Solanaceae


I grow petunia both outdoors and in balcony boxes on the veranda. Usually I sow these flowers during February, but it is not too late to sow them in March either: although the petunia will bloom a little later, it will delight you until the frost.


Composition and properties of fruits

Thanks to its record low calorie content, zucchini is a very valuable dietary product, moreover, the most widespread. In terms of nutritional value, the fruits are equal to lettuce, cucumbers, lettuce.

The usefulness of the culture is due to the rich set of macro-, microelements, vitamins, antioxidants. The content of a large amount of salts of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and slightly smaller doses of iron, sodium, sulfur makes their use in food necessary for proper metabolism. There are also molybdenum, arsen, zinc, aluminum in the composition. The pulp of the fruit is 94.5% water, 5.2% is carbohydrates and sugars, protein accounts for about 6%. In addition to vitamins C, PP, B1, B2, E, they contain carotene, niacin.

But the most unique property is the ability to normalize the water balance, because the vegetable has a diuretic effect and perfectly removes salts. Moreover, it is so harmless that used without limitation in the children's menu, with gastrointestinal diseases, in the diet of allergy sufferers. Fiber fibers tend to absorb bad cholesterol, toxins, so the fruit is especially recommended to eat after various food poisoning.

The use of zucchini also has a positive effect on the functioning of the liver, heart muscle, kidneys, prevents the development of atherosclerosis, promotes blood renewal, has a pacifying effect on the nervous system. Traditional healers advise drinking a glass of fresh fruit juice daily to get the most out of the product.


Reproduction and prevalence

In the absence of flowers, ferns reproduce with the help dispute... Since this method was not known to science until the nineteenth century, the fern was called secret marriage. In addition to spores, the so-called brood buds, which develop on the leaves, can be reproductive organs.

Most ferns - up to 3000 species - distributed rainforest... There are up to 4000 species in total.

Modern ferns are mainly herbaceous plants... Perennials with highly developed roots grow in areas with a temperate climate.


What have we learned?

We learned about the distinctive features and structure of plants of the Solanov family, as well as about their role in human life. We learned the formula of the flower of the Solanaceae family, found out which plants are poisonous and which are edible.

The nightshade family has been known to people since ancient times. After all, people have eaten plants of this species for more than a century. Many nightshades are used to create medicines and decorate our lives as ornamental plants. In one family, these plants combine certain traits. They have a common fruit type, flower formula and, in general, life form.


Fruit nightshades

Tomatoes

Tomatoes, or tomatoes (Latin Solanum lycopersicum) are a type of herbaceous annuals of the Solanaceae genus of the Solanaceae family, which is cultivated as a vegetable crop. The name "tomato" comes from the Italian language and means "golden apple" (pomo d'oro), and "tomato" is derived from the Aztec plant name "shitomatl".

As already mentioned, nightshade crops were cultivated by Indian tribes. In the middle of the 16th century, the conquistadors brought tomato to Portugal and Spain, then it came to France and Italy, after which it spread throughout Europe.

At first, tomatoes, which were considered poisonous, were grown as an exotic curiosity. The fruits of tomatoes in Europe did not have time to ripen. Fruit ripening was achieved only when the culture was grown by seedlings and using the ripening method.

  1. Tomatoes have a developed and branched root system of a rod type, extending one meter or more in depth, and 1.5-2.5 m in width.
  2. The stem of tomatoes is lodging or erect, branching, from 30 cm to two or more meters high.
  3. The leaves are dissected into large lobes, the flowers are yellow, small and inconspicuous, collected in a carpal inflorescence. Each flower has both male and female organs.
  4. Tomato fruits are multi-celled juicy berries of a round or cylindrical shape. Fruit sizes can reach 800 grams or more, but the average weight is usually 50-100 g.
  5. The color, depending on the variety, can be light pink, hot pink, red, red-orange, crimson, light or bright yellow.
  6. Tomato fruits have high taste, nutritional and dietary properties and contain sugars (glucose and fructose), proteins, organic acids, fiber, pectins, starch and minerals.

By the type of growth, tomato varieties are: deterministic and indeterminate.

By ripening time: early, mid-season and late.

According to their purpose, tomato varieties are divided into: canteens intended for canning or for the production of juice, and according to the shape of a bush, tomatoes are of standard, non-standard and potato type.

Tomatoes are a light and heat-loving culture that does not tolerate high air humidity, but requires abundant watering. They are grown both outdoors and indoors.

If you want to plant tomatoes in your summer cottage, choose an open, but sheltered from the wind and well-lit by the sun, place for them on the south or southwest side.

The optimum soil acidity for tomatoes is 6-7 pH. Tomatoes grow best on light soils.

Suitable precursors for tomatoes are:

onions, cabbage, zucchini, cucumbers, carrots, pumpkin, green manure, and after crops such as potatoes, peppers, eggplant, physalis and other nightshades, tomatoes can be grown only after three to four years.

There are a lot of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes:

  • Of the early tomatoes, varieties are popular: White filling, Sparkle, Watercolor, Supermodel, Eldorado, Katyusha, Skorospelka, Golden stream, Mazarin, Triumph, Apparently invisibly, Black bunch, Puzata khata.
  • From mid-season: Labrador, Gigolo, High Color, Maroussia, Samson, Raspberry Miracle, greenhouse tomatoes Auria, Bottlenose dolphin, Babushkin's secret, Konigsberg.
  • Of late-ripening tomatoes, the following varieties are in demand: Rio Grand, Titan, Date yellow, Finish, Citrus orchard, Cherry, Miracle of the market and others.

Eggplant

Eggplant, or dark-fruited nightshade (lat. Solanum melongena) is a species of herbaceous annuals of the genus Solanum. Only the fruits are edible in this plant - in the botanical sense they are berries, but in the culinary sense they are vegetables.

The Russian name "eggplant" comes from the Turkish "patlyjan" and from the Tajik "boklachon". In the wild, eggplants grew in South Asia, India and the Middle East - in these areas you can still find the distant ancestors of this plant.

According to Sanskrit sources, eggplants were introduced into the culture about one and a half thousand years ago. In the 9th century, the Arabs brought eggplants to Africa, they came to Europe in the 15th century, but eggplants became widespread only in the 19th century.

  1. Powerful root system plants can penetrate one and a half meters deep, but most of the roots are located in the surface layer of the soil - no deeper than 40 cm.
  2. Stem the eggplant has pubescent, round cross-section, sometimes with a purple tint, as well as large, alternate, rough and pubescent leaves, similar in shape to oak. In height, the stem of determinant varieties intended for open ground reaches from 50 to 150 cm, and indeterminate varieties bred for cultivation in greenhouses are up to 3 m high.
  3. Bisexual flowers, with a diameter of 2.5 to 5 cm, single, but more often collected in 2-7 pieces in semi-umbellate inflorescences, open from July to September. Their color varies from light purple to dark purple, but there are varieties with white flowers.
  4. Eggplant fruit - a round, cylindrical or pear-shaped berry with a glossy or matte surface, reaching a length of 70, a diameter of 20 cm, and sometimes 1 kg in mass. The fruits are eaten unripe, as soon as they acquire a lilac or dark purple color.

If the berry is allowed to ripen, it will turn gray-green or brown-yellow, tasteless and rough. However, there are varieties of eggplant with fruits of white, green, yellow and even red. Small light brown seeds ripen in fruits in August-October.

Eggplants are grown mainly in seedlings. You should know that this culture is characterized by increased demands on growing conditions:

  • from temperature fluctuations, eggplants can lose buds, flowers and even ovaries, seeds germinate at a temperature of at least 15 ºC
  • the plant is highly sensitive to light, therefore, in cloudy weather, in the shade or in thickened plantings, the growth of eggplants is greatly slowed down, and the fruits are small
  • soil moisture in the eggplant bed must be maintained at 80%. In addition, eggplants do not tolerate transplanting and picking well.

Eggplants are grown in light, loose, well-fertilized sandy loam soils in open and sunlit areas.

Best predecessors for eggplant - cucumber, winter wheat, onion, cabbage, green manure, carrot, pumpkin, zucchini, squash and legumes. The worst predecessors are other nightshades, after which eggplants can only be grown after three to four years.

Ripe eggplant fruits contain fiber, dietary fiber, carotene, pectin, organic acids, tannins, sugar, biologically active and mineral substances.

Eating eggplants helps to improve the condition of the biliary tract, gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and heart, increase hemoglobin, and eliminate excess cholesterol from the body.

Among the many eggplants, the most popular varieties can be distinguished: Swan, Black handsome, Solaris, Maria, Vera, Japanese dwarf, Globe, Bear cub, Diamond, Egorka, Northern, Nizhnevolzhsky, Panther, Surprise, Long purple.

Pepper

Capsicum (Latin Capsicum annuum) is a type of herbaceous annual plants of the genus Capsicum of the Solanaceae family. Pepper is a valuable and widely cultivated crop.

The varieties of this plant are divided into sweet (for example, bell pepper, or vegetable pepper, or paprika) and bitter (red pepper).

You should know that paprika has nothing to do with black pepper belonging to the Pepper genus of the Pepper family.

The homeland of paprika is America - there it is still found in the wild. In culture, paprika is grown in tropical, subtropical and southern temperate latitudes of all continents.

Actually, pepper is a perennial shrub, but in culture it is grown as an annual plant.

  • Stem the pepper is erect, strongly branched, with a height of 25 to 80 cm.
  • Leaves petioled, elongated, pubescent or smooth - the leaves of bitter pepper are narrow and long, the sweet pepper is larger and wider.
  • Bisexual small flowers white, gray-violet or yellow shades are revealed in 2.5-3 months after sowing.
  • Pepper fruit - two to six chambered polyspermous berry. In sweet pepper, the fruits are large, fleshy, round, cylindrical or elongated, in hot peppers they are small, elongated - subulate, horn-shaped or proboscis.
  • Coloration ripe fruits are red, yellow or orange. Seeds are round, flat, pale yellow in color.

The main value of pepper lies in the high content of vitamin C, which is more in the pulp of the fruits of this plant than in lemon or black currant.

Vitamins P, A and group B, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, iodine, as well as sodium and potassium are also part of the fruits of bell peppers, and bell pepper owes its taste and aroma to capsaicin, an alkaloid useful for gastrointestinal activity.

Peppers are grown, like eggplants, mainly in seedlings. The root system of the pepper is superficial - most of the roots are located at a depth of 20-30 cm. The plots allotted for pepper should be sunny and protected from the wind.

A fertile, well-drained soil that can retain moisture is optimal for the plant. A plot for pepper is prepared in the fall - it is cleared of weeds and plant debris, dug up and fertilized.

The best precursors for chilli are: beets, carrots, turnips, rutabaga, daikon, radish, peas, beans, squash, squash, pumpkin, cucumbers, and after nightshade crops, pepper can be grown only after 3-4 years.

Some of the best sweet peppers include: Atlant, Red shovel, Big Daddy, Bagheera, Gold reserve, Apricot favorite, Agapovsky, Bogatyr, Bugai, Volovye ear, Health.

Among the varieties of bitter capsicum, the most popular are: Adjika, Hungarian yellow, Vizier, Indian summer, Magic bouquet, Gorgon, For mother-in-law, Bully, Double abundance, Coral, Lightning white.

Potatoes

Potatoes, or tuberous nightshade (lat. Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial herb of the genus Nightshade, the tubers of which are one of the staple foods in many countries of the world.

Origin

The scientific name of the plant was given in 1596 by Kaspar Baugin, and the Germans named it potatoes, slightly altering the Italian word tartufolo, which means "truffle".

The homeland of the potato is South America, where it is still found in the wild. Potatoes were introduced into the culture 7-9 thousand years ago by the Indians who lived in Bolivia - they not only ate, but also worshiped this culture.

In Europe, potatoes most likely appeared in 1551, and the first evidence of their use for food dates back to 1573.

Then the culture spread to Belgium, Italy, France, the Netherlands, Germany and Great Britain as an ornamental poisonous plant.

Antoine Auguste Parmentier proved that potato tubers are tasty and nutritious, and this made it possible, during his lifetime, to defeat scurvy and hunger in France, from which the population of the country often suffered.

In Russia, the potato appeared under Peter I, but did not receive mass distribution.

Due to the fact that the culture was outlandish for the people, cases of poisoning by the fruits of the potato, which the peasants called "the devil's apple", became more frequent.

When the order was issued to increase the planting of potatoes, "potato riots" swept across the country - the people were afraid of innovations, and in this they were warmly supported by the Slavophils.

The "Potato Revolution" was crowned with success already in the time of Nicholas I, and by the beginning of the 20th century, potatoes had become the staple foodstuff in the Russian Empire after bread.

Today, potatoes are grown in the temperate climatic zone of all countries of the Northern Hemisphere, and in 1995 it became the first vegetable to be grown in space.

Description

The potato bush can reach a height of one meter, the stem of the plant is bare and ribbed, the leaves are dark green, petiolate, consisting of a terminal lobe and several pairs of side lobes located opposite.

Small segments are located between the leaf lobes. The flowers of potatoes are pink, purple or white, collected in apical corymbose inflorescences.

On the underground part of the stem, from the axils of the rudimentary leaves, stolons grow - underground shoots, on the tops of which tubers develop, which are swollen buds. Tubers are composed of cells filled with starch, and the outside is covered with a thin cork tissue.

Potato tubers ripen in August-September.The fruit of the potato is a tomato-like dark green polyspermous poisonous berry up to 2 cm in diameter.

The green organs of the potato contain the alkaloid solanine, which is poisonous to humans, so green tubers should not be eaten.

Potato tuber is 75% water, it also contains starch, proteins, sugars, fiber, pectins, other organic compounds and minerals.

Potatoes are of great nutritional value and are one of the main suppliers of potassium. It is boiled unpeeled and without a peel, fried, stewed, baked on coals and in the oven. It is used as a side dish, added to salads, soups, and is used to make independent dishes and chips.

Growing

Potatoes are grown on black soil, in gray forest and sod-podzolic soils, on drained peatlands, in light and medium sandy loam and loamy soils - the land for growing crops must be loose.

There are about five thousand varieties of potatoes, which differ in terms of ripening, the degree of resistance to diseases and pests, and in yield.

According to the purposes of use, potato varieties are divided into four groups - dining, fodder, technical and universal. Starch is produced from the tubers of industrial varieties, fodder varieties are distinguished by a high content of proteins and dry matter.

Table varieties are grown as a vegetable crop, while universal ones in terms of protein and starch content occupy an intermediate place between technical and table varieties.

Table varieties by ripening period are divided into:

  • Super early: (Zhukovsky early, Bellarosa, Colette, Impala), early (Vineta, Gala, Luck, Red Scarlett, Red Lady, Sorcerer, Bonus, Spring, Baron)
  • Medium early: (Romano, Ivan da Marya, Blue Danube, Nevsky, Ilyinsky, Krasavchik, Jelly), mid-season (Roko, Nakra, Golubizna, Aurora, Bonnie, Batya, Donetsk, Dunyasha)
  • Mid-late: (Red Fantasy, Picasso, Zarnitsa, Garant, Mozart, Orbit, Robin, Marlene).

Melon pear

Melon pear, or sweet cucumber, or pepino (Latin Solanum muricatum) is an evergreen shrub native to South America that is grown for its sweet fruits that smell like pumpkin, melon and cucumber. The plant is cultivated mainly in Chile, Peru and New Zealand.

Pepino is a perennial, semi-lignified shrub with numerous axillary shoots, reaching a height of one and a half meters. In adverse conditions, the plant sheds its leaves.

  • Root system the melon pear is fibrous and compact, shallow.
  • Stems erect, flexible, 6-7 cm in diameter, covered with anthocyanin to one degree or another, curved and thickened in the area of ​​internodes. Aging stems take on an ash gray color. In conditions of high humidity, the plant forms aerial roots.
  • Leaves in pepino they are alternate, simple or divided into 3-7 lobes, lanceolate, entire, dark or light green, smooth or pubescent.
  • Inflorescences of 20 or more flowers are formed at the end of the shoots, but the growth of the arrows after the opening of the flowers continues - the peduncles reach a length of 4 to 20 cm.
  • Flower color can be monochromatic - blue, white, light purple, and also with blue stripes in the middle of the petal.
  • Ripe fruit - lemon yellow or creamy yellow berry, sometimes covered with purple specks or jagged strokes. The skin of the fruit is smooth, shiny and transparent. In shape, the fruits can be oblong, flat-rounded, flattened or inversely pear-shaped, weighing from 50 to 750 g, up to 17 cm long and up to 12 cm wide.
  • Melon pear pulp is juicy, aromatic and tender. Pepino fruits grown in temperate climates are usually seedless, while fruits ripened in the tropics sometimes contain seeds and sometimes not. Melon pear is propagated by seeds and cuttings.

Pepino fruits are high in iron, carotene, vitamins B1, B2 and PP, reducing sugars and pectins.

In the middle lane, the melon pear is cultivated in indoor conditions, in a winter garden or in a heated greenhouse. In temperate climates, the varieties Ramses and Consuelo are grown.

Physalis

Physalis (Latin Physalis) is the largest genus of the Solanaceae family. People call it "earthen cranberry" or "emerald berry".

Most of the species of this genus grow wild in South and Central America. Physalis are annual and perennial herbaceous plants with a woody stem in the lower part.

A characteristic feature of the species is a sheath-cover made of sepals accreted around the fruit, similar to a paper Chinese lantern. As soon as the fruit is fully ripe, the calyx dries up and changes color.

In total, the Physalis genus includes 124 species, but only five of them are cultivated:

  • physalis ordinary (Physalis alkekengi)
  • physalis glukoplodny (Physalis ixocarpa)
  • physalis peruvian (Physalis peruviana)
  • Physalis vegetable (Physalis philadelphica)
  • pubescent physalis, or strawberry (Physalis pubescens).

The fruits of some types of physalis are eaten - for example, vegetable physalis, or gluten-fruited, or Mexican, which is more often called Mexican tomato or ground cherry. Its fruits resemble small tomatoes.

There is also physalis berry, the fruits of which are more modest in size than those of physalis vegetable, but they have a pleasant aroma and taste, similar to the taste of strawberries, pineapple and grapes.

However, in the middle lane, physalis are grown more often as ornamental plants for the sake of "Chinese lanterns", and vegetable and berry physalis can be found only on the site of enthusiasts.

Physalis ordinary

Or physalis "Franchet", or "Chinese lantern", originally from Japan. In culture, the species has been since 1894. It is an ornamental perennial that winters in temperate climates and can withstand temperatures as low as -30 ºC.

Every spring it grows back from the roots. Physalis vulgaris fruits in a bright red-orange shell are spectacular, but inedible due to the bitter taste.

Physalis is grown in bright sun in fertile soil. The plant does not require formative pruning, but tall varieties should be tied up, and in order for the lanterns to mature before the cold weather, at the end of summer you need to pinch the tops of the plant's shoots.

So that physalis does not degenerate, once every 6-7 years, its bush is divided and planted.

Cocoon

Cocoon (Latin Solanum sessiliflorium) Is a fruit shrub native to the Amazon region of South America. Today it is cultivated in Peru, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil and other countries of this continent.

In nature, the cocoon is a herbaceous shrub up to 2 m high with velvety oval leaves up to 45 cm long and up to 38 cm wide and large oval fruits up to 4 cm long and up to 6 cm wide.

Unripe green fruits are cocoons covered with fluff, but as they ripen, they become smooth and acquire a yellow, red or purple color.

The peel of the fruit is bitter, underneath is a dense layer of cream-colored flesh, and under the flesh is a jelly-like core with flat small seeds.

In our climate, the cocoon is grown in a greenhouse or on a windowsill.

Edible nightshades such as naranjilla, saraha and sunberry can also be found in culture, but these are rare plants that are grown in room culture in temperate climates.


How tomatoes are grown on a windowsill

Returning to the vegetable nightshade crops, it is worth noting their worldwide prevalence.

Perhaps, after potatoes, the most common became tomato... In the total volume of processing of raw fruits and vegetables, it is about 80%.

It can be grown in all climatic zones of our country: in open ground, in greenhouses, on window sills. More than a hundred methods of cooking and harvesting tomatoes are used.

Crop on the windowsill can be harvested all year round.

It is important to choose varieties that bear fruit at home, good lighting and feeding.

The best home varieties are undersized and standard with a strong stem.

Preparing the soil

The soil should be light, fertile and moisture-permeable.

About a bucket of a mixture of peat, sand, earth and compost can be added to fertilize:

  • a handful of wood ash,
  • about 10 gr. urea and
  • 40 gr. superphosphate and potassium fertilizer.

Due to the limited space available, it is necessary to fertilize the soil as much as possible.

Cooking seeds

Before sowing, the seeds are pre-dipped in salted water (a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water) for ten minutes or special growth stimulants for half a day.

For disinfection, the seeds are kept for 30 minutes. in weak solution potassium permanganate.

How to find the right container

The shape of the landing container can be varied. Be sure to make drainage holes in it.

In terms of volume, you can give preference to:

  • dwarf varieties –2 liters.
  • medium-sized - 4 liters.
  • ampelny - 5l.

Planting process

  1. 1 cm deep, elongated containers, after 3 cm. Cover with foil, put at room temperature.
  2. when the first shoots appear, transfer the container to a room with a lower temperature, and reduce watering until the soil dries out.
  3. the plants are transferred to a permanent place when the first 2-3 leaves appear.

Creation of favorable conditions

Tomatoes need a certain temperature regime for good growth.: in the daytime 20-25 degrees, at night 18-10. With a decrease in temperature, development slows down, and flowering may stop.

Preferred humidity up to 60%. Excess moisture contributes to the appearance of fungal diseases.

Lighting. Without additional lighting, tomatoes are strongly stretched and bloom less. The backlight can be set 30 cm higher than the plants. Sodium, phytoluminescent and LED lamps are used.

Watering. Intensive watering is required for the first 30 days, then the frequency of watering decreases. Tomatoes do not like waterlogging, but when the fruits ripen, the need for moisture increases again.

Pollination. Tomatoes can self-pollinate, you can not artificially pollinate. Airing promotes good self-pollination. For better fruit setting, it is recommended to shake the twigs with inflorescences slightly.

Sometimes pollination is carried out in the morning with a soft brush.

Bush formation

It is important to form the bush correctly in order to receive sunlight. This will provide ventilation and moisture maintenance.

When stepsons appear in low-growing plants, 2-3 processes are left for tying to a support, in medium-sized plants - only one.

The shoots that form at the base of the leaves are removed. The stems themselves are supported by pegs.

The yellowed, dry and covering leaves are removed.

With proper planting and care, the yield of tomatoes will certainly please.


Characteristics of angiosperm families

Class dicotyledonous

Cabbage family, or cruciferous, has about 3,000 species. It is represented mainly by grasses, there are shrubs and shrubs.

Plants of the cabbage family are characterized by the next leaf arrangement, the flowers are correct: 4 free sepals and the same number of petals. Sepals and petals are arranged crosswise, hence the name - cruciferous

There are 6 stamens, of which 2 are “shorter”, the pistil consists of 2 carpels. The fruit is a pod, pod, or one-seeded nut.

The cruciferous family includes an economically important type of cabbage - a biennial plant, represented by several varieties (kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, deciduous, cauliflower, red cabbage, etc.).

The most widespread is cabbage. It is cultivated in all zones. The cabbage genus also includes rutabaga and turnip.

Family of pinkhas 3000 species and is represented by trees, shrubs and grasses. Among the pink ones, there are many fruit (apple, pear, cherry, apricot, etc.), berry (raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, etc.), decorative (rose, spirea, hawthorn, etc.), medicinal (wild rose, bird cherry, etc.) plants.

Flowers in pink are correct, collected in various inflorescences. Parts of the flower are arranged in circles. There are 5 sepals, 5-petal corolla divisible, many stamens. The number of pistils is from one (cherry, plum) to several dozen (rose hips, raspberries).

Fruits are varied: an apple (in an apple tree), a drupe (in a cherry), a drupe (in a raspberry), etc. The leaves are simple and complex, arranged alternately and have stipules.

The pink family is divided into two genera, among which the apple tree is of great importance. Rosehip and rose belong to the genus rose. This genus is represented by many species.

The species are represented by many varieties of roses, which are the main cultural decorative forms used to decorate gardens and parks in many cities and villages.

Legume family represent about 12,000 species of trees, shrubs and grasses, among which there are many lianas. The leaves are alternate with stipules, pinnate or palmate, less often simple. The flowers are bisexual, collected in inflorescences (the head is in clover, the brush is in lupine) or single (in peas).

Calyx dentate, sometimes double-lipped. The corolla is fivefold "moth" (the upper petal is the sail, the lateral ones are carried, the two lower ones have grown together into a boat).

There are 10 stamens in the flower, of which nine have grown together with filaments, and the upper (tenth) stamen remains free. One pestle. The fruit is a bean. Legumes are characterized by a mutually beneficial cohabitation of two different organisms, symbiosis.

On the roots of leguminous plants, nodules are formed, in the cells of which nodule bacteria live. They absorb nitrogen from the air, so all legumes are rich in protein. Among legumes, there are many food plants (beans, peas, soybeans, peanuts, etc.), fodder (alfalfa, clover, sainfoin), ornamental (lupine, sweet peas, wisteria, white acacia, etc.).

Nightshade family has about 1,700 species of mainly wild-growing herbaceous plants. In culture, there are vegetable plants (tomatoes, eggplants, vegetable peppers and potatoes), ornamental (petunia, fragrant tobacco, etc.).

There are many poisonous medicinal plants among the wild ones (belladonna, henbane, dope, etc.).

Plants of the Solanaceae family have flowers with 5 fused sepals, 5 fused petals and 5 stamens, adherent to the petals, as well as a pistil with many ovules in the ovary. The fruits are multi-seeded juicy - berries (in tomato, potatoes, nightshade) and dry - in capsules (in henbane, dope, petunia).

The most valuable food and industrial crop in our country is potatoes. It is often called the second bread. Potato flour (starch), alcohol, etc. are obtained from potatoes.

d: Tubers are used as food - modified shoots. Its fruits - berries - are poisonous to humans and animals and are not eaten.

Unlike potatoes, tomatoes, sweet peppers, and eggplants eat fruits that are juicy and healthy.

Aster family (or Compositae) Is the largest family of flowering plants. There are about 300 thousand species of flowering plants on Earth, of which about 25,000 belong to the Aster family.

Basically, these are herbaceous plants, less often shrubs and trees. This family includes many species of ornamental plants (asters, chrysanthemums, dahlias, daisies, etc.). Among the wild-growing weeds (sow thistle, cornflower, small petals, etc.)

) and medicinal (chamomile, dandelion, yarrow, chicory, etc.).

The flowers are usually small, collected in a dense inflorescence - a basket, outwardly similar to one flower.

A group of flowers in a basket is surrounded by a wrapper made of modified leaves. Aster flowers are five-membered type, bisexual, but are female and asexual.

The calyx is usually modified and is represented by either a jagged margin or tubercles, but more often it is turned into a crest, which plays the role of a parachute when the fruits are spread by the wind.

The corolla is spinoleaf, of various shapes: tubular, ligulate, funnel-shaped, two-lipped, pseudo-lingual. Fruits - achenes (sunflower, asters), in other plants (dandelion, sow thistle) - achene with a tuft.

Of the cultivated plants, the most important is the sunflower - an annual tall plant with a large inflorescence basket. It is called the "flower of the sun".

Monocotyledonous class

Monocotyledonous class - makes up about 25% of all angiosperms (about 58 thousand species). The main life forms are grasses and (rarely) tree-like plants.

Liliaceae family - perennial herbs with rhizomes, bulbs, corms, less often tree plants (dracaena, aloe, yucca). About 4,000 species that grow throughout the earth's container. Leaves are alternate with parallel or arcuate venation.

The flowers are regular, bisexual, with a simple corolla or calyx perianth, usually consisting of 6 fused or loose leaflets (3 outer and 3 inner), 6 stamens (3 in the outer and 3 in the inner circle). The ovary is superior. The fruit is a box (for a tulip) or a berry (for a lily of the valley).

Brushes are single (for a tulip) or collected in spherical inflorescences (for an onion) and a brush (for a lily). Most liliaceae are pollinated by insects, some by wind.

Liliaceae include many ornamental plants with beautiful and fragrant flowers. Among liliaceae, there are also medicinal plants - lily of the valley and others.

The liliaceae family includes chain food plants - onions, garlic, asparagus, which are a real storehouse of vitamins so necessary for humans.

Among the liliaceae, there are poisonous plants, for example, raven's eye, lily of the valley. They are used as medicinal plants.

Bluegrass family, or cereals has about 10 thousand species. Herbs, less often - tree-like forms (bamboos).

The stem is simple, sometimes branched, represented by a straw (hollow inside), somewhat swollen at the nodes. On the stem there are leaves arranged in two rows. Leaves are linear with a long sheath and membranous outgrowth - a tongue. The venation is parallel. In cereals, underground branching is highly developed.

On this basis, three types of cereals are distinguished: rhizomatous - in the tillering nodes, shoots develop horizontally underground, forming rhizomes (creeping wheatgrass, awnless fire) loose shrubs, in which lateral shoots depart at an acute angle to the main vertical shoot, forming a loose bush (timothy grass, meadow foxtail) dense bush grasses, in which lateral aerial shoots grow vertically, almost parallel to the mother shoot, forming a dense bush, turf (pike, whiteus).

The flowers of cereals are collected in simple inflorescences - spikelets, which form complex inflorescences - a complex ear (wheat), a sultan (timothy), a panicle (millet), an ear (corn).

The most typical structure for cereals has a wheat flower: two flower scales, 2 flower films, 3 stamens, a pistil with two stigmas. Self-pollination occurs in still closed flowers. Fetus

At the base of each spikelet of most plants, 2 spikelet scales are attached, covering the spikelet.

Maize develops flowers of two types: staminate and pistillate. Pistillate flowers form an inflorescence of a compound ear. The cobs are located in the leaf axils. The flower has a rounded ovary with a long silky column ending in a two-lobed stigma. The ears are covered with a green wrapper made of modified leaves.

Stamen flowers are collected in a panicle inflorescence located at the top of the stem. The panicle consists of spikelets, each of which has two flowers with three stamens each. The pollen matures earlier than stigmas appear on the same plant from the cobs. There is no self-pollination in corn. Pollinated by the wind. The fruit of all cereals is a caryopsis (the seed coat grows together with the pericarp).

The family of bluegrass or cereals is represented by cultivated plants that are extremely important for humans, united in genera: wheat, rye, barley, rice, corn, millet, etc. etc.).


Watch the video: Solanaceae. Nakkiel II


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