Diseases and pests of watermelons: we recognize and fight, and also prevent their appearance


Every gardener who grows watermelons on his plot has at least once encountered diseases and pests of melons. They can wreak havoc on crops, so disease and insect control methods should be carefully studied.

Diseases of watermelons

Various diseases of watermelons significantly reduce the yield. Some may even leave the grower without fruit even at the seedling stage. Therefore, it is important to constantly observe the plants and know how to save them when dubious signs are detected.

Fusarium

This disease is caused by a fungus that penetrates the root system of the melons. First, small orange spots appear on the roots, which are covered with a light pink bloom. As the disease progresses, the roots become dark, the base of the stem rots, the foliage turns yellow, dries up and falls off. The bush weakens and stops growing.

Fusarium is one of the most harmful and widespread fungal diseases of watermelons.

It is impossible to detect Fusarium at an early stage, since plants are attacked from the roots. When external signs of the disease are visible on the watermelon, it means that it has already started and cannot be treated.... It remains only to remove diseased bushes and process the soil with a solution of copper sulfate. And the rest of the plants are sprayed with fungicides for prophylaxis.

I heard from my grandmother, who grew watermelons all her life, that the cause of fusarium wilting of melons is waterlogging of the soil and cooling of the soil to 16-18aboutC. Therefore, I am now very diligently caring for watermelons to avoid diseases. And for prophylaxis, after harvesting, you should remove from the site and destroy the dried parts of the wattle fence and disinfect the soil.

Anthracnose

The causative agent of the disease is a fungus. It manifests itself as vague yellow and brown spots on the leaves. Later they enlarge and become covered with yellow-pinkish pads. Later, the spots develop into dark sores that spread to the stems and fruits. The leaves dry out, the watermelons deform, stop growing and rot.

Anthracnose is especially bad for watermelons in rainy weather.

Anthracnose can be cured by spraying the plant with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid (1 g of active substances per 100 ml of water). The bush should be processed evenly: the drug works only where it gets. The procedure is carried out three times with an interval of 7-10 days. You can also apply fungicides (Tsineb, Kuprozan) according to the instructions. The soil must be disinfected with a 2% solution of potassium permanganate (2 g of substance per 100 ml of water) or copper sulfate (1 tbsp. L of the drug per 10 l of water). For 1 bush, 1.5 liters of solution is enough. The soil is spilled around the plant once. Careful weeding and removal of diseased leaves and stems is also required.

Already from the first episode of anthracnose manifestation, it became clear that this disease is dangerous for watermelons, since it can completely destroy the plants. We did not identify the pathology in time and fungicides did not help save the crop. Therefore, the affected plants had to be pulled out and burned. Now we are trying to comply with preventive measures: we soak the seeds in Skor, Tiram or Ridomil Gold and process the bushes with Cuproxat three times a season.

Cuproxat is a contact fungicide with a prophylactic effect designed to protect fruit and vegetable crops

Root rot

The cause of infection with this fungal disease can be a strong temperature difference, humidity, diligent watering with soil solutions. Signs of root rot are weeping black-brown spots at the bottom of the stem and on the shoots. The roots become thicker, cracked, and their surface disintegrates into filaments. The leaves turn yellow, wither, the plant dies.

Root rot first affects the roots, and then the rest of the plant

The disease can be treated only at the very beginning of its appearance; at an advanced stage, the bushes must be destroyed. Watering must be reduced, and the water must be replaced with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. The roots are removed from the soil and treated with copper sulfate and wood ash (8 g and 20 g, respectively, for 0.5 l of water). After a while, watermelons are treated with drugs that contain metalaxyl or mefenoxam. Spraying is necessary 3-4 times every 2 weeks.

We were lucky: our watermelons did not suffer from root rot. But the neighbors on the site have lost more than half of the crop. To prevent rot, seeds should be disinfected before planting in a 0.025% solution of ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate or in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. And it is advisable to sprinkle the root collar with crushed chalk every week and spray the bushes with 0.1% Fundazole solution.

Do not use fertilizers that contain chlorine: because of them, the roots of the watermelon weaken.

Bacterial spot

This ailment is caused by bacteria that insects can bring to melons. They reproduce at temperatures over 30aboutC and air humidity 70%. Signs of mottling are watery specks with a green-yellow border. Later they become larger, merge, the leaves turn black, the bush dies. Dark rounded outgrowths are noticeable on watermelons.

There are no drugs for the treatment of watermelons from bacterial spotting yet, infected bushes must be destroyed

At the beginning of the disease, the bush can be saved. To do this, cut off all leaves that have even small signs of damage. It is recommended to grasp the healthy part of the leaf (0.5 cm). After each cut, the knife must be treated with alcohol. If such procedures do not give any result, then the plant is destroyed. The soil must be disinfected.

Before I started working on watermelons, I had to study a lot of literature on growing melons. I paid special attention to the prevention of diseases, because I know that it is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it later. Therefore, before planting, I process the seeds in a solution of Fitosporin, disinfect the soil for seedlings with Trichopolum (1 tablet per 2 liters of water). And in the summer, I spray the bushes with Gamair (every 20 days).

Powdery mildew

If white spots with a bloom similar to flour are visible on the leaves, fruit ovaries, then the culture is infected with powdery mildew. This disease is also caused by a fungus. Over time, the plaque becomes brown, dense, and a cloudy liquid is released from the spots. Infected parts of the bush turn yellow. The fruits are deformed and rotten.

Powdery mildew spreads quickly during cool, damp weather

If symptoms of powdery mildew are found, it is urgent to treat the bushes using a 25% suspension of Karatan. Topaz, Planriz, Bayleton have also proven themselves well. Before processing, cut and burn the infected parts of the watermelon.

Topaz is a highly effective systemic fungicide that protects crops against many fungal diseases

Video: prevention of powdery mildew and control measures

Downy mildew

This is a fungal disease. The leaves on the front side are covered with rounded oily specks of light yellow color. A gray-purple bloom forms on them below. Leaves wrinkle, dry up. The fruits stop growing, change, become tasteless, the pulp loses color.

The development of downy mildew is facilitated by high humidity, sudden temperature changes, fog, cold dew, watering plants with cold water, and in greenhouses also condensation on film or glass

Having noticed the first signs, it is necessary to treat the bushes with a solution of colloidal sulfur (70 g per bucket of water). The same means should be watered and the soil. If the signs of the disease have not disappeared, then Strobi, Polycarbacin, Quadris are used.

There are often fogs in our region. Therefore, downy mildew is a common occurrence. To prevent it, I dip the watermelon seeds in hot water for a quarter of an hour before planting (50aboutFROM). And also once a month I water the garden with Fitosporin (the concentration of the drug I do is 2 times less than indicated in the instructions).

White rot

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus that causes the disease. It spreads in cold weather and high humidity. The lower leaves become watery, translucent. A whitish coating similar to cotton wool is noticeable on them. Later, it becomes dense and dark. The top of the bush withers, the shoots soften, rot.

If most of the bush is infected with white rot, then the plant must be destroyed

Having found the disease, all infected parts of the bush are cut off with a sharp disinfected knife. Places of cut should be sprinkled with colloidal sulfur or activated carbon. Plants are treated with fungicides three times with an interval of 7 days (Topaz, Acrobat MC).

Gray rot

The fungus that causes this disease has been living for several years in plant debris, in the ground. But gray rot develops only under conditions suitable for it: in coolness and dampness. On watermelons, buds, leaves, weeping brown specks appear, covered with a grayish bloom with small dark dots.

Gray rot affects all parts of the plant: leaves, buds, fruits

If the disease is not started, then the watermelons are saved by treatments with Teldor, Topaz, Sumileks. You can prepare a product from crushed chalk and a solution of copper sulfate (2: 1).

It is recommended to plant marigolds, mustard leaves, and calendula around the melons. These plants secrete phytoncides that kill the fungus.

Calendula not only decorates the site, but also saves watermelons from gray rot

In our family, a solution is used to save the crop from gray rot: for 10 liters of water, 1 g of potassium sulfate, 10 g of urea and 2 g of copper sulfate. Only before spraying the plants should the diseased parts of the plant be removed.

Mosaic disease

This viral disease manifests itself as light areas on the leaves. Later, the leaf plates are deformed, dry out, and the bush stops growing. On the fruits of watermelon, there are swellings, bumps, mosaic colors.

Mosaic disease leads to a significant decrease in the yield of watermelons

This disease can be carried by pests, it is transmitted through seeds, infected tools. There are no drugs to treat the virus yet. But with the timely detection of signs of the disease, Karbofos can be used. It is necessary to spray the plants 2 times with an interval of 1 week.

Leaf rust

This disease is caused by rust fungi. The main symptom of the disease is the appearance of brown bumps of various shapes and sizes on the bush. Later they crack, and a rusty powder pours out of them - fungus spores. The disease develops due to high humidity or an excess of nitrogen fertilizers.

Rust causes death of leaves, and in case of severe damage - and other parts of the plant

You can cure the disease with the help of fungicides Topaz, Strobi, Vectra, Bordeaux liquid. You must first cut off the affected leaves and shoots.

Olive spot

The disease is caused by a fungus. It does great harm to the fruit. Concave spots of an olive-gray hue are noticeable on them, from which a turbid liquid stands out. The mottling is transmitted to the leaves and stems, they become brittle. In 5-10 days, the bush can completely die.

Olive spot affects all aerial parts of the plant.

If symptoms of the disease are detected, the bushes should be treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid. The advanced stage is treated with Oxyhom, Abiga-Peak, treating watermelons three times with an interval of 1 week.

Protection and prevention of diseases

Watermelons are prone to many diseases that are easier to prevent than cure. Therefore, every gardener who grows melons and gourds on his plot must remember several important rules in order to protect his harvest:

  1. The gardener should inspect the plants every day for uncharacteristic changes. In the early stages of the disease, it is easier to cure.
  2. The soil must be disinfected before sowing seeds. It is steamed, kept in a freezer, and calcined in an oven.
  3. Watermelon seeds should be disinfected with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate.

    Treatment of seeds with potassium permanganate not only disinfects them, but also feeds them with microelements necessary for growth

  4. It is imperative to remove plant residues from the site: pathogens can remain on them for several years.
  5. It is important to choose lighted and well-ventilated areas for the growth of watermelons, where before that melons, pumpkin crops, cucumbers have not been grown for at least 3-4 years.
  6. Plants must be positioned freely when planting. This prevents bacteria from spreading quickly.
  7. When growing watermelons, do not forget about regular loosening. Do this after each watering or rain for better aeration of the root system.
  8. Top dressing is an important step in caring for watermelons.

    Fertilizers provide plants with important macro- and microelements, and strong bushes are much less likely to suffer from diseases

  9. It is necessary to water the bushes at the root, avoiding moisture on the leaves. The water should be at room temperature.
  10. It is important to carry out preventive treatments with fungicides that protect plants from a wide range of fungal and infectious diseases.

Video: prevention of watermelon diseases

Watermelon pests

Watermelons can not only hurt, but also be affected by pests. Most of them carry pathogens, so they need to be dealt with.

Melon aphid

Aphids are insects that settle on the inside of the leaf, flowers, watermelons, clinging to them completely. It is impossible not to notice them. The leaves are covered with a dark coating and drops of sticky liquid. Infected areas are deformed, dry out, the plant dies.

The melon aphid forms large colonies on the underside of the leaf, but can be found on shoots, flowers, fruits

You can drive away aphids with folk remedies. Insects do not tolerate the pungent smell of infusions of onions, tobacco, garlic, citrus peel, mustard powder. Bushes are processed 2 times a week. If there are a lot of aphids, then any insecticides will help, for example, Inta-Vir, Commander, Mospilan. Watermelons are sprayed 4 times with an interval of 5-7 days.

It is advisable to use different drugs so that insects do not develop immunity.

The worst enemies of aphids are ladybugs. Therefore, we plant spicy plants next to melons, the smell of which attracts them. You can also build bird feeders on the site. Titmouse, sparrows, linnet will fly in and eat green insects at the same time.

Ladybug larvae can be purchased at specialized garden centers, and then released on your site

An American scientist calculated the total weight of aphids that parasitized on an area of ​​2 hectares - it was 25 kg.

Wireworm

The wireworm is the larva of the click beetle. This pest gladly settles on the fruits and makes holes through them. They start to rot.

The wireworm can be in the ground for 4 years

You can get rid of this pest with the help of traps: jars are dug into the ground and pieces of potatoes and carrots are put in them. Several times a week, baits must be replaced with fresh ones. Mustard and beans should be planted in the aisles: they scare away the wireworm. And to destroy the caught insects. If there are a lot of larvae, then the plants are treated with Provotox, Zemlyan, Diazonin. These chemicals adversely affect the soil and crops, so they should only be used as a last resort.

Spider mite

On the underside of the leaf, you can find points of a brown tint, the diameter of which gradually increases. The whole plant is entangled in small transparent cobwebs. Later, the bush dries up and dies.

The spider mite is so small that you may not even see it, but this pest causes a lot of harm to the plant

Spider mites are not insects, so regular insecticides will not kill them. To combat the pest, acaricides are used: Neoron, Apollo, Aktofit. Plants are treated 3-4 times with an interval of 5-10 days.

Acaricides are very toxic, so be aware of personal protective equipment when handling them.

Thrips

Small dark brown lines are visible on the leaves of melons and gourds - these are the pests. They feed on the sap of the plant. Infected places become colorless, die off. The neglected stage is characterized by an unnatural silvery shade on the leaves, the stems are modified, the flowers fall off. Thrips spread in heat and dry air.

Thrips not only harm the plant, but also carry pathogens of many dangerous diseases

Traps for these bugs are made of cardboard, covering its surface with honey, petroleum jelly or glue, which dries for a long time. You can also fight pests using folk methods. Herbal infusions help well:

  • celandine,
  • garlic
  • tops of tomatoes,
  • green marigolds.

If the number of parasites increases, then the bushes should be treated with insecticide preparations:

  • Karate,
  • Spintor,
  • Fitoverm.

It is necessary to use the drugs 3-4 times with an interval of 1-2 weeks. The affected parts of the bush are removed.

Sprout fly

Watermelon pests are the larvae of the sprout fly. They gnaw out the stem and roots from the inside, the bushes begin to rot.

The eggs of the sprout fly winter in the soil, so it must be dug up in the fall and loosened in the spring.

It is recommended to fight the larvae with the same drugs that are used to fight aphids. It is necessary to process not only the bush, but also the soil.

Gall nematode

This pest is a round worm 1–2 cm in size. Parasites develop at moderate soil moisture and temperatures of 20–30aboutC. They attack the roots of plants. The bush withers as if it lacks moisture and nutrients. The leaves curl, the watermelon stops growing and dies.

Plants affected by a nematode have many filamentous roots called root beard.

Nematodes should be dealt with with chemical agents, such as 0.02% solution of mercaptophos or phosphamide. Processing is carried out 2-4 times with an interval of 3-5 days.

These drugs cannot kill the eggs of the worms, as they have a tough shell. When the chemicals have lost their potency, the nematodes will hatch.

Scoop butterflies

Caterpillars of moths are pests of melons and gourds. They live in the ground, and at night they climb to the surface and begin to gnaw shoots and leaves of plants.

Young caterpillars first feed on weeds, and then move on to cultivated plants

You can save watermelons from caterpillars by spraying melons with infusion of blooming wormwood: 300 g of raw materials, 1 tbsp. wood ash and 1 tbsp. liquid soap is poured into 10 liters of boiling water and insisted for 5-6 hours. After cooling, the bushes are treated. Chemical agents showed a good result against caterpillars: Decis, Sherpa.

Locust

Locusts are another pest of watermelons. These insects feed on all parts of the plant, and their larvae eat the roots.

After the invasion of locusts, melons and gourds become empty and lifeless

Locust control can be done mechanically if several individuals are found on the site. In case of a mass invasion, only chemical agents will help: Taran, Karate Zeon.

Birds

Starlings, sparrows, crows, pigeons do not mind eating delicious watermelon. They, of course, will not be able to completely destroy the crop, but they will spoil its presentation. Insect pests often colonize the peaked areas and bacteria penetrate.

On a field where watermelons are just beginning to ripen, the crow will find exactly the ripe and juicy berry

You can protect melon fields from birds with the help of plastic or textile nets. But this method is used only in small areas due to the high cost of the material. In limited areas, watermelons are protected with plastic (with holes) or wire boxes, which are installed upside down over the fruits.

Prevention of the appearance of pests on melons

Prevention of pests is the same as of diseases: removal of plant residues, destruction of weeds, observance of crop rotation. But there are other protective measures:

  1. The larvae of many pests hibernate in the soil, so the site should be well dug up in autumn and spring.
  2. An obligatory stage is preventive treatments with insecticides. They are carried out after the emergence of sprouts and during the flowering period. Apply BI-58, Fitoverm.

    Fitoverm is a broad-spectrum insecticide that will protect watermelons from pests

  3. You can also spray young plants with onion peel infusion (200 g per bucket of water).
  4. In hot weather, watermelons are watered with clean water to prevent aphids from breeding.
  5. The seeds are treated with Fentiuram.
  6. To destroy the wireworm, Bazudin is introduced into the soil before planting.

Summary table: problems in growing watermelons and their solution

If problems arose during the cultivation of watermelons, pests attacked the plants or the bushes got sick, this does not mean that there will be no harvest. With the timely detection of the problem, adherence to the rules of treatment and prevention, the plants can be saved.

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Cherry pests and diseases - combating them, photo of symptoms

Pests and diseases can ruin the harvest and even destroy the cherry plant. We have prepared a material that discusses cherry diseases and the fight against them, photos and descriptions of symptoms, as well as the most common pests and methods of protection against them.

Chubushnik (Latin Philadelphus)

Sometimes semi-deciduous shrub. More than 70 species are known. For the sweet aroma of flowers, it is mistakenly called jasmine. Loves sunny areas, the number of flowers decreases in the shade, and the plant turns noticeably pale.

By planting cherry seedlings on their site, each gardener expects to receive stable yields of tasty and healthy berries. Cherry diseases can become an obstacle on the way to high yields, which can not only destroy the crop, but also cause significant damage to the trees, up to their death. Therefore, it is important to know the causes of diseases, how they manifest themselves and are treated, as well as how to deal with dangerous pests.


Growing almonds in Ukraine

The almond growing zone in Ukraine is a strip of 30 to 80 km along the Black Sea from Kalanchak to Odessa, including most of the south and south-west of the Odessa region, as well as Transcarpathia and Crimea.

Almond

Almonds are not as popular in our area as, for example, hazelnuts. But in recent years, the situation has changed and almonds come to our tables more often. In particular, it is often used by confectioners, adding it to various cakes, pastries, chocolate bars.
Almonds are grown in large quantities in the USA, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Transcaucasia and North Africa. To grow it, you need a warm climate, so there may be problems with this in Ukraine, with the exception of Crimea and Transcarpathia.

The almond tree is a branchy bush up to 4-7 meters high.
Almonds are quite drought tolerant due to their long roots that extend deep into the soil. Despite this, rationed watering will not only not harm, but will also contribute to obtaining good yields.

Since almonds are a cross-cut plant, it is advisable to grow several varieties in one area.

You can propagate almonds by root layers, as well as seeds. When propagating by seeds, it should be soaked in water for a couple of days and then planted in the ground.
This crop grows well on fertilized and treated neutral and slightly acidic soils. The site should be well lit by the sun and protected from strong winds.
Since almonds reach a fairly large size, then the distance between trees when planting should be appropriate: 5-6 meters between plants.

Varieties are divided into bitter and sweet. Popular varieties of almonds: Dessert, Yalta, Nonparel, Nasebr, Languedoc.

The plant must be pruned periodically, avoiding thickening of the crown. Almonds need nourishment. To do this, in the fall, mineral and organic fertilizers are applied under the tree and dug up. The soil between plantings must be mulched.

Diseases affecting almonds: scab and orange spots. To combat the disease, it is necessary to take fallen leaves from the garden and burn, in the spring, when signs of illness appear, spray the tree with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.

Insects also harm almonds: almond leaf sawfly and plum thickened.

To combat them, as with diseases, you need to collect fallen leaves in the fall, do deep digging of the soil and treat trees with chemicals. The latter will be advised at your local gardening store.

Almonds ripen when the outer shell of the nut darkens and separates from the fruit. The harvested almonds must be dried by spreading them in a thin layer.

Almond varieties

Several dozen varieties of almonds are known. They differ in taste, appearance, growing conditions. Consider the popular varieties of almonds.

The tree is medium in size, reaching 4 meters in height in adulthood. The crown is round, compact. Average resistance to diseases and low temperatures. Begins to bear fruit 3-4 years after planting. Fruits weighing 2-3 grams, with a thin shell. Nuts keep well indoors. The yield reaches 6 kilograms per tree. You can harvest the crop in a mechanized way.

Nikitsky 62

Self-pollinated variety of medium ripening with a fan-shaped, spreading crown 4-5 meters high. Differs in good winter hardiness. Blooms late. Ripens in early September. Begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting. The fruits are large in size, the shell is light brown, soft. The average fruit weight is 4 grams. Nuts taste sweet. Productivity - 12 kilograms per tree.

Bred in the Crimea by crossing the varieties Nikitsky 53 and Princess 2077. It is a tree 3-4 meters high with a fan-shaped crown.
Primorsky is resistant to diseases, especially fungal. It blooms quite late, the fruits ripen at the end of September. The variety has a high yield (up to 14 kilograms per tree). Resistant to frost. The shell is soft and thin, the fruits are large, elongated.

Medium-sized tree with a rounded crown. Blossoms in April; fruits ripen in mid-September. Medium sized nuts. Fruiting is average, although regular.
The variety tolerates frost well. Medium disease resistance. You can harvest the crop in a mechanized way.

Bred in Crimea. It is a medium-sized tree, up to 4.5 m high with a dense crown. Blooms late, not very resistant to low temperatures. Bears fruit regularly and abundantly. Fruits are oily, sweet, tasty.

Winter-hardy, decorative (!) Type of almond that can be grown in our latitudes. Anyuta blooms with large, bright pink flowers. It blooms a week later than other varieties.

Pests and diseases of almonds

There are many factors to consider in order to get a good, high-quality almond harvest. This is the choice of variety, fertilization, and growing conditions. Also, prevention and control of diseases and pests plays an important role.

Therefore, let's consider the most popular reasons for the decline in the quality of almonds.

Almond diseases


It affects not only fruits and leaves, but also flowers and shoots. Spores overwinter on damaged branches and leaves.

  • selection of scab resistant almond varieties
  • digging soil in the garden at the end of autumn
  • spraying trees before flowering and after harvesting with Bordeaux mixture or other preparations
  • pruning and burning diseased branches.

Rust leaves

Small brown spots appear on the leaves. Over time, the spots increase, the leaves dry and fall off. To combat rust, the leaves use sulfur powder or an aqueous colloidal suspension of sulfur. Fallen leaves should be removed from the garden in the fall. The soil in the garden should be dug up for the winter.

A common disease of almonds. To combat moniliosis, you can spray the branches of trees with Bordeaux liquid in the fall.

Almond pests

Almond seed

The larvae of this pest hibernate in damaged fruits that do not fall off. Therefore, you need to shake (break off) such nuts and burn them. At the end of autumn, spraying of trees should be done. Also, the branches are sprayed immediately after flowering with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid.

Leaf roll

To combat this pest, its caterpillars should be sprayed with a 0.2% solution of karbofos. Also, before bud break, the almonds are sprayed with nitrafen.

Lives on the surface of the leaves of trees. In one season, it can give up to ten generations. Disease resistant varieties should be planted. You can exterminate the mole with tobacco infusion or a solution of laundry soap (300 grams per bucket of water).

General Tips

  1. Constantly study specialized literature to be able to distinguish between typical pests and diseases.
  2. Choose the most modern and effective drugs. The best thing is to ask for advice from an experienced gardener or a vendor at a good garden store. Do not pay too much attention to the drugs described in the old books. After all, every year manufacturers offer new, more effective and safer means of fighting
  3. Try to plant modern varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests
  4. Collect and remove leaves from the garden in the fall. Dig up the ground for the winter. After all, many pests hibernate in fallen leaves and the ground. In the fall, if he is not interrupted, he will give more than one generation.
  5. Remove damaged branches and remove pest-affected fruits from the garden
  6. Install feeders and birdhouses in your garden. Then the birds will help you fight pests in the summer.

Almonds: benefits and harms

Almonds are a plant in the Rosaceae family. Trees or small shrubs bloom with solitary, pink or white flowers. The almond fruit is a drupe with a dry, in most cases pubescent pericarp, which opens into two valves after ripening. Many consider almonds to be nuts, but they are actually stone fruits. The stone (the so-called "almond") is different: smooth, reticulate-grooved or with holes, with a thick hard or fragile shell (shell).

Almonds are sweet and bitter. Sweet almonds are oval in shape and have a slightly oily taste. It is sweet almonds that we eat. It can be sold in the shell or without it.

Bitter almonds are used to make almond oil, which is used as a flavoring agent for drinks and liqueurs, as well as other foods. You cannot eat bitter almonds, as these nuts contain a large amount of toxic substances. The production of almond oil removes these harmful compounds.

Once upon a time, almonds grew in the territory of Central Asian countries, but travelers in ancient times transported and planted almond seedlings everywhere. Almonds are a light-loving plant that is resistant to droughts and winter cold. In this regard, its seedlings quickly took root on the American continent and California is now considered the main supplier of almonds in the world. The almond tree begins to bear fruit three years after grafting.The yield index of almonds is about 450 kg / ha. And the period when the almond tree begins to bloom will not leave anyone indifferent - this beautiful view pleases the eye, and the soft and delicate almond scent can soak the air for many kilometers around.

The chemical composition of almonds

The dry core of almonds contains the following chemical composition: 53% fats, 22% nitrogenous substances, 12% nitrogen-free substances, 7% water, 4% fiber and 2% ash. Almonds are a rich source of beneficial B vitamins that help build new cells, normalize metabolism and improve the condition of hair, teeth and skin. Almonds also contain vitamin E, which has beneficial antioxidant properties that prevent the harmful effects of free radicals on the body, thereby preventing cell destruction. This, in turn, reduces the risk of malignant tumors and the development of cancer.
Such essential minerals as magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, which are part of almond nuts, stabilize the work of the cardiovascular system. Almond kernels contain vitamins such as thiamine, biotin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, folic and pantothenic acids. Due to this chemical composition and its wonderful taste, almonds have always been considered a rather expensive delicacy.
The calorie content of almonds is quite high - 640 kcal per 100 g. The recommended daily intake of almonds is 8-10 pieces.

Useful properties of almonds

The benefits and harms of almonds are always discussed and studied by nutritionists. Surprisingly, any nuts are healthy and nutritious enough, even when consumed in minimal quantities. For example, according to experts, the daily intake of almonds is only two nuts. The main beneficial properties of sweet almonds are improving brain activity and cleansing the internal organs well.

Sweet almonds are beneficial for their enveloping, pain relieving and anticonvulsant properties. Also, this nut is useful as an aid in the treatment of urolithiasis - it promotes the excretion of sand from the kidneys. Almonds are able to open blockages in the spleen and liver, purify blood well, and they also have choleretic properties. Like any other nut, almonds can significantly increase potency, so it is beneficial for men's health. And the most amazing thing is that almonds are a great hangover cure!

Speaking about the benefits of almonds, it should be noted that its regular consumption improves brain activity, has an effective relaxing effect and relieves insomnia. Almond oil is used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, pneumonia, stomatitis. Almond milk is used as a coating agent for stomach and intestinal problems.

The presence of almonds is highly desirable in the diet of any person, since in various chronic diseases it is able to improve the state of the body. People who want to get rid of painful thinness are advised to eat almonds directly with the peel, which contains flavonoids - substances that enhance the antioxidant properties of this nut.

Sweet almond kernels have a soothing effect on heavy urination. The healing properties of almond fruits are excellent in the treatment of gastritis, stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers. For insomnia, anemia, anemia, cough, use almonds with sugar. In addition, sweet almond nuts help with increased acidity of gastric juice and are useful for children with stunted growth.

Contraindications for eating almonds

If you are a lover of sweet almonds, then calculate the dose when feasting on them. After all, almonds are quite an active allergen. Therefore, all those who suffer from allergic diseases should be careful with this product. Overeating almonds can cause dizziness and even mild drug intoxication.

Bitter or unripe almonds can lead to food poisoning. When buying almonds, pay attention to the quality of this natural product.

If you have problems with heart rhythms, it is best to refuse such a tasty and in most cases healthy product. With strong overexcitation, you should also not get too carried away with almonds.

Since almond kernels are very high in calories, it is better for obese people not to abuse this delicacy either.

In general, excessive consumption of almonds in a healthy person can cause discomfort. Therefore, in order to feel the beneficial properties of almonds, you need to know when to stop.


Fungal diseases

The diseases and pests of strawberries described above are rather a rare misunderstanding than a universal misfortune for gardeners. But fungal infections are already a real disaster.

Gray rot is the most common disease in strawberries. Signs of defeat are:

  • brown spots with a gray fluffy bloom on the fruits
  • over time, the affected berries dry out
  • leaves are covered with gray and brownish spots.

To protect your beds from gray rot, it is necessary to treat the bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid or "Barrier" before flowering. At the first signs of the disease, remove the damaged fruit (otherwise, the spores will instantly disperse throughout the territory). Do not overgrow the area with weeds.

Black rot - the disease is almost completely identical to the previous ailment. The only difference is that instead of a gray coating, black is formed. Preventive measures are also similar.

Brown spotting. It affects the leaf plates, first forming brown edges on them, which eventually develop into a complete “browning” of the leaf. An infected culture slows down development, and bags with spores form on its surface. The disease is long-lasting, sluggish: there may be a belief that the berries have recovered, but in the fall everything will repeat itself all over again. It is important to regularly remove weeds, old diseased leaves. If, nevertheless, “you didn’t save yourself and picked up nasty things,” after harvesting, treat the plantation with Fitosporin.

Fusarium wilting should not be overlooked when studying strawberry diseases. Not having time to get sick, the seedling becomes brown, withers and dies. If it is possible to detect the fungus in the early stages, the culture can be saved by "Phytodoctor", "Trichodermin". Otherwise, the plantation is removed and replanting is possible only after 4 years.

Fusarium wilting

Strawberry pests and diseases have been attacking gardeners for over 2 centuries. What methods of dealing with them during this time have not been invented: folk remedies, chemicals, mechanical influences, conspiracies and amulets. One of these recipes for "handy" agrochemistry is iodine.

For the successful use of the drug, you need to take a 10-liter bucket of water (the container should not be metal) and sprinkle it with 15 drops of iodine. Stir well and watered strawberries, while avoiding liquid on the leaves. After such "fertilization" beetles and other animals will not appear on the site for 2-3 years. If you are afraid to "burn" the roots of the culture with iodine (by inadvertently adding more drug), then you can process the beds before the initial planting of seedlings (3-4 days). The effect will be the same as in the previous case.

Having considered the topic, we can say with confidence that the cultivation of fragrant berries, although troublesome, time consuming, is worth it.


Watch the video: Gummy Stem Blight In Melons u0026 Its Management


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