Raspberry paradise: what is important to do in spring for a sweet harvest


To get a rich harvest of sweet and fragrant raspberries in the summer, you need to take care of this in the spring. To do this, you need to apply some rules for the competent care of this unpretentious shrub.

Cleaning of shelters and leaves

It is imperative to remove all old leaves, mulch, which covered the branches for the winter. They are collected by rakes and burned. All this garbage contains many pests and fungal spores. The cleared and open ground warms up faster, and the plant begins to prepare for the beginning of the growing season.

Regular watering

Raspberries are very demanding for watering, especially their remontant varieties. Abundant soil moisture in spring is the key to a successful harvest. The roots of the shrub lie at a depth of 20-30 cm. Therefore, it must be watered abundantly, 30-40 liters per 1 sq. M. Otherwise, with surface watering, only the adventitious roots are saturated. In sunny, dry weather, watering is done more often, in rainy weather - less often. In spring, it is very important to shed raspberries abundantly before flowering, and not only under the root, but also by sprinkling.

Top dressing

In early spring, you need to take care of sufficient nitrogen fertilization, since it is nitrogen that is needed to build up green mass and pour berries.If you planted raspberries only the first year and fertilizers were already laid during planting, then the first 2-3 years this is enough. Raspberries are unassuming in this regard.

Mulching the soil under the bushes

An important point of agricultural technology is the introduction of mulch. Its correct use affects the yield. In addition, mulching makes it easier to care for the raspberries, so you can water less as it retains moisture and does not evaporate. After watering, the soil does not form a dry crust. Mulch inhibits the growth of weeds, so raspberries grow much better. Hay, straw, sawdust, peat or compost are used as mulch, so it is also an organic top dressing.

Raspberry pruning

In spring, shrubs need sanitary pruning after winter. All old, infertile, diseased and broken shoots are removed. New ones are pinched to enhance their growth and increase fruiting.

Treatment against pests and diseases

After pruning, raspberries must be treated for diseases and harmful insects. It is in the spring that chemical agents can be used, since before the fruits ripen, all harmful substances will be removed from the plant. For the first spring spraying, use Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate with urea. Carefully read the instructions for the drug you will be using. Use protective equipment: gloves, masks. All procedures are carried out in dry weather, without rain and wind. Chemicals: Iskra M, Taran, Alatar, Aktellik, Fitoverm. Folk remedies can also be used: ash infusion or dusting with ash, wormwood or marigold infusion, birch tar solution with liquid soap. Traditional drugs are considered less effective. Treatments with them need to be done often, they are more preventive than protective, so these simple rules for caring for raspberries will help you reap a rich harvest. Its foundation is laid from the first days of spring.


Raspberry care

In many dachas raspberry resembles a windbreak, which cannot be approached, except that the bear does not sit inside. "Yes, something will grow anyway," gardeners dismiss them, bending over strawberries and strawberries. With what raspberries worse? The fact that it grows and spoils the view of the site? So cut your hair and clean it, then you won't be ashamed of the guests in raspberry to invite.

Moreover, the dacha entertainment - cooking raspberry jam - has not yet been canceled.

In the spring before raspberries the turn does not always reach, but as a rule it does not reach at all. After all, they plant her in the backyard, by the toilet, behind the sheds, as if they are ashamed of this bush. They dug a hole - they buried it and forgot, and then they take offense that there are no berries. I have raspberry carein a place of honor. I can't afford this, because I need to run my granddaughter into the raspberry-tree in the summer, and what will I tell her if the berries are small and sour?


What kind of raspberry is called remontant?

Hybrid raspberry varieties capable of producing a crop on annual shoots are called remontant. That is, instead of a biennial, the plant becomes an annual. Although with its own characteristics that justify the term "remontant": on biennial shoots, it also bears fruit, if, of course, they are left. Today, there is also the term "tutimer", which hides varieties intended for harvesting on both annual and biennial shoots. Growing in this case is carried out in the southern regions or in greenhouses - it is there that it can bring the maximum benefit.

Repaired raspberry varieties were created on the day of fruiting on annual shoots and reveal their potential precisely with this method of cultivation. My personal cultivation experience, which I will share, will show you how not to do it.

Fruiting on annual shoots occurs, depending on the region and the cultivation method, at the end of July-October, and there is no longer any hope for the summer taste of September and October ovaries: the sun is not enough. Therefore, it is not necessary to plant varieties that do not correspond to the growing region! These are unnecessary disappointments and discrediting of the variety. October raspberries in most Russian regions can serve purely aesthetic purposes. Well, also to show off to acquaintances.

Hybrid raspberry varieties capable of producing a crop on annual shoots are called remontant. © zemlyanichnoe__okoshko


What varieties of raspberries to choose

There are a great variety of raspberry varieties! Our catalog contains large-fruited, remontant, purple, black raspberries. There are also new varieties. Not everyone knows that there is ezhemalina - an amazingly delicious hybrid of raspberries and blackberries. Lovers of exoticism will surely like the raspberry tree "Tarusa", which produces large sweet berries weighing up to 10 grams. With a height of about 1.5 meters, the yield per season reaches 4-5 kg! The branches are devoid of thorns, which allows you to pick berries without the risk of injury.

And here you can see which varieties of raspberries are the sweetest:

Tell us what methods you use when caring for raspberries in the spring. And share in the comments which variety you chose for planting in the country.

Did you know that remontant raspberries allow you to harvest more than one crop per season? Gardeners who are engaged in the cultivation of such varieties can feast on berries throughout the summer and autumn, up to frost. And how to do it correctly - read in our article.


Fertilizers - in spring and autumn, during planting and after harvest

One of the most common and unpretentious berry crops is raspberry. She is able to bear fruit for many years without any additional feeding. But if the goal of growing is to get a bountiful harvest, and not a couple of handfuls from a bush, then you cannot do without fertilizers. They are brought in twice a year - in spring and autumn, reinforced with top dressing in the summer.

The raspberry tree has been growing for many years in one area of ​​the soil, so the reserves of nutrients in it are steadily decreasing. At the same time, the appearance of the bush changes and the yield decreases. The decrease in soil fertility is reflected, first of all, on foliage and shoots:

  • lack of phosphorus is given by thin and weak shoots with small leaves
  • iron and manganese deficiency leads to chlorosis (yellowing)
  • lack of magnesium slows down growth
  • a low amount of nitrogen is noticeable in numerous small leaves, slow growth and a decrease in fruit size
  • if there is not enough potassium, the leaves turn brown and curl inward.

When applying fertilizers, it is important not to overdo it, as an excess of some substances can also reduce yields. For example, if there is too much nitrogen in the soil, then foliage will begin to grow actively and the plant will not have enough strength for fruiting.

The choice of soil for planting, sufficient watering and regular pruning of shoots are of great importance for productivity.

The grown cuttings are protected with trellises. This measure allows you to form even rows and gain free access to the soil when loosening and weeding, and also makes pruning easier.

In spring, the tops of the shoots (10-15 cm) are cut to the first strong bud. In the fall, the old branches that have fruited are completely cut out, they will no longer give a large harvest, but they will take a lot of strength and nutrients from young shoots.

Abundant young growth depletes the soil and reduces the yield of fruiting shoots, in addition, the bushes become too thick, for this reason it is more difficult to weed and loosen them. Therefore, during the growing season, extra new stems are removed, and in order not to damage the maternal root system, they are cut to the ground, and not pulled out.

The soil for a steep result

For planting, it is better to choose places that are well lit by the sun, but not open. It is best to place the seedlings against the wall of an outbuilding or along a fence. Raspberries do not like tightness, so you need to provide free space for the growth of new shoots.

The best soil for raspberries is neutral loam or sandy loam, rich in humus. Calcareous, acidic and clayey are not suitable for her. You should not plant a crop in highly moist soils, where water stagnates, since there is a high probability of freezing.

Before planting, it is necessary to get rid of weeds on the site. To do this, loosen the soil and remove all roots. Then they dig it to a depth of 40 cm. Complex fertilizer is applied to the ground.

Cuttings are planted in separate pits, measuring 30x30 cm, or trenches 50 cm deep and 50 cm wide. A gap of 50 cm is left between the seedlings, between rows 1-1.5 meters. Immediately after planting, pruning is done, and a depression is formed around the cutting for better access of moisture to the root system. To keep the water well, the soil is mulched with peat, sawdust or hay.

The yield is favorably influenced by such procedures as weeding and loosening. Weeds must be removed at least twice during the growing season. In this case, not only the stems are removed, but also the roots are carefully selected from the soil.

Loosening is carried out 4 times a year. In spring, autumn and after every weeding. This procedure allows the root system to develop and improves oxygen and moisture availability. It is only necessary to loosen the top layer of the soil, to a depth of 5-6 cm.

Otherwise, the roots may be damaged.

Fertilizers and feeding

Raspberries are fertilized with minerals and organics. Most often, complex formulations are used. But the components in them are different for different seasons. What is good in the spring can be useless or harmful in the fall.

When growing raspberries, you can limit yourself to root dressing, but experienced gardeners and laboratory studies confirm that foliar spraying of bush leaves during the growing season is no less beneficial.

Mineral fertilizers for raspberries:

  • Phosphorus - increases productivity, helps to strengthen and develop the root system. Its presence in the soil is especially important in the first three years after planting; root application is less effective than spraying.
  • Nitrogen is the main nutrient that stimulates the growth of new shoots and leaves. It quickly passes into a state inaccessible to plants, so the application should be made in the spring.
  • Potassium - stimulates metabolic processes, improves the density of berries and the ability of the bush to survive droughts and frosts. Just like nitrogen, it requires spring application or during the period of ovary formation.
  • Microfertilizers (boron, iron, manganese, zinc, copper) are applied only if there are signs of their deficiency. They contribute to better disease resistance. They are better absorbed with foliar feeding; in the soil they quickly turn into an inaccessible form.

Organic fertilizers

They are applied only at the root of the plant. There is a special need for them during the first 3 years after planting new cuttings. The most common organics for raspberries:

  • bird droppings
  • horse and cow manure, slurry
  • wood ash
  • bone flour
  • siderates.

With organic fertilizers, you should also not be zealous. Excess manure can burn the roots, an abundance of wood ash reduces soil fertility, a large amount of green manure leads to decay of the root system.

Spring and summer

The main task in the spring is to provide the plant with the necessary amount of nutrients for the growth and ripening of berries. Therefore, the fertilizer should be based on nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. They are introduced into the soil before bud break, in April-May. You can use a complex fertilizer or apply the components separately according to the following scheme:

  • consumption of urea or nitrate (nitrogen fertilizer) 8-10 gr. per sq.m.
  • wood ash (replenishes potassium and phosphorus in the soil) - 30-40 kg per hundred square meters.
  • manure - 1.5 kg per bucket of water, 1 liter per bush.

After 10-14 days, the root top dressing is repeated.

Nitrogen fertilizers are applied annually. Potash - once every 3 years. Organic matter is mixed into the soil three years after planting, then regularly every year or two.

Mineral fertilizers in dry form are scattered over the surface along the rows, then buried in the soil using a loosening tool.

Dry manure and peat are used both for fertilization and for mulching at the same time, so it is laid out in the root zone of the bush.

Spring top dressing must be combined with abundant watering, the bioavailability of substances is higher in dissolved form, and the roots must be tightly enveloped with soil, so the soil must always be moistened.

During the period of berry ovary, mineral fertilizers are applied again. For convenience, you can use a nitrophosphate, it contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Dissolve 2-3 tablespoons of the composition in 10 liters of water, water the plants at the rate of 7 liters per square meter. The introduction of nitrogen is permissible until the end of fruiting; later, it is impossible to feed the plant with it.

During the ripening period of the fruit, additional feeding may be required - foliar. To do this, prepare a solution from one component in the list below (concentration for 10 liters of water):

  • superphosphate (250 gr.)
  • copper sulfate (3-5 gr.)
  • boric acid (10-15 gr.).

The finished solution is sprayed onto the plant from base to tops. It is recommended to carry out such processing in calm dry weather. Once a season.

Autumn - preparation for winter

In the fall, it is necessary to prepare raspberries for the next harvest, strengthen the immune system and increase resistance to low temperatures, as well as replenish the nutrient deficiency in the soil. Therefore, it is recommended to apply organic fertilizers: mature manure, rotted compost, peat, wood ash and bird droppings.

Dosage and method of administration:

  • manure - 5-6 kg per sq.m. soil, deepening into the ground
  • compost - consumption and method of application are the same
  • peat - 2-3 kg per sq.m. it can be deepened into the ground or mulch the ground surface between bushes
  • chicken droppings - dissolve in water and water the plants, in an amount of 5-7 liters per bush.

It is better to alternate organic matter with mineral fertilizers. The next year, you can add potassium (40 grams per square meter) or superphosphate (60 grams per square meter).

The autumn period is a good time for fertilization with siderates, in this case, in the summer, you need to plant mustard or clover between the bushes, and after harvesting they are embedded in the soil.

After making any dressing in the fall, the soil is watered abundantly with water, then the amount of moisture is reduced, focusing on the amount and frequency of precipitation. Before wintering, the mature shoots with thick trunks are cut out and the immature young are removed.

Top dressing when planting

You can plant raspberries in spring (early May) and autumn (mid-late October). If possible, it is better to prepare the soil in advance.Dig deep into the ground a year before planting and remove all weeds and their roots.

When planting, the roots of the seedlings are straightened so that they look in different directions, shake off clods of earth from them, dipped in a mullein solution and set in a hole or groove, then sprinkle with earth. In this case, the replacement kidney should be located above the surface of the earth, and not in the ground. It is worth cutting off the seedlings immediately, it is permissible to leave cuttings 40 cm high.

If planted in the fall, then the following complex of fertilizers is applied:

  • any organic matter - 10-15 kg per sq.m.
  • potassium - 20-30 gr. per sq.m. (you can replace 500-600 gr. wood ash).
  • phosphorus - 30-45 gr. per sq.m.

If the soil is fertile, the amount of all fertilizers is reduced by 10-15%.

After planting, the soil is mulched with dry grass, sawdust or peat with a layer of 5-8 cm. In the spring, it is already possible to apply nitrogen fertilizers, chicken droppings, phosphorus and potassium.

For planting in the spring, you need to prepare the soil in the fall, it is advisable to fertilize it with organic matter and dig it up. And in May, when planting, add nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a dose increased by a third. The plant needs to be watered throughout the spring. Planting in summer is possible, but the bush may not survive the heat and downpours.

The raspberries are then fertilized according to the usual schedule. In the year of planting, the bush will not bear fruit, at this stage it is important for the rooting of cuttings and the growth of the root system. It will be possible to get the first harvest for 2-3 seasons.

Pest control

Healthy raspberry bushes must be treated in the spring as a preventive measure. This must be done before flowering, so as not to scare off pollinating insects. Universal means for protecting bushes from pests and common diseases - copper (solution 1 g per 1 liter of water) or iron (solution 10 g per 1 liter of water) vitriol.

If pests were noticed on the bushes, then they should be got rid of in the fall or spring. For different types of insects, they use their own means:

  • A solution of dry mustard (20 grams per 10 liters of water) or baking soda (2 tablespoons per 10 liters) is sprayed with bushes to scare off the weevil.
  • boiling water helps to destroy the larvae of most pests. They are spilled with bushes from a metal watering can immediately after the snow melts.
  • infusion of marigolds or wormwood (brewed and infused for 12 hours) will scare off the raspberry beetle.
  • mulching pine needles protects against weevils and some diseases.
  • in the fight against stem flies and aphids, chemical insecticides will help.

If the plant is affected by pests, a special method of autumn processing will help, it is also used for diseases. It is necessary to cut off all the stems that show signs of damage and differ in color, remove all the leaves with a careful movement from the bottom up. All this must be burned, after which the branches and soil around the bush must be treated with Bordeaux mixture or a similar means.

Repair raspberry

Repaired raspberry varieties are capable of producing crops almost all summer, they contain both flowers and fruits at the same time. Such plants need enhanced feeding. It is better to cultivate them as an annual, that is, completely cut out all the shoots after fruiting is complete. This will give the plant a stable harvest.

It is necessary to feed remontant raspberries from early spring and throughout the summer. She especially needs nitrogenous and potassium fertilizers. Phosphorus is added in the spring.

Diluted chicken manure, azofoska, ammonium nitrate are suitable for feeding - they are all rich in nitrogen. You need to make them every 10-14 days. Alternating foliar and root feeding.

In July, it is necessary to add potassium and phosphorus, they will ensure the quality of the berries of the second harvest.

Useful Tips

Raspberries have been cultivated for many hundreds of years and chemical fertilizers and complex compositions did not always exist. Therefore, gardeners used their own feeding methods, drawing on their own experience and the knowledge of others. They are still relevant today, if there is no desire to add chemistry to the soil.

Traditional methods of fertilizing raspberries:

  • tincture of nettle and comfrey. Grass is taken in equal proportions and filled with water. Insist in the sun for 2 weeks. The finished composition is added to water for irrigation, 1 liter per watering can.
  • onion husk tincture. 50 gr. the husks are poured with a bucket of water and kept for a week. Next, the composition is watered with the bushes. This method helps control pests and stimulates growth.
  • sometimes raspberries are fertilized with crushed eggshells, sugar, coffee grounds.

Manure, bird droppings, humus, ash and other substances of organic origin have been a universal fertilizer at all times.

Conclusion

On the one hand, growing raspberries is not a troublesome process if the quantity and quality of the crop suits the gardener. But you need to understand that over time it will worsen.

Therefore, in order to consistently receive large, tasty, healthy and dense fruits, it is necessary to regularly feed the raspberry according to the recommendations and schedule.

But you need to be careful with fertilizers; it is better to apply them less than to oversaturate the soil.


Secrets of agricultural technology

Top dressing

Raspberry Brilliant, as mentioned in the description of the variety, requires special care, in particular, it must be constantly fed.

Consider the fertilization scheme:

  1. In March, plantings are fed for the first time. Urea (20 grams) is dissolved in a bucket of water and poured over one square meter.
  2. When flower stalks form and flowers begin to bloom, a second replenishment of Brilliant raspberries is required. It will require potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons), potassium sulfate (3 tablespoons). They are dissolved in ten liters of water. The watering rate is the same.
  3. For the third time, the plants are fed when the crop is harvested. After all, diamond raspberries need to gain strength for wintering. A spoonful of potassium sulfate and two boats of double superphosphate are added to a bucket of water.

Raspberries respond well to feeding with mullein (1:10) and chicken droppings (1: 5). It is necessary to dilute in accordance with the indicated proportions. Such feeding of raspberries is carried out every month separately from feeding with fertilizers.

Watering requirements

Raspberries of the Brilliantovaya variety are demanding for watering, although they tolerate short-term dryness of the soil. It should be borne in mind that in such a situation, during ripening, the sugar content in the berry decreases. Excess vagi makes the fruit watery. In short, you need to find a middle ground when watering.

When to water raspberries:

  • in the beginning of May
  • when shoots begin to form
  • twice in June and July
  • at the beginning of August
  • before sheltering for the winter.

Up to one and a half buckets of water are poured onto one plant. Raspberries respond well to artificial rain (photo below), but they perform this procedure either before sunrise or in the evening.


Diseases and pests

When planting fruit trees on their plots, they expect to grow and reap a good harvest. But, as often happens, the world of gardening encounters many problems with plants, the most basic of which are diseases and pests. All diseases, without exception, can lead to a decrease in yield, and in some cases to the death of seedlings, so it is necessary to notice the symptoms of the disease in time. Having noticed the signs of infection in time (at the beginning), you can save not only the diseased tree, but also growing plants nearby.

Below is a list of the main diseases affecting this type of plant:

  1. Peripheral wood rot. Arises due to the influence of honey agarics. You can remove the infection: 1% Bordeaux liquid (any other type of fungicide can be used) completely dig up the bush (with roots) and burn it.
  2. Rotten berries - moniliosis. Under the influence of this disease, the berries become soft, lose their color (brightness) and become covered with cobwebs (mummified). On the outer shell of the fruit, spore-bearing pads appear (color - light brown). If you do not cut the affected berries, then there is a high risk of infection in the spring of the entire bush.
  3. Septoria spot - usually appears in July, in the form of oval spots (light brown) with a dark border. In case of prolonged illness, dark inclusions fall out and the leaf profile becomes a "hole". If the tree is infected, collect and burn all infected leaves.
  4. A comb-grower is a fungus that appears on a seedling due to rot. The appearance consists of white or brownish-gray plates. Treatment consists of cutting and burning all infected branches.

The above diseases are not all, therefore it is necessary to constantly monitor the appearance of the seedlings.

Below is a list of pests for blackberries:

  1. Ticks (brown and red) are very small insects that affect all fruit plants in the area. You can get rid of them by spraying with any chemicals produced for pest control.
  2. Aphids are a sucking insect, which in parallel is a carrier of various diseases. Most often, young bushes suffer from aphids.
  3. Hawthorn is a caterpillar that eats buds from the beginning, and then flowers with leaves of a plant.
  4. Mountain ash moth and Sawfly cherry slimy are insects that destroy both berries and leaves of the tree. In order to avoid infection and development of insects, it is necessary to cleanly and scrupulously remove the leaves every autumn and spring and burn them.

The following drugs help with most parasites and diseases:

  • Karbofos
  • Abiga Peak
  • Copper oxychloride
  • Karbofos
  • Nitrafen
  • Bordeaux mixture
  • Decis
  • Ambush
  • Zolon
  • Chlorophos
  • Oleocobrite, etc.

If you experience such problems with the tree, you should consult with the seller at a specialized horticultural center.

Caring for chokeberry in autumn, preparing for winter - the actions are simple and not complicated. There are a number of features, non-observance of which can lead to disastrous results (the worst is the death of a seedling), namely:

  1. Do not leave many small shoots (more than five) in the crown, because after they grow, your bush will turn into a "dense" tree.
  2. Do not feed the mountain ash abundantly, because fertilization brings the growth of only greens, and not berries.
  3. If you are late with the period of shelter of the bush, the branches will freeze and, as a result, most of them will break (at negative temperatures, the vertex is difficult to bend).

Blackberry is a universal plant, young gardeners can safely plant it in their plots. The rules for caring for chokeberry in the fall, preparation for winter are not complicated. If you follow all the tips and follow the recommendations, you can grow a strong, strong tree and get a good harvest (over 20 years).


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