Using the technology of ecological organic live farming on one hundred square meters, you can easily grow from 600 to 1000 kg of potatoes! It would be good to choose varietal potatoes for planting. The tubers should be completely healthy, about the size of a chicken egg (at least 70 g).
In the middle zone (Moscow, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk ...) they begin to plant on May 8-10. The most important thing for a large harvest is that the earth is "alive", that is, it should contain a lot of organic matter, humic substances and useful microflora. The soil already has a sufficient amount of the necessary nutrition, but most of it is in a form inaccessible to plants.
And when we add organic matter, macro- and microelements with the help of biota (soil microorganisms) turn into an accessible form. 1 kg of potatoes takes out 5 g of nitrogen, 2 g of phosphorus, 10 g of potassium from the soil. Thus, 500 kg of potatoes will take out from a hundred square meters: 2.5 kg of nitrogen, 1 kg of phosphorus, 5 kg of potassium. You need to make organic and organo-mineral fertilizers!
Fresh manure for potatoes is undesirable. The best option is to add 150-200 kg of bioactivated dry organic fertilizer Bionex with a full set of macro- and microelements and useful microflora per 1 hundred square meters, about 13 kg of bioactivated organic mineral fertilizer Gumi-omi Potatoes and about 4.5 kg of Gumi-Omi Potassium. So we will give the soil all the essential elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, trace elements) in sufficient quantities.
• In case of drought, of course, watering is needed. But remember that in August, planting potatoes should not be watered - in the future, root crops will be poorly stored.
• The soil for the potatoes should be loose, airy to a depth of 25 cm, so that the shovel would enter with a light touch of the hand (not the leg!). If the soil is dense, then it should be loosened - 2-3 buckets of washed sand plus a bucket of humus or compost for a hundred square meters. Next year, this operation must be repeated in order to gradually lighten the soil.
Effective landings - 80% success!
• Experience shows that the most productive planting scheme is as follows: between rows 60 cm, and in rows between tubers 30-35 cm;
• In each hole (15 cm deep) put a handful of soft fertilizer Gumi-Omi Potatoes and Bionex. 2-3 handfuls of humus or compost will also be useful;
ATTENTION! The contents of the hole must be mixed with the earth and sprinkled on top with a layer of earth ≈3 cm, so as not to burn the roots.
• Two hours before planting potato tubers, dip or soak for 20 minutes in a biological solution of OZhZ: 1 teaspoon of Gumi + 5 teaspoons of Fitosporin per 5 liters of water, or in a solution of Olympic Fitosporin-K, which contains potassium humate + beneficial bacteria, protecting against disease. Borogum-M must be added to the solution, then the eyes will actively grow and the yield will increase by 20%;
• We lay the tuber horizontally so that the distance from it to the surface is 6-7 cm;
• After planting, level the soil with a rake to reduce moisture evaporation.
Growing lots of healthy potatoes requires careful planting:
• with the emergence of seedlings - harrowing;
• at shoots of 12-15 cm - we spud to a height of 10 cm with simultaneous weeding;
• during budding, before flowering - the second hilling to a height of 22-30 cm (preliminarily add 2 handfuls of Gumi-Omi Potatoes under each bush);
• for watering 1 m2 of planting, 2-2.5 buckets of water are enough. In a dry summer, 1-2 waterings are enough, but do not forget to loosen it every time after watering and drying out the soil;
• from the moment 3-5 leaves appear, spray seedlings with a natural bio-solution Gumi + Fitosporin once every 2 weeks as a prophylaxis against diseases.
The beetle is afraid of a biological drug! The Colorado potato beetle has already survived many pesticides, and it is constantly adapting to new products that are by no means harmless to the environment and human health. Now one of the most effective defenders of potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle is the biological preparation Gumi + BTB. It is safe for humans and animals, but at the same time it effectively destroys the Colorado potato beetle already at the larval stage.
When the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle appear, immediately treat with a solution of Gumi + BTB. Gumi, which is part of the preparation, improves tissue turgor in plants, strengthens leaves and stems, which reduces the risk of insects eating plants.
Each time when sowing beds in a summer cottage, I thought about how to facilitate and speed up the process in order to spend less time and effort.
When sowing carrots, beets and other garden crops, it was a problem for me to make even grooves and at the same distance. The chopper turned out for a long time and of poor quality. And then one day I got the idea of how to simplify this work.
For this I took a metal pipe with a diameter of 15 mm and a length of 1500 mm. To it I cut 10 bushings from a pipe with a diameter of 25 mm so that they could freely enter a pipe with a diameter of 15 mm. I welded a pin made of round steel with a diameter of 8 mm and a length of 100 mm to the bushings, to the end of which I welded a triangle of sheet steel 3 mm thick, 50x50x50 mm in size. Then I welded a pin with a triangle to the sleeve, in which I drilled a hole with a diameter of 10 mm. On the bushing from the side of the hole, I welded a nut with a thread for a bolt with a diameter of 8 mm. After that, the bushing with the ripper is fixed to the pipe with a diameter of 15 mm with a bolt with a diameter of 8 mm. At any distance required for sowing. I welded a pipe with a diameter of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm to the entire structure, into which I inserted a wooden handle-rod 1500 mm long.
To work with the tool, it is necessary to preset the ripper with bushings at the required distance during sowing and fix it with a bolt with a diameter of 8 mm. You can make 8-10 grooves in one pass with the marker.
On a note. Question from the summer resident
Seeds do not hatch!
I am a novice gardener. This year I wanted to sow eggplants, tomatoes, but both of them had very poor germination. Maybe I do not comply with some conditions that are necessary for the emergence of friendly seedlings?
Every summer resident is upset if the seeds of a particular culture do not germinate. To make this happen as rarely as possible, a couple of days before planting the seeds, I arrange for them a kind of bath. I collect rainwater, heat it up to 65-70 ° and put the seeds wrapped in cloth there. They stay in the water until it cools down to room temperature. After that, I dry the smallest seeds (parsley, carrots, radishes, lettuce, dill, etc.). If left wet, they will clump together and will be difficult to sow evenly.
It is known that even expired seeds can sprout well. But working with them is still risky. Therefore, 2.5-3 weeks before planting, I soak such seeds for several hours, then dry them and lay them out on a sheet of paper. I put this sheet on a baking sheet covered with sand, and I put the baking sheet by the stove. The constant heat stimulates the development of sprout rudiments already inside the seeds. Planting material treated in this way, as a rule, produces strong plants that give a good harvest. But all this applies only to vegetable seeds. For example, this scheme is not suitable for flower seeds.
The exotic appearance of small fruit trees and a peculiar pyramidal shape was given to us by nature itself. In 1964, a Canadian breeder drew attention to one unusual branch of the Macintosh apple tree. It was literally strewn with fruits, but there were no shoots on it. There, a columnar apple tree was obtained by artificial selection.
Later, breeders bred columnar pears, cherries, sweet cherries, plums, apricots, peaches and nectarines, which are quite possible to grow at home - in large flower pots.
The small growth of trees - from 1.5 to 2.5 meters led gardeners to the idea that they can be grown not only in open ground, but also on loggias, balconies, in courtyards, any closed or semi-closed sunny room with good ventilation.
The first experiments were successful. Small and compact roots had enough soil in the container. With proper care, one apple tree began to bear fruit in the second year, and in subsequent years it could give up to 10, and sometimes 15 kilograms of juicy fruits. Plum or peach yielded up to 10 kilograms of fruit indoors.
Today, the cultivation of columnar trees in containers has become widespread not only in the south, but also in the middle lane and even in the northern regions of Russia. But in order to achieve a good result and not be disappointed in the varieties of dwarf plants, you need to consistently and clearly follow the simple rules for planting and caring for balcony trees.
Starting from the second floor of a multi-storey building, use extremely light plastic containers, since ceramic or clay containers are heavy on their own.
By filling them with earth, you run the risk of overloading the balcony or loggia, which is undesirable. And given that experts advise planting at least two bonsai next to each other, this is even dangerous.
Columnar trees should be placed on the south or southeast side. If the balcony, veranda or loggia face north, then it is better to postpone this venture. The place should be well ventilated, but drafts are excluded.
Some amateur gardeners incorrectly believe that you can take fertile black soil or low-lying peat, and that's it. This is not true. The fact is that growing columnar trees in containers has its own characteristics. The amount of soil in them is limited, so it must be light, nutritious and rationally composed.
At the bottom of the container we lay out the drainage from broken brick or crushed stone. Then we prepare the soil.
Here is a classic example of the composition of the soil for an apple tree, which is also suitable for another fruit tree. It is designed for a capacity of 10-15 liters.
At the same time, do not forget that the root collar should be either at ground level, or rise by 2 centimeters.
Caring for plants in containers is somewhat different from the procedures that trees growing outdoors are subjected to.
The first watering is done at planting. At this moment, the soil is irrigated abundantly - moisture is extremely necessary for the plants during the survival period.
In the future, watering a young plant should be done every five days. But if the weather is hot, it is better to do this every other day or as the soil dries up.
To keep the earth constantly moist and nutritious, it is recommended to use a hydrogel - it retains moisture.
Columnar trees are fed from the second year of life in the same way as those growing in nature, using first nitrogen and then potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.
They are brought in in early spring, after flowering, during the period of ovary and fruit ripening. But the recommended rates are cut in half.
All fertilizers are applied after thorough watering, which is carried out a day before feeding.
They are stopped at the end of June and renewed at the beginning of September, so that the plants are strong in the winter. In autumn, nitrogen is not used, but potassium is preferred.
Usually the soil in the tub is well mulched, in which case loosening can be omitted or reduced to a minimum.
If the plant is planted in spring, it can bloom as early as next year. You cannot leave all the ovaries, this will be a big load for him. We select the strongest and largest inflorescences, remove the rest.
Typically, this is done at a distance of 10 centimeters. If the tree is older than three years, more ovaries can be left, and the distance between them can be reduced to 5 centimeters.
In the open ground, bees are engaged in pollination of flowers, but they rarely fly onto the balcony or loggia, and on the upper floors they are not at all. What to do?
If the columnar tree grows on your patio, veranda, or ground floor, you can sprinkle the flowers with sweet water to attract the bees. But in any case, the plant needs to be helped to pollinate. To do this, take a soft artistic (preferably squirrel) brush and, removing pollen from one flower, transfer it to a neighboring flower.
Better to transfer pollen from one tree to another. The result will be better.
Attention! Now breeders have developed columnar self-pollinated varieties for indoor. For example, the Moscow necklace apple tree. They do not need to be artificially pollinated.
On hot days, you need to protect the columnar trees from direct sunlight, shading them or transferring them temporarily to another place.
It is very easy to find out whether your "pyramid" is developing and growing normally. During the season, the plant should stretch 10-20 centimeters, bloom profusely and bear fruit.
Cropping is required. In the first year of life, we shorten the branches of the tree into two buds so that all the strength and energy goes into the short side shoots and ovaries. In subsequent seasons, we constantly pinch the excess side branches.
If the tree is elongated strongly, it can be shortened as needed, but keep in mind that the loss of the apical bud stimulates increased shoot formation. That is, the tree will begin to actively release new side branches.
If you planted a tree in a container with a volume of 10-15 liters, after two or three years he will have to "celebrate housewarming." In the old "house" the dwarf becomes cramped and uncomfortable, he will cease to delight you with juicy and tasty fruits.
A new container is being prepared for transplantation.
If you do everything quickly and do not inflict unnecessary injuries on the plant, it will bear fruit again in the summer.
In the cold season in the southern regions, columnar trees can be left on the loggia or on the veranda, if you are sure that the temperature will not drop below 10 degrees.
The ideal option for the middle lane and the north would be to transfer the plants to the cellar or basement, garage until April.
This method of wintering columnar species is also used: the tree, together with the container, is buried in the ground at an angle so that one top remains visible. Then the visible part is tied with foil or burlap, covered with fallen leaves and branches on all sides so that the plant does not freeze and hares do not damage it. At the beginning of April, the "pyramid" is returned to its original place.
Flaws in planting and caring for the plant can lead to the lower leaves of the potato turning yellow. The yellowing of the foliage is noticeable already in June. Excessively dense, moist soil contains little oxygen, the roots do not develop well, the plant looks depressed. Before planting root crops, the soil is prepared by introducing not only organic and mineral fertilizers, but also sand to make the soil friable. On wet soils, potatoes are planted in high ridges (ridges).
It is important to observe the distance between plants recommended for each variety. This will allow the bushes to be well ventilated and illuminated.
After emergence, the surface of the earth is loosened, simultaneously removing weeds. In hot dry weather, plantings need to be watered. Lack of moisture, especially during the beginning of the laying and growth of tubers (budding, flowering), will affect the size of the yield. Watering is carried out when the soil dries out to a depth of 6 - 8 cm. Watering is carried out along furrows, by drip, rarely by sprinkling. Water must be taken from a natural reservoir, or heated in containers in the sun.
Excess moisture in the soil is as dangerous as lack of moisture. Potatoes in waterlogged soil are more likely to suffer from rot and fungal diseases. If rainy and cool weather is established, the aisles of the potatoes are often loosened. The bushes are treated with antibacterial drugs (phytosporin, oxychom, alirin).
Every year, humanity expects a fight with the Colorado potato beetle returning to the potato beds every year. To do this, you have to constantly look for new methods and improve old ones, trying to reduce their damage to the soil and the environment to a minimum, while eradicating as many pests as possible.
Choosing tools from an extensive arsenal, you just need to take into account that each of the work has its own nuances. For example, insecticidal preparations should be carefully applied where there is an apiary or a fish farm nearby, or a decorative pond with fish, as they can cause irreparable damage to fish and bees.
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The best results for the extermination of the beetle will give a set of efforts:
It remains only to study each of the methods and apply, based on the existing opportunities and conditions.
Potatoes are thermophilic crops, and they should be planted in the soil warmed up to 7-10 degrees. According to folk signs, planting begins when leaves bloom on birches, bird cherry and the first dandelions bloom.
Do not be late with work, as when planting tubers in too warm soil, starchiness and potato yield deteriorate. For various climatic and natural conditions, they are used different ways of landing:
The beds are located in direction from south to north... Planting depth depends on the nature of the soil:
Large tubers deepen more than small ones, but deviation from the recommended figures should not exceed 3 cm... The planting of varieties of early and late ripening is different:
Potato care consists of the following types of work:
Start digging the potatoes when the tops are completely yellow and dry. You should not delay with this: being in the ground for a long time, the tubers lose weight and are stored worse.
The best harvesting weather is dry and sunny as the potatoes dry out faster. The bushes should be dug out carefully so as not to damage the tubers. At the same time sort them, setting aside the injured and the sick separately.
Take care of next year's harvest: pick seed potatoes from healthy and productive bushes, divide it by varieties. Tubers of the middle fraction are considered optimal for planting, without signs of disease and pest damage.
They are laid out in a sunny, dry ventilated area for landscaping. In green tubers, the amount of solanine increases and protects them from diseases and pests.
Harvested potatoes dry, sort and store at 2-4 degrees and humidity 90-92% in wooden boxes (not in bags).
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On May 26, 2015, I, Vyacheslav Ivanovich Kuznetsov, director of the research and development enterprise BashIncom, received a diploma of the public award "Business Leader-2015" in the nomination "The Wisest". That is, I am the Wise Gudgeon. Therefore, I want to convey some wise thoughts to you. The technology will be like this: every day I will give out one wise thought. How wise she is, judge you, but we still want to make these thoughts public.
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