Pig feed is a top priority


Like any other branch of animal husbandry, feed in pig breeding is put first of all in the whole process of increasing the livestock and obtaining products. For pigs, this is even the main factor in making a profit from them. This animal is almost omnivorous and quickly gets used to changes in the diet and the transition from one food to another.

General characteristics of feed in pig breeding

Pigs are raised on a private backyard and on pig farms precisely to obtain meat and lard, and not fur, skins or wool. The main task of a pig breeder is to raise an animal (the larger it is, the better) and, of course, the main thing in this matter is the feeding process, which has a lot of nuances, from fattening piglets to feeding an adult.

This livestock sector is striving for intensification. The development of feeding norms, new food compositions is constantly being carried out and the conversion of their use is increasing in accordance with the climatic characteristics of the region of placement.

Pigs are raised on a private backyard and on pig farms

They try to provide this breed of animals from the very infancy with balanced and complete feed corresponding to each segment of their life and giving the maximum weight gain. For effective feeding, formulations of our own production are used.

Various vitamin supplements are used as feed in pig breeding. When raising and breeding pigs, industrial feed is used and used in large volumes. They are called combined feeds, since their composition has clearly calculated norms for the content of all components necessary for rapid growth.

The feed used in pig breeding by its origin can be divided into the following types:

  • Vitamin and mineral supplements.
  • Various types of dressings.
  • Plant feed.
  • Concentrates.
  • Feed for young animals (performance 16);
  • Animal feed.

Video about the rational basis of development

Fattening pig breeding is carried out using food waste of industrial and private origin. Animal products are meat and bone, fish meal. The main vitamin supplement for feeding is flour made from legumes, cereals and legumes.

  • Vegetable and green.

Green food is considered the most affordable. This is a young growth of grasses such as vetch, alfalfa, clover, growing mixtures of legumes, and other herbs harvested as hay.

  • Roots.

Fodder root crops that have a beneficial effect on increasing growth include all types of beets, waste of its processing and potatoes. Vegetable feed is made up of pumpkin, zucchini and other melons and gourds.

Plant food

Protein feeds take the leading place, since depending on the assimilated substance, the weight gain of the animal's body directly increases. Feeds and compound feeds containing wheat gluten should be adjusted according to the regional climatic conditions of the pig breeding.

In the pig diet, the main source of protein compounds is plant feed, mainly cereals - wheat, barley, corn, oats, rye and their processed products. Lack of protein in pigs' food reduces their reproductive capacity and reduces the efficiency of weight gain. In turn, this increases feed consumption and directly affects the cost of production. This reduces the conversion rate.

In the pig diet, the main source of protein compounds is plant feed.

Cereals contain gluten (fiber), which in certain doses can serve as a catalyst for the digestibility of the product and, accordingly, an increase in the weight of the animal. With an excess of gluten, even pigs can become obese.

Other forage crops (peas, soybeans, vetch, broad beans, lupine, clover, alfalfa) are also used as a vegetable feed containing many protein compounds assimilable by pigs.

The products of processing oil crops, oilcakes and meal of sunflower, hemp and flax are also used as feed. The proteins assimilated by these animals using these plants account for almost 90% of their total requirement for this element.

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Pig breeding concentrates

The production of such feed is carried out by feed mills.

The production of such feeds is carried out by feed mills and they are used mainly in livestock complexes, receiving production volumes measured in tons.

In compound feed shops and factories, concentrates or properly selected compound feeds, silos, premixes and other vitamin supplements are produced, balanced according to the norms of the content of useful and necessary substances.

These products are in a concentrated form, which makes it possible to simplify storage conditions and reduce the place of their storage. Before use, such feeds are diluted or steamed with water.

When organizing such productions, the conversion of feed in pig breeding is clearly calculated. As a rule, such livestock complexes are built in conjunction with a feed mill and independently provide all pigs with feed.

So the complex, which has a livestock of 200-300 individuals, should produce about 70 quintals of marketable products. To provide feed for such a herd, about 100 hectares of arable land are needed.

Video plot about breeding at home

Piglet feed

An important condition in the process of pork production is not only an increase in the reproductive capacity of the queens, but also the feeding of the resulting offspring and its early transition to roughage, in other words, the separation from the mother's breast milk.

Cow's milk is a versatile substitute and product that allows piglets to be painlessly removed from the uterus and transferred to self-feeding. But this is unreasonably expensive.

After all, each sow brings from 9 to 12 piglets, and if farrowing occurs on the scale of the complex, then to transfer the entire number of newborns to coarse feeding smoothly, it would be necessary to keep, in addition to pigs, a milking herd.

To simplify the transition to natural nutrition after birth, to develop the ability to assimilate feed well and give a high increase, scientists from VNIMI and VNIIZH have developed a special milk replacer "Spektolak 16".

It got its name for the content of 16 percent fat even in the dry form of the product. When developing it, the following were used:

  • soy concentrate;
  • lactose;
  • whey and fat composition.

Spectolac 16 is produced on 65% milk basis.

Spectolac 16 is produced on 65% milk basis

The 16% Spectolac substitute was classified as a high quality alternative to pork milk. It is produced in powder form and is intended for long-term storage. Before feeding the young, Spektolok is poured with warm water.

It has excellent solubility, which makes it possible to make a mixture reminiscent of milk with 16% fat immediately before feeding, enriched with additives and vitamins. This quality allows you to use Spectolac 16 always fresh, just cooked.

Young piglets experience extreme stress during weaning and become depressed when they refuse to eat. In addition to psychological factors, this is also caused by a sharp change in diet, the cessation of the flow of liquid food and the appearance of solid food in the diet. In this case, the lactose that comes earlier from the mother's milk is replaced by starch, and the mother's protein is replaced by plant proteins.

Spelak 16 is a substitute containing lactose in just such an amount that it successfully replaces sow's milk. The use of this drug additionally makes it possible to control pathogenic microorganisms in the digestive system of a small piglet by regulating the acidity level. This helps to strengthen the immune system and soften the process of dietary changes.

Video clip on how to feed pigs

Spelak 16, in addition to 16% fat, contains 24% protein and vitamins B6, B5, B4, B3, B1, B2, E, C. And also the elements necessary for full growth - sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, etc. Contained in it amino acids give it a high nutritional value. Spectolac 16 includes substances that stimulate the transition to solid feed, accelerate the development of the digestive system of a young animal and lays the foundation for obtaining high-quality meat and lard.

This product, in addition to the main feed, is also used for piglets less than three weeks of age. It is possible to buy a substitute Spektolak 16 for pig breeding in Belgorod. 1000 kg of the product produced here will replace about 10 tons of whole milk. It is reliable and easy to prepare. The dry powder is filled with warm water at a temperature of about 48 degrees. They feed them - as they are eaten. Substitutes that have not been eaten should not remain in the drinker for more than 12 hours. Empty feeders should be washed thoroughly after feeding. Together with Spektolak 16, pre-starter compound feed is used.


Fattening of piglets for meat at home is made with the obligatory observance of the following recommendations:

  • The stomach of pigs, in contrast to cattle, is single-chambered. Therefore, the basis of their diet should be not coarse, but concentrated feed. Since there is not so much protein in cereals, animals must be fed with oilcakes, special yeast, legumes, skim milk, skim milk and fish meal.
  • The size of the portion prepared is determined by how much the raised pigs can eat at one time. The mishmash remaining in the troughs must be thrown out without waiting for it to sour.
  • Concentrated feeds for these animals are usually given in crushed form. Whole grains of wheat, barley, oats, etc. are very poorly assimilated by them.


Digestive system of ruminants

Message yagusya »19 Jan 2016, 12:54

Kids, lambs and calves are born with underdeveloped proventricles, so our task is to start stimulating rumen activity as early as possible.
In ruminants, the stomach is complex multi-chamber, includes four sections - scar, mesh, book and abomasum. The first three sections are called the proventriculus and, and the abomasum performs the function of a unicameral glandular stomach. The mucous membrane of the proventriculus is covered with a squamous stratified keratinizing epithelium and does not contain secretory digestive glands.

Ideal conditions for growth, development of microorganisms and hydrolysis of feed nutrients under the action of bacterial enzymes are created in the proventricles of ruminants:

1. Regular feed intake (5 - 9 times a day).

2. Adequate amount of liquid (drinking water, saliva).

3. Re-chewing (chewing) the feed - this increases the surface area and the availability of nutrients in the feed for microorganisms.

4. Soluble waste products of microorganisms are easily absorbed into the blood or transferred to other parts of the stomach without accumulating in the rumen.

5. The saliva of ruminants is rich in bicarbonate, due to which the volume of liquid, the constancy of pH and ionic composition are mainly maintained. About 300 g of NaHC03 enter the rumen per day. It also contains a significant amount of urea and ascorbic acid, which are important for the life of the symbiotic microflora.

6. Constant gas composition with low oxygen content.

7. The temperature in the rumen is maintained within 38 - 42C, and at night it is higher than during the day.

Scar - Rumen - the largest fermentation chamber of the proventriculus in terms of volume. In cattle, the rumen capacity is up to 200 liters, in sheep and goats - about 20 liters. The greatest development of the rumen begins after the transition of young animals to a mixed diet with the use of roughage. On the mucous membrane of the scar, papillae of different sizes are formed, increasing its absorption surface. The powerful folds in the rumen divide it into dorsal and ventral sacs and blind protrusions. These folds and muscle cords, during scar contractions, provide sorting and evacuation of the contents to the underlying departments.

Grid - Reticulum - a small rounded section with a capacity of 5 - 10 liters in cows and 1.5 - 2 liters in sheep and goats. The mesh from the vestibule of the scar is separated by a crescent fold, through which only the crushed and partially processed contents of the scar pass. On the mucous membrane of the mesh there are cells protruding above its surface, sorting the contents there. Therefore, the net should be considered a sorting organ. Small, processed particles by the contractions of the mesh enter the following parts of the stomach, and the larger ones pass into the rumen for their further processing.

Book - Omasum - the mucous membrane forms different sizes (large, medium, small) sheets, between which larger particles of feed are retained for additional grinding, and the liquefied part of the contents passes into the abomasum. Thus, the book is a kind of filter. In the book, although to a lesser extent than in the rumen and reticulum, the processes of hydrolysis of nutrients by enzymes of microorganisms continue. It actively absorbs 50% of the incoming water and minerals, ammonia and 80 - 90% of the VFA.

Abomasum - Abomasum - The mucous membrane of the abomasum contains glands that produce rennet. For a day, it is formed: in cows - 40 - 80 liters, in heifers and bulls - 30 - 40, in adult sheep - 4 - 11 liters. rennet juice whose pH ranges from 0.97 to 2.2. As in monogastric animals, the most important constituents of rennet are enzymes (pepsin, chymosin, lipase) and hydrochloric acid. One of the essential features of rennet digestion is the continuous secretion of rennet juice due to the constant supply of a previously prepared homogeneous mass from the proventriculus to the rennet.

Esophagus enters the stomach at the border between the mesh and the vestibule of the scar and then continues along the wall of the mesh to the entrance to the book as an esophageal groove in the form of a semi-closed tube. The esophageal trough is well developed in young animals and ensures the flow of milk, bypassing the proventriculus (which is not yet developed and does not function) directly into the abomasum... With the beginning of milk intake, irritation of the receptors of the oral cavity and reflex closure of the rollers of the esophageal groove occur. Sucking movements increase the closure of the rollers of the esophageal trough, therefore, in the first days, young animals are recommended to drink milk through a teat cup. In this case, the milk in the oral cavity mixes well with saliva and a loose milk clot is formed in the abomasum, which is available for further digestion. When milk is swallowed quickly in large portions, the chute does not have time to close and part of the milk enters the proventriculus, which can lead to significant disturbances in the digestive and other functions of the body.

From 20th to 21st day, young animals begin to take roughage and the value of the esophageal groove gradually decreases. From this time the proventricles begin to function, which are colonized by the microflora. Up to 3 months of age, calves have a kind of transition period from digestion in the abomasum to digestion in the proventriculus. By the age of 6 months, the proventriculus reaches its full development and the type of digestion characteristic of adult animals is established in calves, when the hydrolysis of nutrients is carried out by enzymes of microorganisms.

Re: Digestive system of ruminants

Message yagusya »19 Jan 2016, 13:01

The state of the proventricles at 6 weeks of age with different types of feeding.

Calves are born with underdeveloped proventricles... Therefore, it is necessary to start as early as possible stimulate the activity of the scar... This will shorten the drinking period and switch to plant foods earlier. This is important, including from an economic point of view. Already from 3-5 days it is necessary to offer high-quality concentrated feed to calves. During the digestion of grain, acids are formed that promote the activity of the rumen and cicatricial microflora more strongly than mechanical stimulation with roughage, as previously assumed. Feeding hay does not have the same effect as feeding concentrates.

In the proventriculus, microorganisms find favorable conditions for their life and reproduction. Only 1 g of the contents of the rumen contains up to 1 million ciliates and 1010 bacteria. Rumen microorganisms are represented mainly by bacteria, protozoa unicellular organisms and fungi. Their number and species composition depends on the composition of the diet, therefore, new feeds should be included in the diet and the transition from one diet to another should be gradual.

The importance of microorganisms in the digestion of ruminants
.
1. The possibility of obtaining energy from complex carbohydrates contained in fiber and in the fibrous structures of plants.
2. Ability to compensate for protein and nitrogen deficiency. Rumen microorganisms have the ability to use non-protein nitrogen to form protein in their own cells, which is then used to make animal protein.
3. Synthesis of B vitamins and vitamin K.

Microflora represented by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, by the type of breathing anaerobes, about 150 kinds... By participation in digestion processes and by the substrate used, groups of cellulolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria can be distinguished. Complex forms of relationships are established between different types of bacteria. The symbiotic relationship of different types of bacteria allows them to cooperate in the use of metabolites of one species by bacteria of another species. By the image and place of residence, bacteria associated with the rumen wall, located on the surface of its mucous membrane, are distinguished, bacteria that are fixed on the surface of solid food particles and bacteria that freely live in the cicatricial contents.

Microfauna
(protozoa) are diverse (about 50 species) ciliates (ciliate class). Some authors distinguish up to 120 species of cicatricial protozoa, including 60 in cattle, and up to 30 in sheep and goats. But one animal can simultaneously have 14-16 species. Ciliates multiply rapidly and can give up to five generations per day. The species composition and number of ciliates, as well as bacteria, depend on the composition of the diet and the reaction of the environment of the contents of the rumen. The most favorable for their life is an environment with a pH of 6 - 7.

The importance of ciliates lies in the fact that, by loosening and chopping, they subject the feed to mechanical processing, making it more accessible for the action of bacterial enzymes. Ciliates absorb starch grains, soluble sugars, protecting them from fermentation and bacterial breakdown, provide the synthesis of proteins and phospholipids. Using nitrogen of plant origin for their vital activity, ciliates synthesize the protein structures of their body. Moving along with the contents along the digestive tract, they are digested, and animals receive a more complete protein of microbial origin. According to V.I. Georgievsky, the biological value of bacterial protein is estimated at 65%, and the protein of protozoa - at 70%.

Re: Digestive system of ruminants

Message yagusya »19 Jan 2016, 13:11

Digestion of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates make up 50 - 80% of plant foods... These are polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, inulin, pectin substances and disaccharides: sucrose, maltose and cellobiose.
Digestion of fiber in the proventriculus grows slowly and reaches a maximum in 10 - 12 hours. The intensity of splitting depends on the content of lignin in the feed (it is included in the structure of plant cell membranes). The more lignin in plant foods, the slower the digestion of fiber.

Starch digestion... Starch ranks second after fiber in the carbohydrate diet of ruminants. The rate of digestion of starch depends on its origin and physical and chemical properties. Almost all monosaccharides supplied with food or formed in the rumen during hydrolysis of polysaccharides are utilized by microorganisms. Some of the hydrolysis products (lactic acid, succinic, valeric, etc.) are used by microorganisms as a source of energy and for the synthesis of their cellular compounds.

Hydrolyzed carbohydrates are further fermented with the formation of low molecular weight volatile fatty acids (VFA) - acetic, propionic, butyric, etc. Up to 4 liters of VFA are formed per day on average. The ratio of VFA depends on the composition of the diet.

Plant-based feed with a high fiber content (hay) gives more acetic and propionic acids, and concentrated feeds - acetic and butyric.

The absorbed acids are used by the body for energy and plastic purposes. Acetic acid is the predecessor milk fat, propionic - participates in carbohydrate metabolism and goes to glucose synthesis, oil - used as energy material and goes to synthesis of tissue fat.

Protein digestion.
Protein content in vegetable feed is relatively low from 7% to 30%... These are simple proteins: albumins, globulins, prolamins and histones; complex proteins: phosphoproteins, glucoproteins, chromoproteins. In addition, in vegetable feed contains free amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds: nitrates, urea, purine bases, etc. Plant proteins that enter the rumen are broken down by enzymes of proteolytic microorganisms to peptides, amino acids and ammonia. In the rumen, ammonia is absorbed into the bloodstream and it enters the liver, where it turns into urea, which is partially excreted in the urine and partially in saliva. A significant part of ammonia by diffusion from the blood through the wall of the rumen returns to its cavity and continues to participate in nitrogen metabolism.

Simultaneously with the processes of the breakdown of plant protein in the rumen, the synthesis of a bacterial protein of high biological value also occurs. Non-protein nitrogen can also be used for this purpose. The assimilation of non-protein compounds (urea) in nitrogen is based on the microbiological process. It was revealed that in the rumen urea (carbamide) is rapidly hydrolyzed by microorganisms with the formation of ammonia, which is used by them for further synthetic processes.

Feeding urea does not cause complications if the doses are not too high. Better to feed urea in two or three dachas mixed with other feed. When feeding nitrogen-containing substances of non-protein origin, the diet must be balanced in terms of the content of easily digestible carbohydrates, otherwise a large amount of ammonia is formed, which cannot be fully used by microorganisms and in these cases, the functions of the kidneys, liver and other organs may be impaired.

Digestion of lipids.
Plant food contains relatively little fat - 4 - 8% of dry matter... Crude fat is a complex mixture of triglycerides, free fatty acids, waxes, phospholipids and cholesterol esters. The amount of lipids in the diet of ruminants is usually low. Vegetable fats contain up to 70% unsaturated fatty acids. Under the influence of enzymes of lipolytic bacteria, fats in the rumen undergo hydrolysis to monoglycerides and fatty acids. Glycerin in the rumen undergoes fermentation to form propionic acid and other VFAs. Fatty acids with a short carbon chain are used for the synthesis of lipids of microbial bodies, and with a long one they enter other parts of the digestive tract and are digested.

Gas formation in the rumen.
In the process of fermentation of feed in the rumen, in addition to volatile fatty acids, gases are formed (carbon dioxide - 60 - 70%, methane - 25 - 30%, hydrogen, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and oxygen - about 5%). According to some reports, up to 1000 liters of gases are formed in large animals per day. The greatest amount of gases is formed when eating easily digestible and juicy feed, especially legumes, which can lead to acute swelling of the rumen (tympania)... The gases generated in the rumen are removed from the body, mainly by belching food during chewing. A significant part of them is absorbed in the rumen, transferred by blood to the lungs, through which they are removed with exhaled air. To a greater extent, carbon dioxide is removed through the lungs and to a lesser extent - methane. Some of the gases are used by microorganisms for further biochemical and synthetic processes.

Re: Digestive system of ruminants

Message yagusya »19 Jan 2016, 13:18

Motility of the proventriculus.
The smooth muscle tissue of the proventriculus performs a tremendous mechanical work of mixing, fraying, squeezing out gases and evacuating the contents. Contractions of individual parts of the proventriculus are coordinated with each other. Each cycle starts with cutting the mesh. The mesh is reduced every 30 to 60 seconds. There are two phases: at first, the mesh decreases in size by half, then relaxes slightly, after which it contracts completely. During the belching of the gum, an additional third contraction occurs. When the mesh contracts, coarse large particles of the contents are pushed back into the rumen, and the crushed and semi-liquid food mass enters the book, and then into the abomasum.

Normally, the scar shrinks 2 - 5 times every 2 min.... In this case, there is a sequential reduction of its sections - the vestibule of the scar, dorsal sac, ventral sac, caudodorsal blind protrusion, caudoventral blind protrusion, and then again the dorsal and ventral sacs. The contraction of the dorsal sac is accompanied by regurgitation of gas.
Book shrinks in the transverse and longitudinal directions, due to this, additional maceration of retained coarse feed particles... Between the leaves of the book, the coarser particles of feed are further digested.

The ruminant process.
Process presence gum is a characteristic feature of digestion in ruminants is there is regurgitation of some of the dense contents of the scar and its repeated chewing... The ruminant period begins some time after eating, depending on the nature of the feed and external conditions: in cattle after 30 - 70 minutes, in sheep after 20 - 45 minutes. During this time, the food in the rumen swells and partially softens, which makes it easier to chew. The ruminant period begins faster with complete rest in a lying animal. Ruminants occur more frequently at night than during the day. There are 6 - 8 ruminant periods per day, each of which lasts 40 - 50 minutes. During the day, cows chew up to 100 kg of rumen contents.

At the beginning of regurgitation, an additional contraction of the mesh and the digestive tract occurs, as a result of which the liquid contents of the mesh rise to the cardiac opening of the esophagus. At the same time, breathing stops in the exhalation phase, followed by an attempt to inhale with the larynx closed. In this regard, the pressure in the chest cavity drops sharply to 46 - 75 mm Hg. Art., which leads to the suction of the liquefied mass into the esophagus. Then breathing is restored and antiperistaltic contractions of the esophagus promote the movement of the food coma along the esophagus into the oral cavity. After the regurgitated mass enters the oral cavity, the animal swallows the liquid part in small portions, and carefully chews the dense portion remaining in the oral cavity.

Regulation of the ruminant process is carried out by reflex from the receptor zones (baro-, tango- and tensioreceptors) of the mesh, esophageal groove and scar. The center of the gum is located in the nuclei of the medulla oblongata. The reticular formation of the medulla oblongata, the hypothalamus and the limbic cortex are involved in the regulation of ruminant processes.

The mucous membrane of the abomasum contains glands that produce rennet juice. A fairly large amount of rennet juice is formed per day: in cows - 40 - 80 liters, in heifers and bull calves - 30 - 40, in adult sheep - 4 - 11 liters. With each feeding of the animal, an increase in secretion occurs. In sheep, the pH of the juice is 0.97 - 2.2, in cows - 1.5 - 2.5. As in monogastric animals, the most important constituents of rennet are enzymes (pepsin, chymosin, lipase) and hydrochloric acid. One of the essential features of rennet digestion - continuous secretion of gastric juice due to the constant supply of pre-prepared homogeneous mass to the rennet... This state of the rennet is maintained by constant irritation of the mechano- and chemoreceptors of the abomasum itself and by the interoreceptive influence of the proventriculus.

The humoral phase of rennet secretion is carried out with the participation of hormones and metabolites of the digestive tract (gastrin, enterogastrin, histamine, etc.). The hormones of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, gonads, etc., take part in the regulation of the secretory activity of the abomasum. Depending on the type of feed, a different amount of rennet is released. Its greatest amount with high acidity and digestive ability is formed when feeding grass and hay, leguminous grasses, grain fodder and cake.


Separate piglet feeding

Separate piglet feeding

It is known that sex, having differences in the level of metabolic processes, has a great influence on the growth, development and fattening qualities of pigs. For example, boletus boletus are distinguished by earlier fat deposition, lower content of water in tissues, they reach the marketable live weight or slaughter conditions earlier. Longer and leaner carcasses are obtained from gilts. However, in practice, young animals are fed in mixed groups.

To confirm the effectiveness of separate fattening of pigs and boletus, we conducted a research and production experiment in the collective farm "Ukraine", Mezhevsky district. We selected 4-month-old gilts of a large white breed with a live weight of 35-38 kg and formed three groups: I control - 30 pigs (15 pigs and 15 boars), II experimental - 30 pigs and III experimental - 30 boars. The experiment lasted 4 months (123 days).

The animals were fed twice a day according to the VIZ norms, calculated to obtain 500-600-gram average daily gains. During the first month, fattening was fed per head per day (kg): barley skins - 0.3, a mixture of pea and wheat skins - 0.8, green mass of alfalfa - 2 and skimmed milk - I. Then the rate was increased on the fourth In the month of feeding, animals of all groups received daily 1.5 kg of barley grains, 0.7 - a mixture of cereal concentrates containing 20% ​​pea grains, 2 - fodder beets, I - green alfalfa and 2 kg of skimmed milk. On average, 324.8 feed was consumed for feeding one head. units

The gilts were weighed monthly.

The analysis of the data obtained in the experiment indicates the significant advantages of separate feeding. Thus, in the mixed control group, the pigs that entered the hunt at 4-5 months of age often disturbed the boletus, which had a negative effect on the increase in the live weight of both sexes.

The best fattening indices of group II gilts in comparison with peers in the control group are explained by the influence of long-term isolation and the absence of boletus odor, which contributed to a decrease in the duration of estrus in gilts. The latter was confirmed by observations - in the mixed group, the pigs were more aggressive, and their hunt lasted much longer than in the isolated group. In large sex-isolated groups (30 heads and more), with intensive fattening, the aggressiveness and excitability of pigs during the hunting period noticeably fade away. They become calm, fatten better.
In experimental group III, the animals ate food better, disturbed each other less, and rested most of the time. Therefore, in terms of growth and development, the boletus of the III group significantly exceeded their peers in the control and II experimental groups.

The difference in live weight gains influenced the economic efficiency of feeding.


Signs of labor

When the mating has led to the desired result, the sow becomes pregnant, the farmers look forward to the appearance of the offspring. There are many signs by which it is easy to determine the approach of farrowing. Let's consider them.

  1. The sow becomes restless, she rushes about.
  2. About a day before farrowing, the animal begins to equip a place for the piglets - to crumple the bedding and chew it.
  3. Her belly sinks.
  4. The nipples swell a little, turn red.
  5. When the teat is squeezed, colostrum can be seen.
  6. The animal hardly eats, drinks little.

Reference. Free-reared Vietnamese sows, sensing the approach of farrowing, try to get closer to people.


Pig feeding technology at home

Many livestock breeders add special additives to the feed that accelerate the weight gain in the pig.

Feeding pigs at home may include preparations to stimulate growth. An added benefit of these supplements is that they protect animals from disease and inflammation.

  • Etonius. When it is taken, the growth of the animal is observed, while the amount of food consumed can be reduced. Moreover, such pork has a more pronounced taste.
  • Amylosubtilin GZH. This is an enzyme preparation that gives an increase in body fat and allows you to reduce the amount of feed for fattening pigs.
  • Betazine. It accelerates the growth of animals and reduces the amount of feed.

Feeding pigs on these complexes can also be used to improve the growth indicators of those individuals that, for one reason or another, are lagging behind in development.

The listed drugs dissolve in water, and after that they are added to the feed. If antibiotics are used as stimulants, then along with them it is necessary to feed the animals with vitamin complexes. This will provide the pigs with all the important nutrients.

Liquid solutions with stimulants are introduced into the composition of wet mixes, premixes and compound feeds.

See also: Supplements for pigs: choose and use correctly


All technologies described below do not use any chemical additives or technological processes hazardous to the biosphere.

Below are brief descriptions of technologies for various crop industries:


TECHNOLOGIES FOR BEET PRODUCTION

Sugar beet is the only agricultural crop in our country that provides raw materials for sugar production. Of great importance as feed additives in animal husbandry are by-products of sugar beet processing - beet pulp and molasses.

Sugar beet tops serve as a large reserve for replenishing fodder reserves. Both fresh and ensiled, it is the cheapest feed, beet product.

LIST OF RECOMMENDED RUSSIAN TECHNOLOGIES

  1. Increase in beet yield (up to two times!) (Biological products)
  2. Increase in sugar content up to +78%. (biologics)
  3. Bagasse conservation technologies - increasing the safety of the bagasse and its feeding value (biological products)
  4. Technologies of microbial fermentation of bagasse - obtaining protein fortified feed.
  5. Processing pulp into "superbiohumus" - obtaining an effective biofertilizer.
  6. Prevention of lagging rot is a significant saving of sugars and the safety of the crop.
  7. Wave technologies of sugar extraction - the speed and percentage of sugar yield increases, the required water consumption decreases by an order of magnitude
  8. The vacuum pulp technology is an economical and efficient drying method.
  9. Technology for the production of pectins from beet pulp.
  10. Technology for the production of feed additives based on lactic acid bacteria and sugar residues.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGIES

BIOFERTILIZERS AND BIOSTIMULATORS OF PLANT GROWTH

We have a number of unique complex biofertilizers and biostimulants of plant growth, which are made using unique modern innovative technologies developed in Russia. These products are still quite little known on the market.

LIMITS FOR INCREASING YIELD

The use of our preparations, depending on weather conditions, soil quality and other factors, on average, give an increase in sugar beet yield from 25 to 100%. The tests were carried out both in Russia and in other countries of the world.

The optimal variant of the product or their combination for each case must be selected taking into account the conditions of a particular client.

INCREASE IN SUGAR CONTENT AND OTHER TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES

In addition to the gross increase in yield, a number of other important indicators are achieved:

  • the content of sugars in the root crop significantly increases (a record of + 78% was obtained on the Ukrainian chernozem under favorable weather conditions)
  • keeping quality of products increases
  • increases plant immunity to diseases
  • the leaf area is significantly increased, which contributes to both more active photosynthesis and the natural protection of the plant from weeds.
  • when using complex microbial preparations, the effect of using indigestible residues of mineral fertilizers deposited in the soil is obtained in a form that is easily assimilated by plants, thus, the manufacturer can reduce consumption or completely abandon the use of mineral fertilizers for several years without sacrificing yield.

Such results are possible due to the complex effect of a complex product on the plant.

MINIMUM RATES OF APPLICATION

One of the amazing features of the proposed technologies is that literally homeopathic norms for the introduction of drugs into the soil are required to obtain a full-fledged effect. This is due to the application of real biological nanotechnology.

ECONOMY

The minimum application rates of drugs, coupled with a high complex effect, provide the highest economic efficiency of noospheric technologies in comparison with any other methods.

All products are certified.

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TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTATION AND PRESERVATION OF BEET PUMP

Beet pulp (de-sugar beet shavings) is formed in sugar beet production by diffusion extraction of juice. The yield of desugared shavings, depending on the type of diffusion apparatus, is from 65 to 90% to the mass of the processed beet, the content of dry matter (DM) in it is 6.5-8% to its mass, and 92-93.5% fall on the water.

Fresh pulp is unspressed de-sugared beet chips discharged from the diffusion apparatus.

Dried granulated bagasse now - uhThis is the most profitable product of sugar beet production, although it is a by-product.

In recent years, the production of dried beet pulp at sugar factories has increased significantly, but due to the limited production capacity of pulp drying shops, only 42-46% of the produced pressed beet pulp is dried. The rest of it (54-58%) is shipped to beet-growing farms and stored in pulp storage facilities (pulp pits).

PROBLEMS WITH UNREQUIRED PAP

At a number of sugar factories in the region, fresh pressed bagasse remains unclaimed, burdening them, since the capacity of bagassees is very limited. Part (up to 20%) of pressed beet pulp not used for the production of dry granules and not sold fresh to beet-growing farms, as a rule, it loses its consumer properties (acidifies, deteriorates) and is transferred to the category of production waste of the fifth hazard class.

For this part of the beet pulp, in accordance with environmental legislation, the sugar factory must have a waste disposal limit, which indicates the amount of beet pulp placed on specially designated temporary storage sites, with its subsequent disposal or burial, as well as measures to reduce its harmful effects on the environment.

Therefore, the rational use of freshly obtained pressed beet pulp, not used for pulp drying, is extremely important not only for livestock farms, but also for sugar factories.

MICROBIAL FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGIES

If the pulp is not protected from air and atmospheric precipitation, then it gradually deteriorates, unwanted butyric and putrefactive bacteria develop in it, leading to large losses of nutrients and deterioration of quality.

Special microbiological preparations have the ability not only to long-term prevent rotting and spoilage of the pulp, but also to turn it into a useful and highly nutritious food for animals. This is due to the action of special bacteria, which, converting low-value pulp substances into another form and actively developing in this environment, simultaneously saturate it with proteins, vitamins and other substances useful for animals.

As a result, freshly produced beet pulp with properly directed lactic acid fermentation acquires a pleasant smell and taste of soaked apples, its color becomes light.

INITIAL COMPOSITION OF PAP

The pulp contains (% of the total mass): pectin substances - 48-50, cellulose - 22-25, hemicellulose - 21-23, nitrogenous substances - 1.8-2.5, ash - 0.8-1.3 , sugar - 0.15-0.2 (table 1).

Indicators Pulp%
fresh wrung out sour (from pulp pits) dried
Dry matter 6,0-9,0 14-20 11-15 86-93
Water 91-94 80-86 85-89 7-14
Crude protein 1,2-1,5 1,7-1,9 1,3-2,6 7-9
Crude fiber 3,5-4,5 5,0-7,0 2,8-4,2 19-23
Nitrogen-free extractives
4,3-6,5

8,5-10,0

2,7-5,8

56-65
Ash 0,6-1,0 1,1-1,4 0,7-1,8 2,4-4,3
Fat 0,4-0,7 0,6-0,9 0,7-1,0 0,3-0,5
Number of feed units
in 100 kg bagasse

6-9

15-20

9-11

90-95

However, it should be borne in mind that in the process of squeezing, the pulp loses up to 10% of soluble nutrients. The pressed pulp contains less sugar, and this negatively affects its fermentation during ensiling, preservation and quality.

A high water content in the bagasse during canning in the absence of lactic acid ferments provokes rapid fermentation according to the acetic acid type, which causes various gastrointestinal diseases in animals: diarrhea, up to bloody, stomach bloating - tympania, biting midges - a disease of the legs, leading in some cases to drooping hooves, paralysis of the legs, gangrenous inflammation.

The pressed pulp has a fairly high elasticity, flowability, and duty cycle. After being dropped into the pulp pit, the pressed pulp does not spread over it, but for a long time (three to five days) is in a loose state in a heap-cone with a large open surface. At the same time, it becomes infected with all sorts of microorganisms from the air, mainly unwanted ones.

FEATURES OF BEET PRESS

When developing a technology for the most rational ensiling of squeezed pulp, it is necessary to take into account some of the features inherent in this type of raw material.

1) Its first feature is that, unlike green mass, the cells of which remain alive for some time after being laid in storage, beet pulp is a substrate of dead tissue and cells. The plant enzymes in it are activated by high temperatures. This means that all the transformations of nutrients that occur during the storage of the bagasse are carried out under the influence of enzymes of only microorganisms located on the surface of the pulp particles.

2) The second feature of the pulp is that immediately after leaving the press there are no living microorganisms on its surface. In the process of sap extraction by the diffusion method, beet chips from well-washed beet roots undergo a rather long (more than 1 hour) heat treatment at a temperature of 72-74 ° C. As a result of such treatment, the few microorganisms on the surface of the pulp-pulp, represented mainly by mesophilic forms, die, and only spores of some heat-resistant microorganisms remain. Infection of the pulp with various kinds of microorganisms occurs after it has cooled down during transportation and subsequent exposure to air in the pulp storage.

The success of fermentation and preservation of the pulp during ensiling depends on the species composition and the number of microorganisms that have fallen on the surface of the pulp. The species composition of microflora, in turn, depends on the sanitary condition and the degree of protection from external influences of transport communications, humidity and temperature of the ambient air, season, etc.

LOSS OF NUTRIENTS DURING STORAGE

In the pulp that has been infected with microorganisms and aerated during its subsequent storage, even in conditions of complete isolation from air access, it is noted significant loss of nutrients (up to 25-30%).

The longer the pulp is in the open air, the more it becomes infected with microorganisms, the more nutrients are lost in it (Table 2).

Table 2 - Changes in the chemical state of pulp and loss of nutrients during infection with microorganisms,%

Duration of infection, days Humidity of bagasse Contained in dry matter Losses
protein fiber ash fat BEV dry matter protein BEV
0 87,99 10,12 20,13 8,84 1,35 64,56 - - -
3 88,55 9,64 22,30 4,10 1,58 62,38 7,1 11,6 10,3
6 89,32 9,03 23,56 4,36 1,69 61,36 13,4 22,8 17,7
11 90,42 8,34 25,35 4,61 1,67 60,03 24,4 37,7 30,7

PASSAGE FERMENTATION INCREASES ITS SAFETY AND FEED VALUE

For a dramatic effect on the quality of the pulp, it is necessary to add lactic acid starter cultures (Table 3).

Table 3 - Changes in the quality of pulp silage depending on the method of silage

Indicators Silage methods
in pure form without sourdough (with ideal filling technology) with bacterial leaven
Titratable acidity 14,3 18,1
pH 4,20 3,94
Total acids 1,16 1,48
Acid ratio,%
dairy
acetic
oil

39,7
60,3
-

70,3
29,7
-
Loss of dry matter for 6 months,%
15,2

9,8

Filling of storage facilities during silage of bagasse should last no more than 5 days. If there is an insufficient supply of pulp, the silo must be filled in parts.

Silage starter is added to fresh bagasse at the rate of 1 liter per 20 tons of bagasse. For uniform distribution in the silage mass, the starter culture is preliminarily diluted in 50-100 liters of water, and 20 tons of pulp is evenly sprayed with this solution.

Fresh pulp can be ensiled not only in pure form, but also in a mixture with other feed: at the beginning of autumn with tops, grass aftermath, vegetable waste, later - with chopped roughage and corn stalks.

Satisfactory results were obtained when mixing bagasse with corn stalks in a ratio of 1: 1, silage was somewhat worse at a ratio of 4: 1. Both silos were characterized by high acidity and required deoxidation with ammonia water before feeding (Table 4).

Table 4 - Acid content (%) and sensory evaluation of silage

Silo composition Humidity Titratable acidity pH Total acids Acid ratio Silo assessment
dairy acetic oil color smell structure
50% bagasse + 50% corn stalks 60,7 35,9 3,5 2,83 53,7 46,3 - natural
ny
pickled apples retaining
shaya
80% bagasse + 20% winter straw 77,7 32,5 3,3 2,42 43,4 51,6 5,0 acetic acid

When ensiling bagasse in its pure form or with other feeds, it is recommended to make sure to add a starter culture from pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria.This significantly improves the quality of the silage.

It is advisable to introduce the starter culture as early as possible, and it is best to do this at a sugar factory, since the fresh pulp that came out of the diffusion apparatus is conditionally sterile. This makes it possible to spray a solution with lactic acid bacteria on its surface at the time of movement and cooling in the internal plant transport networks, and thereby prevent active colonization and further reproduction of unwanted acetic acid and putrefactive microorganisms.

THE ECONOMY OF THE ISSUE

And a little economy. For the production of 1 ton of dry granulated pulp, about 8 tons of fresh pulp is required. According to the 2007 season, the sale price of dry pulp by factories was about 5200 rubles, and of raw pulp from 20 to 120 rubles per 1 ton. Eight tons of fresh pulp, nutritionally equivalent to 1 ton of dry pulp, even with the application of silage starter on it, will cost no more than 1,000 rubles.

The use of wet canned bagasse also has disadvantages in the form of higher transport costs and the need to have high-quality bagasse storage.

Therefore, to dry or preserve pulp - this decision must be made by the business executive, and the closer his enterprise is to the sugar factory, the more obvious is the economic expediency of storing fresh pulp, the canning process of which will be provided in the right direction by bacterial leaven.

PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE. FERMENTED PUMP IS BETTER DRIED!

In September-October 2007, fresh sugar beet pulp was laid for storage in two farms in three trenches with a volume of 1,000 tons, 3,000 tons and 1,800 tons. The not pressed pulp was imported from the sugar factory. In order for the pulp not to lose its qualities and to be quickly preserved, a bacterial leaven was used. The sourdough through the sprayer nozzles as part of the working mixture was applied to the moving pulp immediately before loading it into the vehicles of farms from the gallery of the sugar factory. One liter of starter culture, previously diluted in 100 liters of water, was applied to 20 tons of bagasse. Then the pulp was delivered to the farms, unloaded into the silo trenches, with the help of KUHN it was evenly distributed over the trench and, as it was filled (within 3-5 days), it was immediately covered with plastic wrap and covered with straw on top.

In January 2008, the aforementioned farms started feeding the beef pulp preserved in this way to cattle. Visually, it looked crumbly, with a well-preserved structure of pulp particles and no signs of spoilage, the color of the finished product was like fresh pulp, with a smell inherent in good-quality silage fodder. According to the conclusions of the laboratories, lactic acid in the fermented pulp was 70-80%, the rest was acetic acid.

Animals ate this food willingly. In the diet of cattle, it was introduced up to 20 kg daily. All canned pulp was fed without loss and utilization.

The economic calculation showed that for farms canned pulp is much more profitable than dried, and ensiling itself does not present any special technological difficulties.

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PROCESSING PAPER INTO BIOHUMUS

Processing is carried out by accelerated microbial fermentation using the "Viagra for bacteria" technology. Such fermentation with bacterial preparations makes it possible to quickly and cost-effectively transform the unclaimed low-value organic mass into valuable vermicompost suitable for application to the fields.

The technology can be used at any time of the year.

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TECHNOLOGY OF OBTAINING VITAMINIZED PROTEIN COMBIORM FROM BEET PASSAGE

In Russia, the deficit of feed protein is 20 million tons per year. The cost of feed is up to 70% of the cost of livestock products. It is no secret that in unfavorable winter years, many livestock complexes keep animals on cut rations. Meanwhile, huge masses of beet pulp can be quickly processed into a valuable feed, rich in vitamins and proteins.

AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

One of the most promising ways to obtain high-quality carbohydrate-protein feed with a high vitamin content is microbial synthesis.

The potential capacity of the granulated beet pulp market, taking into account the available livestock of animals, is about 9 million tons per year.

The main disadvantage of beet pulp is the presence of a large amount of substances that are difficult for animals to digest - fiber, hemicellulose, etc. Biofermentation is based on the fact that bacteria "are able" to decompose these substances to easily digestible, at the same time in the process of their vital activity, increasing microbial proteins, vitamins and other useful substances ...

EFFICIENCY

The cost of obtaining dry feed is approximately halved, while the commercial price for finished compound feed is significantly increased.

ANALYSIS OF THE OBTAINED COMBINE FEED IN COMPARISON WITH THE INITIAL RAW MATERIALS

In the fermented end product

  • the energy component of the feed increases due to the increase in the amount of sugars
  • the protein component increases due to the additional formation of microbial protein
  • vitamins of groups D, B, E, K, H, PP are synthesized (which were not at all in the starting material!)

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THE PROBLEM OF ROCK ROT

The use of sugar beets for industrial purposes (to obtain sugar), for animal feed, as well as seed production of this crop by the traditional planting method, are associated with the storage of root crops for 140-160 days or more.

In the overwhelming majority of the beet-growing zones of the CIS, factory sugar beets (for fodder and all mothers) are kept in a fresh natural state. Maintaining it in this form, as a rule, is associated with great difficulties and is accompanied by losses resulting from two reasons.

One of them is the physiological processes occurring in living root crops: respiration, transformation of substances, germination, etc. These losses are considered inevitable. The task is to maintain the intensity of these processes at a minimum level by creating certain storage conditions.

(Note: this problem is minimized by using complex biofertilizers by increasing the keeping quality of the product. See the section "Increasing the yield")

Another reason for storage losses is the activity of microorganisms - fungi and bacteria that cause rotting, that is, lump rot of sugar beet. These losses are not inevitable, but arise as a result of the weakening of the natural resistance of root crops against the effects of microorganisms and the creation of favorable conditions for the development of pathogens of clump rot.

Kagatnaya rot is a disease that occurs in places where sugar beets accumulate during storage (in piles, trenches, storage facilities). Decay of root crops is a complex biochemical process, accompanied by the decomposition of substances that make up root crops into simpler ones with the loss of sugar.

Externally, kagatny rot is manifested in the death and decomposition of root tissues. Affected root crops, as a rule, are covered with mold of different colors: white, gray, red, blue, black, pink, etc., and the decayed tissue acquires a grayish, brown, sometimes almost black color.

Rotten fabric loses strength, easily collapses, dries quickly with dry rot or licks when wet.

Studies have shown that fungi are critical in the emergence and development of clump rot. To date, 153 species have been identified and studied.

In the case of dried and especially frostbitten root crops, bacterial decay is observed in the piles. Root crops affected by bacteria rot very quickly, turning into a slimy mass. Usually, bacteria in clumps develop as microorganisms accompanying fungi, causing secondary processes.

LOSSES FROM ROCK ROT AND ITS DANGER

Losses from pile rot can be extremely high! They are considered by many researchers to be central to the storage of beets.

In some years, up to 10-15% of the beets laid in piles perished, and in some sugar factories - up to 30-40%. Research by V.P. Muraviev, A.S. Okanenko and V.N. Shevchenko (1935), B.A. Rubin (1939), A.S.Kornienko (1986) showed that even partial decay of the root crop affects for sugar content in non-decayed tissue: in unaffected root crops it was 16-18%, and in a healthy part of rotten root crops it was 14-16%.

The harmfulness of lagging rot is not limited only to direct losses of raw materials and sugar. The rotten mass contains products, decomposition of carbohydrates, proteins, pectin substances, which, when they enter the plant for processing along with healthy raw materials, significantly worsen its technological performance, sharply violate the production technology, as a result of which the yield of sugar decreases and its losses increase. Practice shows that in the presence of an admixture of rotten mass of 8-10% or more, factories often do not receive crystalline sugar.

Root rot is also dangerous when partially rotted root crops are used for animal feed. The rotten mass not only does not represent any fodder value, but is also a harmful impurity, as it causes diseases of animals.

Kagatnaya rot is no less harmful when uterine root crops are damaged during their winter storage. Under the influence of the lesion, the yield of uterine root crops suitable for planting decreases by 7-9%. In addition, in partially rotted root crops planted in the ground, rotting continues in the field and causes the death of testes at various stages of their development, which leads to a thinning of plantations and a significant decrease in the yield of beet seeds and their quality. Of decisive importance in the decay of sugar beets during storage are environmental conditions that facilitate or hinder the development of causative agents of decay in storage areas. They are determined by a whole range of factors and, first of all, by the conditions of beet growing, by the peculiarities of harvesting, transportation, packing and storage of root crops. These factors can be summarized in the following main groups: weakening of plants during the growing season as a result of the impact of pests, diseases, flowers, abnormal mineral nutrition and water regime, weakening of the natural resistance of root crops during harvesting and storage as a result of grafting, mechanical damage and freezing, the effect of unfavorable storage sugar beet conditions, in particular, high or low temperature and relative humidity, insufficient aeration, etc.

It has been proven that the resistance of root crops against lagging rot is sharply reduced when sugar beets are affected by diseases during the growing season. noted that in the years of severe damage to sugar beet by causative agents of root-eating, cercosporosis, peronosporosis, erysiphosis, viral diseases, necrosis of vascular bundles or mass damage by pests, the number of decayed root crops during storage in factory conditions is 18-20, and in some years 25- 37%.

(Note: this problem is minimized when using complex biofertilizers by increasing the immunity of plants. See the section "Increasing the yield")



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