants of industrial varieties and the only one for adult plants of industrial varieties.
For watering and feeding the grapes, I place plastic bottles with a cut-off bottom between the seedlings. For table varieties, as the bushes grow older, I replace them with asbestos-cement pipe trimmings, and for "techies" (wine varieties) I remove them altogether after three years. Mature wine grapes have to get their own water from the soil, and the deeper the roots, the better the wine from its berries.
So that flowering is delayed and does not fall under frost, in Denmark, when planting grapes, stones are placed at the bottom of the pit, accumulating cold and inhibiting the awakening of the plant. Never water the grapes directly during flowering: this provokes shedding of color and peas on the berries. If June is rainy, cold, and blooming is delayed, arrange a canopy over the vine made of a transparent material, such as polycarbonate. Or at least treat with a weak solution of boric acid (0.03% - an incomplete teaspoon per 10 liters of water).
There are operations and techniques that accelerate the ripening of berries and vines, improve the quality of the harvest.
In June, under the lower brush on a fruitful shoot, remove the bark ring and cambium 3-5 mm wide to the wood. The grapes on this shoot will ripen at least 10 days earlier.
Collapsing the escape into a ring
Wrap a long fruiting shoot with an inclined or horizontal ring, then on this shoot both the berries and the vine itself will ripen earlier.
To accelerate the ripening of vines and berries at the time of slowing growth, when the tops of the shoots - the crowns - are straightened, they are removed, this is called chasing. Often it causes the growth of lateral shoots, and the outflow of nutrients to them. In varieties with poorly ripening vines, I do not break off the tops of the shoots in August, but break them off, leaving them on the bush. This stops the growth of side shoots and directs all the nutrition of the vine to ripen the crop and wood. The effect is significant: the ripening period is reduced by 15–20%. after the top has completely dried, it can be removed.
When the berries are almost ripe, the vine is twisted over the bunch of grapes, from this the bunches are slightly rained, and the ripening of the vine accelerates. The juice from such berries is more concentrated and sweet, and the wine is stronger and more harmonious.
Storage and ripening of berries
To preserve the freshness of the grapes and the ripening of the berries, cut off the brushes along with a piece of vine. If you don't want to waste sugar, you don't need to put the vine in the water. Hang the bunches in a cool room, such as an attic.
In autumn, it is possible to plant grapes not earlier than the beginning of October, when the life processes in plants slow down. After planting, tender grape "youth", especially one-year-olds, must be protected from frost. Stick a stick next to the seedling a little longer than itself and close the seedling with a cut-off neck plastic bottle so that it obliquely rests on the peg, and not on the seedling. Pre-make several holes in the bottle and sprinkle it with coniferous litter or earth.
In the suburbs and north of Moscow, the fight against spring frosts that damage awakened buds cannot be avoided.
Temporary (until the last frost) covering the grapes with non-woven material will help out, which is easy to do in the case of trench cultivation. Place containers of water or stones under the shelter as heat stores. Some Amur varieties winter on our gazebo. Although their shoots are also afraid of frost, they are less damaged at the top.
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