Fires: Predisposing factors for fires


Factors predisposing to fires

In recent years, the problem of forest fires has taken on dramatic dimensions to say the least, so much so as to arouse a cry of concern at all levels.

In the past decade in Italy, more than 500,000 hectares of forest have been lost for this cause, nor have the reforestation and forest reconstitution actions managed to remedy the recent devastation.

Every year, almost at pre-established deadlines, this very serious problem is repeated, with enormous damage, both directly economic and ecological, and only the preventive and extinguishing action ensures that it can be contained and limited.

It is good to remember that the gravity of the phenomenon affects the forest in all its multiple functions, causing direct and indirect damage.

The first, easily assessable, are represented by the value of the wood mass; the latter, more difficult to estimate, are connected to "priceless" functions, such as: hydrogeological defense, oxygen production, naturalistic conservation, tourist attraction, job opportunities for numerous categories.

The fire of the forest is a very rapid decomposition process, which occurs only in the presence of fuel, such as the vegetable material, oxygen and a small quantity of high potential heat, which determines the chain development of the process itself.

The outbreak of a fire therefore has a triggering cause, the spark, and a predisposing situation for the phenomenon, represented by the more or less pronounced dryness of the soil and vegetation.

There is no doubt that the climatic factor and the seasonal trend have a considerable influence in creating favorable conditions for the development and propagation of forest fires, and in the case of lightning, even in determining them directly, a circumstance, but not very much. frequent. Of considerable importance is the degree of humidity of the vegetation, in particular the herbaceous one of the undergrowth, which varies directly with the seasonal trend. Forest fires, while following the climatic trend, do not occur uniformly on the territory: there are areas where this danger is greater than in others, as experience and facts confirm annually. It is meant that, with the same climatic conditions and dryness coefficient, there are other different situations that favor the development of fires in the woods, such as: the influx of tourists, the rural abandonment of the countryside, the activity of particular agronomic and pastoral practices, vendettas, speculations.

Thus, depending on the location of the forest and its specific relationship with the situations mentioned, there are stands more exposed to the danger and risk of fire, compared to others, where social and human factors are less accidents. . Based on the meteorological and climatological trends, we must record two periods of serious danger: the summer one, in the months of July, August, September, more marked in the central-southern regions, including Liguria; The other winter, in the months of January, February and March located in particular in the areas of the Alps, such as Liguria, Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto.

In both of the aforementioned periods, even if with different intensity and while varying from area to area, the dry conditions are determined, predisposing the phenomenon.

Generally, the determining cause of the forest fire is anthropogenic, except for cases due to lightning. Self-combustion, often cited inappropriately, is to be considered a very simplistic and erroneous justification, as, in our climates, it only occurs in very exceptional cases and at most limited to barns or landfills only.

The conditions that influence both the initiation and the first spread of the fire are mainly represented:

  • the amount of water found in plant tissues, which can vary from 2 to 200% in dead tissues, depending on atmospheric conditions and in particular on the relative humidity of the air;
  • from the wind, which in addition to favoring the influx of oxygen, as a comburent, determines the advancement of the fire line, causes the preheating of the wood material and therefore new starting and continuation points of the fire;
  • the quantity, dimensions, dispositions of combustible materials, which, if thin and not pressed, offer a greater external surface to the oxidizing oxygen.

The favorable conditions for the start of the fire in the forest occur more frequently in the presence of dried dead cover, with young stands, especially of resinous lucivagus essences.

The different meteorological conditions: rainfall regime, dominance of the winds, together with the different forest types, their management and treatment, influence the seasonal frequency of fires.

N.B. The information reported was elaborated from the news published by the State Forestry Corps

30% of the territorial surface of our country is made up of woods, characterized by a wide variety of species that over the millennia have adapted to the extraordinary variability of climates, from the subarid ones of the extreme south of the peninsula to the nival ones of the alpine arc. The Italian forest heritage, among the most important in Europe in terms of breadth and variety of species, constitutes an immense wealth for the environment and the economy, for the balance of the territory, for the conservation of biodiversity and the landscape. Furthermore, the woods are the natural habitat of many animal and plant species.

However, every year tens of thousands of hectares of forest burn due to arson or negligent fires, linked to building speculation, or to human neglect and carelessness. In the last thirty years, 12% of the national forest heritage has been destroyed.

The consequences for the natural balance are very serious and the times for the reorganization of the forest and environmental ecosystem are very long. The alterations of the natural conditions of the soil caused by fires also favor the phenomena of instability of the slopes causing, in the event of heavy rain, the sliding and removal of the superficial soil layer.

The months with the highest risk are summer, when drought, high temperature and strong wind evaporate part of the water retained by the plants, resulting in natural conditions favorable to the triggering and development of fires.

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Fires: what are the parameters that influence them?

From South America to Siberia we heard a lot about fires this summer. Emanuele Lingua, associate professor of the Department of land and agro-forestry systems at the University of Padua, explains the factors that influence fires

The fires they are not all the same: different parameters come into play in determining their frequency, intensity and speed. These are characteristics that influence its propagation and therefore, depending on the place where the fire developed, the potential impact for people, infrastructures and buildings, for ecosystems. These are elements that interact with each other, influencing each other, although there may be one that, more than the others, determines the behavior assumed by the fire. After a summer in which fires have made a lot of talk (we have talked about them here, here and here), it is worth going to take a closer look at what these parameters are. We talk about it with Emanuele Lingua, associate professor of the Department of land and agro-forestry systems at the University of Padua, where he teaches Management of fires and abiotic disturbances.

Meteorological factors

For those involved in forest fires, the first element to pay attention to is the wind, whose presence directly affects the flame front and its propagation. "The wind brings combustion, that is the oxygen that allows the combustion of the material and, by bending it, brings the flame closer to the fuel. Furthermore, it allows the pre-heating of the fuel, that is the vegetation»Explains Lingua. "In practice, the mass of hot air moves horizontally, instead of rising and dispersing in the atmosphere as it would happen in the absence of wind. In this way, it heats the vegetation, whether alive or dead, causing dehydration and making sure that, when the flame arrives, it is ready to immediately catch fire ".

Pre-heating is an important phase for the development of forest fires, because it makes the material flammable: as long as water is present, the temperature does not rise enough to allow flames to develop. But when the fuel is dry, the temperature rises and pyrolysis occurs, a thermal degradation of organic material that occurs in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis determines the formation of highly combustible volatile compounds: the flames we see during fires are precisely the gaseous material that burns. "In the presence of wind, the whole pre-heating phase is accelerated, and the fastest fires are also the most intense and destructive ones," explains the professor. “Furthermore, the mere presence of wind in the absence of fire causes what we call fine fuel (needles, twigs, grass, and so on) to be more dehydrated. For this reason, the dry days in which the Föhn blows, a dry wind, are those to be monitored most carefully for the risk of fires in the Alps ".

To all this, we must add the fact that the wind can cause phenomena of spotting, lifting the burning material and transporting it far away, thus causing the development of secondary foci.

The other two meteorological parameters evaluated to understand the risk of a fire developing and to try to establish its potential danger are precipitation (rain, but also snow), temperature and relative humidity of the air. None of these parameters act directly on the development of the fire, but they are all predisposing factors. "Both the air temperature and the rainfall and relative humidity directly affect the moisture content of the fuel, indicated by the English term fuel moisture content. Therefore, while they do not act directly on the propagation of the flame front, they influence the risk of the fire developing, "explains Lingua.

Meteorological data for monitoring and forecasting

Meteorological parameters are used by mathematical models that allow you to determine if a certain area is at risk of fire. At a European level, the European Forest Fire Information System (indicated by the initials EFFIS) is used which, based on information regarding wind, air humidity, temperature and precipitation collected by the ground stations, provides a hazard index. “In practice, this system is used to determine how dangerous a fire could be under those specific weather conditions. It does not take into account the possibilities triggering causes, which would be extremely complicated to evaluate, but has indices used to calculate, for example, how dehydrated the fine fuel is, a parameter influenced precisely by meteorological factors », explains Lingua.

This system therefore provides hazard indices based on parameters that change in the short term. But the behavior of fire is also linked to other factors, more stable over time.

The orographic factors and exposure

«When evaluating the behavior of a fire, it must be considered that it proceeds faster, and can therefore increase in intensity, uphill. This is why the slope of the area under consideration is a fundamental parameter to be evaluated ”, explains the professor. “The higher velocity of the rising flame front depends on two reasons. The first is that the flames are closer to the fuel upstream the second reason is that the hot air tends to rise, so that on a slope a sort of current is created that rises along the slope, pre-heating the material upstream " .

The characteristics of the territory also have indirect effects on the spread of the fire. In fact, the orography influences the wind, creating turbulence and channeling it by increasing its speed. When it is channeled into narrow valleys, the so-called "chimney effect" can be created: as in the draft of a chimney, the air creates a strong updraft that accelerates the propagation of the flame front. Furthermore, in our hemisphere, the south-facing slopes are the hottest ones, where the fuel dehydrates first. "In particular, it is the south-western exposures that are most worrying: they are in the south, so the irradiation is maximum, and also the sun arrives there in the afternoon, when the air is already warm and drier", continue Language. "Not surprisingly, in the areas exposed to the south there are more plant species adapted to warmer and drier environments".

The vegetation

Plant species are the third and fundamental parameter to consider when it comes to fires. The variety of the plant world is very wide, and each species has its own particular relationship with fire. And it may be surprising to know that some of them appreciate it very much, at least under certain conditions.

«The spread of the fire is first of all affected by the fuel load, i.e. the amount of biomass. The fine material burns quickly but at low intensity, while a high load can create high-energy fires. To the evaluations on the load it is then necessary to associate the distinction between the live fuel, rich in water, and the dead and dry one: in the first case a lot of energy is therefore required in the pre-heating phase to dehydrate the plant material and start the combustion in the second, on the other hand, the vegetation is practically ready to burn, especially if it is fine, just think about how easily dry grass catches fire », explains Lingua. "It is for this reason that after a canopy fire, that is when the fire affects the foliage of the trees, we find the trunk and the largest branches intact".

"Some plants, then, they are more prone to catching fire because they contain resins or essential oils containing highly flammable terpenes»Continues Lingua. "These substances act like gasoline, igniting at lower temperatures than other compounds and generating much more heat in turn, this will contribute to the pre-heating of the vegetation, facilitating the progress of the fire". An example of a highly flammable plant, and unfortunately used for a long time for reforestation, is eucalyptus, an alien species from Australia. It is mainly used for the production of paper, but also of essential oils, the same ones that determine its flammability: the 2017 fire in Pedrógão Grande, in Portugal, was related precisely to the widespread diffusion of this species.

On the other hand, several species have adaptive traits that benefit them in the presence of a fire. Some plants, for example, release their seeds only thanks to fire, a condition called serotinia: this is the case of the eucalyptus, but also of our Aleppo pine, whose cones (commonly called pine cones) open only after a fire . There are many plants of the Mediterranean scrub that show these traits. Another example is the strawberry tree, able to quickly throw back after the passage of the fire, reproducing by agamic way.

Fires are a completely natural element in the modeling of the natural landscape, and it is not surprising that some plants are able to live with them or even exploit it as TodayScience he recalled here, this also applies to some animals. "The problem is that the different plants are not adapted to fires at all, but to certain fire regimes: events, therefore, that occur with a certain frequency, with a characteristic intensity and that burn a certain type of fuel ", explains Lingua. “But if the characteristics of fires change, as happens due to human activities and climate change (however closely related), plants may no longer be able to deal with them. For example, a plant may have adapted to fires that occur every fifty years, reaching maturity around that age but if the fires occur more frequently, when they arrive the plant will not yet be developed enough to be disseminated ".

Course for A.I.B.

  • train civil protection volunteers to be employed in the active fight against forest fires through the acquisition of theoretical and practical methodologies
  • acquire the information necessary to assess the risks in the areas of intervention and in the use of equipment and d.p.i. to adopt the necessary safety and self-protection behaviors.

Recipients: civil protection volunteers
Requirements: certification of the basic civil protection course
Duration: 35 hours, required frequency: 80% of the hours of theoretical lessons and 100% of the practical lessons to be admitted to the final exam.
participants: approximately from 25 to 30
Course certification: certificate of attendance
Final exam and examination board: the final exam of the AIB specialization course is taken before a special commission, identified and appointed by the province of reference, consisting of:

  • commission chairman: - province (or public body of reference) which has the task of guaranteeing the regularity of the commission and ratifying the assessments of the commissioners
  • commissioners: - state forestry corps - national fire brigade corps - president of the provincial coordination of volunteers (or of the organization for volunteers of organizations not included in the provincial coordination).

Module 1: the active struggle, the intervention model lasting 3 hours.

  • the framework of state and regional guidelines on forest fires
  • the phases in which the intervention of civil protection is articulated at the various institutional levels
  • the institutional components and operational structures that must be gradually activated in the decision-making centers set up at regional, provincial and local level and on the site of the calamitous event
  • the composition, responsibility and duties of the civil protection operational structures engaged in emergency operations.

Module 2: organization and tasks of volunteering lasting 3 hours.

  • organization and tasks of volunteering
  • the role of the team
  • the methods of intervention
  • surveillance activities (reconnaissance, surveillance and sighting)
  • shutdown by direct action on the ground
  • control of the spread of fire (containment)
  • remediation.

Module 3: the functions of the state forestry corps in the active fight against forest fires, intervention techniques and strategies. duration 6 hours.

  • functions of the state forestry corps in relation to the fight against forest fires at national and regional level
  • the organization of the forestry corps at the regional level
  • factors predisposing forest fires
  • the factors that determine the spread of forest fires with particular reference to the morphological and vegetational characteristics of the territory. forecast models and propagation models - types of forest fire
  • the main causes of forest fires
  • the organization and sighting techniques - the methods of reporting events
  • human resources and instrumental resources used in the fight against forest fires - ground and air vehicles
  • the intervention techniques and strategies in relation to the different types of forest fire and the resources available
  • the reclamation of the area crossed by the fire also in relation to the need to preserve any useful elements for determining the causes of the fire
  • knowledge of the intervention model, functional hierarchies and behavior during forest fires.

Module 4: the functions of the national fire brigade in the active fight against forest fires, lasting 3 hours.

  • organization and institutional tasks of the national fire brigade
  • role of firefighters in the civil protection system
  • fire risk and fire chemistry
  • extinguishing substances
  • operational coordination and emergency communications during a forest fire.

Module 5: safety, dpi and self-protection behaviors lasting 4 hours.

  • main scenarios and activities in forest fire prevention and self-protection behaviors
  • personal protective equipment
  • the equipment and means for extinguishing forest fires
  • radio communications.

Module 6: practical tests lasting 8 hours.

  • the tests will take place in the presence of representatives of the province, state forestry corps and national fire brigade corps and will take place in a natural environment with characteristics similar to those where forest fires are recorded in the area of ​​competence with extinguishing activities and use of chainsaws , billhooks, blowers and brush cutters, etc.

Module 7: final exam lasting 8 hours.

  • questionnaire to evaluate the knowledge acquired in the course
    practical shutdown test.

Forest fires, agronomists and foresters talk about it in a meeting in Patti

On Tuesday 06 February 2018 at 4.00 pm in the municipal hall "Mario Sciacca" Piazza Mario Sciacca - Patti (ME), the second scheduled meeting will be held on the theme "Forest fires in Sicily: prevention strategies and post-fire interventions".
The conference is organized by the Order of Agronomists and Foresters of the Province of Messina, in collaboration with the Regional Department of Agriculture, Rural Development and Mediterranean Fisheries, the Rural and Territorial Development Department, the Departmental Forestry Inspectorate , the Agricultural Inspectorate, the Civil Engineers of Messina, the Italian Society of Forest Restoration based at the University of Tuscia in Viterbo, in concert with the Municipal Administrations and the Park Authorities present in the provincial territory.

The meeting focuses on the theme of fires that have particularly affected the provincial territory in recent years. On this occasion, we will examine the factors predisposing fires, linked to the conditions in which rural areas live, prevention and fight actions, repression activities and restoration interventions of the burned surfaces. We will also examine aspects related to the use of new technologies in the field of fire prevention and the forms of economic support provided to which the owners of surfaces affected by fires (Public and / or Private) can access, in order to intervene with prevention and / or restoration works in these areas.

The dates and places where the subsequent meetings will take place are as follows:

15 February 2018 at 16:00 - Municipality of Francavilla di Sicilia - Alcantara River Park Authority 20 February 2018 at 16:00 - Municipality of Giardini Naxos - Council Chamber
February 27, 2018 at 4:00 pm - Municipality of Sant’Agata di Militello - Parco Dei Nebrodi Headquarters

Fires: Predisposing factors for fires

Presidency of the Council of Ministers


Law 21. November 2000, 353

(Framework law on forest fires)


3.Contained in the regional plan for the planning of forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires

3a. The determining causes and predisposing factors of the fire

3b. the areas covered by the fire in the previous year, represented with special maps

3c. the areas at risk of forest fire represented with appropriate updated thematic maps, with an indication of the types of prevailing vegetation

3d. periods at risk of forest fire, with indication of anemological data and exposure to winds

3e. the hazard indices established on a quantitative and synoptic basis

3f. actions determining even only potentially the initiation of fire in areas and periods at risk of forest fire referred to in letters c) and d)

3g. interventions for the prediction and prevention of forest fires also through satellite monitoring systems

3h. the consistency and location of the means, tools and human resources as well as the procedures for the active fight against forest fires

3h.6. Permanent Unified Operating Rooms (SOUP)

3h 7. Substitute power in the event of default by the Regions

3i. the consistency and location of access routes and fire-spreading paths as well as adequate sources of water supply

3l. forestry operations of cleaning and maintenance of the forest, with the option of providing for interventions to replace the defaulting owner, particularly in areas at higher risk

3m. Training needs and related programming

3n. information activities

3o. the economic-financial forecast of the activities envisaged in the plan itself.

4. Outline of the regional plan for the planning of forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires

5. Regional protected natural areas section

6. Procedures for requesting an air competition in extinguishing forest fires by the COAU

1. Introduction

There new framework law on forest fires (Law n.353 / 2000) stems from the widespread belief that the most appropriate approach to pursue the conservation of the forest heritage (an irreplaceable asset for quality of life) is to promote and incentivize activities of forecasting and prevention, rather than favoring the emergency phase linked to the extinguishing of fires as sanctioned by the previous legislation (Law 47/75).

The innovations introduced by the new legislation aim to direct towards a constant and radical reduction of the causes of fire, using both forecasting systems to locate and study the characteristics of the danger and prevention initiatives to achieve organic management. interventions and actions aimed at mitigating the consequences of fires. The information to the population on the importance of keeping the forest and its functions unchanged, the training and training of the staff, as well as the incentives given in terms of the reduction of the burnt areas compared to previous years contribute to making it more effective safeguard actions and to demotivate the so-called "arsonists".
Although the articles do not involve substantial changes in terms of competences (which essentially remain those provided for by the previous legislation and by decree 112/98), the plan, the basic planning and programming document, is undoubtedly affected by all the innovations introduced. However, the organizational model that is outlined - even if technologically advanced by virtue of the use of satellite-based detection techniques, GIS applications and software for the simulation of fire behavior must also provide for a coordination action between the various realities (local: regions, provinces, municipalities, mountain communities and central offices) involved in order for the fire fighting action to comply with the principles of efficiency and effectiveness.
The synergies to be activated between. the regional command and control center (identified in the SOUP) and the local one must be clear and codified.
The Regions promote special coordination meetings with local authorities also in the form of Service Conferences in order to inform, discuss local problems and define planning interventions, indicating priorities in relation to the objectives to be defended.
The program of interventions in this new regulatory context must pursue the objective of reducing the areas burned: this, among other things, entails the possibility of acquiring shares of incentives made available by the State precisely in order to promote the reorganization process. centered on the shift of economic and human resources from emergency activities to those of prevention and control of the territory.
An accurate and constant maintenance of the woods, of the road and railway slopes, to be carried out in periods of low danger using permanently the labor resources of the local authorities and in the absence of these the associations and municipal voluntary groups (including the Fire Brigade volunteers) as well as socially useful workers who have acquired experience in the sector, would ensure both the reduction of the causes of fire and the containment of damage caused by fires.
The same units, on the other hand, in the periods of greatest danger could be employed in the control and surveillance activities of the territory by organizing teams with patrol, sighting, alarm and first intervention tasks that would ensure that timely action (in the first half hour) on the fire. essential to contain the spread of flames. The results of the application of this organizational model are also a function of the cultural level of the local social context which, duly informed and trained, will be able to create the necessary conditions to respect the limitations and prohibitions placed on the use of the territory. plans are drawn up to suggest a general architecture of what it would be necessary to implement so that the objectives of the legislation in question can be reached quickly with maximum results. '(Activity often carried out also by light aircraft whose conventions (Aeroclub) should also provide for a rigorous and documented service against a fee in order to carry out a targeted analysis of the data acquired during the patrol).

2. Skills

Below is a diagram of the division of responsibilities in the field of forest fires pursuant to the new framework law:

Powers of the state

1. Resolution, after consultation with the Unified Conference, of the guidelines and directives for the approval of the regional plan for the planning of forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires (Article 3).

2. Preparation of a specific plan for the natural parks and natural reserves of the State by the Ministry of the Environment (Article 8, paragraph 2).

3. Promotion, in agreement with the Regions, of the integration of educational programs of schools and institutes of all levels, in order to promote the growth and promotion of effective environmental education (Article 5).

4. Promotion of information to the population pursuant to (Article 6).

5. The Regions make use of the resources, means and personnel of the National Fire Brigade and the State Forestry Corps on the basis of program agreements (Article 7, paragraph 3, letter a).

6. Extinguishing competition with the state fire-fighting air fleet (Article 7).

7. Monitoring of the obligations provided for by L353 / 2000 and report to Parliament on the state of implementation as required (Article 9).

Competences of the Regions

1. Preparation and approval of the regional plan for forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires on the basis of the guidelines (Article 3, paragraph 1).

2. Definition of a specific section of the regional plan for regional protected natural areas (Article 8, paragraph 1).

3. Reserve a section of the regional plan for the indications contained in the National Plan of the Ministry of the Environment for natural parks and natural reserves of the State (Article 8, paragraph 2).

4. Planning of forecasting and prevention activities (art.4).

5.Active fight against forest fires (Article 7).

6. Promotion, in agreement with the State, of the integration of educational programs of schools and institutes of all levels, for the purpose of growth and promotion of effective environmental education (Article 5).

7. Organization, also in associated form between several Regions, of technical-practical courses for the preparation of subjects engaged in forecasting, prevention and active struggle activities (art, 5).

8. Promotion of information to the population (Article 6).

Competences of the Provinces, Mountain Communities and Municipalities

Implementation of forecasting and prevention activities, according to the powers established by the Regions (Article 4, paragraph 5). Promotion of information to the population (Article 6), Census through a special register of inspections already covered by fire in the last five years (competence of the municipalities - Article 10, paragraph 2). In the absence of the managing bodies, implementation of forecasting and prevention activities in protected natural areas (Article 8, paragraph 3)

Competences of the managing bodies of protected natural areas

Proposal and definition of the section of the Regional Plan relating to regional protected natural areas (Article 8, paragraph I and paragraph 2) Implementation of forecasting and prevention activities (Article 8, paragraph 3). Promotion of information to the population (Article 6).

3. Contents of the regional plan for the planning of forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires

3.a The determining causes and predisposing factors of the fire

For the determining causes (the aspects, that is, which in a situation defined by predisposing factors can give rise to the immediate development and spread of fire), it is recommended to refer to EEC Regulation no. a community information system on forest fires called "Minimum common information base on forest fires" which classifies the presumed origin of each fire monitored according to the following four categories:

  • fire of unknown origin
  • fire of natural origin
  • fire of accidental origin or due to negligence, ie the origin of which is related to the activity of man, but without the latter having the intention of destroying a natural space
  • - arson of arson, ie caused with the deliberate intention of destroying a forest area for different reasons.

The analysis of the data relating to the determining causes constitutes the starting point for optimizing the systems for forecasting danger and prevention (reduction of the causes of fire through territorial control activities, information campaigns, prohibitions and limitations.).

By predisposing factors we mean the set of aspects that favor the ignition of a fire and the spread of fire: climatic conditions (high temperatures, drought, windiness, low relative humidity), geomorphology (slopes, exposure to solar radiation), phytology (presence of more or less flammable species) use of the forest (accumulation of necromass, etc.),

3b. the areas covered by the fire in the previous year, represented with special maps

The plan contains the cartography of the areas covered by the fire in the previous year, updated annually, preferably supported by a GIS (Geographic Information System) support that allows you to record the reliefs of the areas covered by the fire. The relationship of the areas covered by the fire with the territorial database can use the Mountain Information System (SIM) of the State Forestry Corps (CFS) already active in all the Regions, the peripheral offices of the same Corps, the Mountain Communities, Park authorities and some municipalities as a one-stop shop for mountain users. The SIM - provided free of charge by the CFS - allows greater effectiveness in the affixing of the binding regime and an easy response at the time of the request by the owner for the release of any permits.

3c. the areas at risk of forest fire represented with appropriate updated thematic maps, with an indication of the types of prevailing vegetation

The assessment of the degree of risk attributable to the various forest ecosystems, i.e. their propensity to be crossed more or less easily by fire, must take into account the peculiar characteristics of the vegetation, the geomorphological and metaclimatic ones as well as the anthropic factor in the meanings of human behavior. , the degree of urbanization and the socio-economic level of the area. Therefore, the characterization of the territory from the point of view of forest fire risk will be given by the overlapping, appropriately weighted, of the information relating to: the extension of the wooded areas, the vegetation type, the conditions of use and the state of conservation of the forest , in the presence of zones of particular naturalistic, landscape and environmental interest, the frequency of fire ignition and the extension of the areas covered by the fire, the population density, the tourist flows, the road network, the inhabited centers, the areas subject to disputes between the public and private, to the orographic characteristics, to the exposure and slopes of the slopes, to the climatic and meteorological characteristics.
The necessary data can be collected by integrating the various existing methodologies (aerial / satellite remote sensing or ground surveys) which allow to investigate surfaces of dividing dimensions with different degrees of spatial resolution.
Where possible, it would be advisable to have this analysis carried out - after the elaboration of an adequate thematic cartography by means of GIS support.


Part of the information necessary for the preparation of the plan and its implementation must be acquired in the form of a database.

The possible use of GIS systems for information management obviously requires that said databases are suitably and adequately georeferenced as well as must report the UTM coordinates of the presumed origin of the fire. Databases relating to forest fires of the last ten years must be acquired and implemented (or where not available) (sources, AIB -FN cards of the CFS Municipalities Mountain Communities and Park Authorities, VVF,) the networks for monitoring, sighting, telecommunication and interventions infrastructural and silvicultural activities already carried out: means and materials available to all involved subjects. Specifically, the AIB-FN cards represent

the common base from which to start for the detection of data concerning the fires therefore for each fire detected the coordinator of the extinguishing operations will compile a final report which will be attached to a homologation form to the aforementioned AIB-FN which will be sent to the region and other subjects interested institutions.

For the purposes of the operational management of the plan, the creation of a database containing all the information relating to the teams of personnel assigned to forecasting, prevention and active fight activities located throughout the territory assumes particular importance (operational center and territorial area of ​​relevance identification of responsible names and numbers telephone numbers, shifts, degree of training, individual equipment and sectors of employment of the personnel employed by the teams, etc.). This part should be included in the plan as an attachment.

Basic cartography

The scale of the various documents will be appropriately chosen based on the needs identified by each region and the level of detail of the origin of the data, since it is a rather vast geographical level, a municipal or sub-municipal level for homogeneous areas could also be acceptable where there is one. If it were possible, it would still be advisable to choose scales of a more detailed level, in any case it is preferable not to go down, for derivative works, below the scale 1: 50.000.

3d. Periods at risk of forest fire, with indication of anemological data and exposure to winds

The results of the forecast systems put in place by the Region provide the essential elements to identify the periods of greatest danger and the relative prohibitions on the basis of data concerning temperatures and solar radiation, precipitation (isoiete) and the summer Veneto and the aridity (or soil moisture). The local and territorial authorities, through specific ordinances, establish the state of serious danger and formulate prohibitions and sanctions.
In periods of serious danger, in the areas at risk, the Region, with the technical-scientific support of the Universities and public and private research institutes, with the National Flight Assistance Body and with other competent subjects, collects the data. anemological which must be represented on a wind rose graph where the radial represents the speed scale expressed in knots or through other graphic representations that allow an immediate description of the detected phenomenon.

In order to minimize the costs related to the acquisition and management of anemometric data, the Regions will be able to establish at the same time with ENAV and other competent bodies the strengthening of the detection network of meteorological stations.

The strengthening of the network, any agreements of the regional administrations with public and private bodies and the management of information are an integral part of the plan.

3e. the hazard indices established on a quantitative and synoptic basis

The estimation of the behavior of fire in the different types of vegetation and in the territorial context that hosts them, allows to attribute to each forest type, as it is potentially affected by the phenomenon, a certain degree of fire hazard linked to the physical characteristics of greater or lesser structural and inflammability of vegetation as well as weather-climatic conditions. The plan must contain a methodology suitable for forecasting the daily probability of the occurrence of forest fires and their diffusibility. Meteorological methods, cumulative of initiation and diffusion, based in any case on criteria adopted by the European Commission for forecasting the danger of fire in Europe (EUDIC System), must be privileged.

The adaptability of the identified methods to the specific territorial reality will have to be verified experimentally. These forecasting methods must use anemometric and thermopluviometric data measured in real time and must also be organized in such a way as to automatically offer a technical hazard index on a daily scale, which must be appropriately distributed to the interested parties, according to the values ​​of which ( therefore, in relation to the probability of fires occurring) procedures for intensification of monitoring, sighting and intervention can be defined. These indices can be represented directly using the Territorial Services of the Mountain Information System (SIM) of the CFS, displaying the various themes through color scales that allow a synoptic view of the danger.

The danger index defined daily will be the subject of a specific communication (in regional radio and television bulletins, via the internet, etc.) to alert the population and to disseminate the list of prohibitions.

3f. the actions determining even only potentially the ignition of fire in the areas and areas periods at risk of forest fire referred to in letters e) and d)

In periods at risk, the following prohibitions are established:

- the lighting of fires

- the shining of mines

- the use of flame or electric appliances,

- the use of engines, stoves or incinerators that produce sparks or embers

- smoke or perform any other operation that could create a fire

- drive the car into the woods and park with the muffler (especially if catalytic) in contact with dry grass

- abandoning waste in the woods and in illegal landfills.

The regional, provincial and municipal administrations can integrate the prohibitions and provisions previously reported in their respective territories.

3g. interventions for the prediction and prevention of forest fires also through satellite monitoring systems

Among the forecasting interventions, those relating to measurement and monitoring networks, the creation and management of data banks, data processing, the drafting of thematic maps, event simulators can be acquired by surveying from a satellite platform or from a vehicle. plane or with direct surveys from the ground. The plan provides for the integration of the aforementioned methodologies in order to optimize the cost-benefit ratio. The plan also provides for the integrated and optimized management of the monitoring and control operations of the territory, which can be carried out by making appropriate use of the various technologies and systems available (survey from satellite platform, from aircraft and from the ground from a fixed or mobile location. ).

3h. the consistency and location of the means, tools and human resources as well as the procedures for the active fight against forest fires

The plan includes a section dedicated to the availability, needs, organization and location of the means, tools and human resources for carrying out active control activities (divided into the phases of: reconnaissance, surveillance, sighting, alarm and shutdown from the ground and by air).


It can be carried out, with reference to the areas and in the periods of greatest danger, by air vehicles and / or by motorized ground teams equipped with adequate equipment


With reference to areas of particular value or particularly high risk, intensive and continuous surveillance activities can be set up, with the use of territorial control teams and / or with fixed monitoring systems and / or with a network of lookout observation uniformly distributed over the territory in question.


It can be carried out from the ground - by means of mobile teams in the area and / or fixed lookouts - by air, through the use of fixed automatic sighting systems (infrared sensors, cameras, etc.). The effectiveness of the extinguishing intervention depends on the efficiency with which the fixed and mobile sighting surveillance reconnaissance network, terrestrial and airborne, is managed.

3h. 4.ALARM

The alarm can be sent to the dedicated listening centers both from the reconnaissance service staff

surveillance-sighting and by other public and private entities through the use of telecommunication networks (reserved for operators) or by means of telephone lines whose references are appropriately advertised


The plan provides for the deployment on the territory of intervention teams for ground extinguishing formed by an adequate number of trained employees with certified physical fitness. On the basis of the risk cartography referred to in point e), the objectives to be defended are identified on a special map (preferably on GIS support), with an indication of the priorities, and the territorial area pertaining to each team. The figure of the coordinator of operations is also identified for each territorial area.

To achieve the most effective fire intervention, it is also advisable to use mathematical models for predicting the behavior of the fire.

Normally, the teams operate within the territory of, but it is also possible to use them in another area of ​​the regional territory if particular emergencies so require, without prejudice to the attribution of coordination of operations.

The teams are employed with full availability mode in the periods of maximum danger, during which they carry out patrol actions or light maintenance activities with the criterion of availability, in the alert periods and in the hours out of service.

Each team should be equipped with:

  • off-road vehicle for surveillance and first aid activities equipped with simple manual equipment (flabellum, billhook, rake, hoe, shovel, chainsaw and brush cutter) and box containing the necessary for medical first aid
  • Fixed, vehicular and portable radio devices for connection over the air, on pre-established frequencies reported in the procedures for requesting an air competition with the offices of the CFS, the Fire Brigade unit, the local offices of the Civil Protection.
  • GPS
  • sighting equipment (binoculars, etc.)
  • - precautions for the recognition of the teams themselves (e.g. affixing of badges and plates)
  • self-protection equipment required by current workplace safety regulations.

The indications relating to the location of said vehicles and equipment must be reported on the same theme that identifies the areas and the location of the intervention teams. , in the phases of reconnaissance sighting Surveillance, in order to reduce as much as possible the intervention times on the fire. Outside the risk periods, team personnel may be employed in forest fire risk prevention activities.

In any case, municipalities, even in associated form, can establish a municipal structure for the forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires by providing, as part of the Plan

Municipal or Inter-municipal Civil Protection:

  • the methods of connection with the operational structures involved in the intervention
  • The intervention procedures in the case of involvement of citizens, goods, services
  • Human resources (municipal, voluntary, socially useful workers) to be found well in advance and equipment available for use by the operating structures
  • the promotion, training, training, equipment and insurance provided for by current regulations for staff

The Region defines the operating procedures for the implementation of this phase of the Plan.


The Permanent Unified Operating Room (SOUP) contributes to fulfilling a set of needs specific to civil protection activities therefore, when fully operational, it should represent the operational center for the management of emergencies relating to the various risks that persist on the regional territory as well as the body of connection between the territorial components responsible for carrying out civil protection tasks.

The SOUP must possess the logistical-operational characteristics as well as the requisites required for the other operational structures of civil protection (see Augustus system).

In order to ensure the effectiveness of the performance of the activities in the SOUP, all the institutional components and not covered by Article 6 of Law 225/92 must be represented. Specifically, as regards the risk of forest fires, the joint presence of representatives of local authorities, CFS, CNVVF and volunteers is required.

The SOUP in periods of greatest danger of forest fire must ensure operation 24 hours a day, the shift manager must draw up a daily report of the activities carried out which will be sent

1the institutions represented in the SOIJP itself and, in an emergency, also to the central bodies (ministries and DPC / Agency) on the basis of pre-established internal procedures.

In particular, the SOUP - with regard to the danger of forest fires - will have to ensure the connection and coordination between the regional and the local level, and will also have to manage the phases relating to the request for air assistance by the State aircraft for extinguishing forest fires.

This request, duly justified, must be made according to the procedures established by the Directive issued by the Civil Protection Department / Agency which is an integral part of this document.


Paragraph 4 of Article 3 of L.353 / 0O provides that in the event of non-compliance by the Regions, the Minister of the Interior delegated for the coordination of civil protection, making use of the Agency / Department, the CNVVF and the CFS, after consulting the Unified Conference, also at the interprovincial level, prepares the emergency activities for extinguishing forest fires, taking into account the operational structures of the provinces, municipalities and mountain communities. The Minister's provision also provides for the revocation of the funds assigned to the Region to finance replacement interventions.

It is advisable that these emergency activities are in any case prepared according to the general criteria and guidelines set out in this document. The most suitable structure for the operational management of these activities appears to be that of the CNVVF and, in particular, the Provincial Command of the same Corps, which will draw up a real extraordinary plan for the shutdown for the province of competence, of agreement with the provincial inspectorate CFS, with the province, the municipalities, the mountain communities and the prefecture.

In the operational management of the emergency plan, the provincial commander of the Fire Brigade will ensure the coordination (with 24-hour operation) of the men and of their own means and of those made available by the other subjects involved (local authorities, CFS, volunteers) in the fight against forest fires.

The emergency plan, drawn up after acquiring data and floor plans indicating the elements characterizing slopes and differences in height, water courses, technological systems, urbanization, roads, infrastructures, etc., must be divided into the following sections:

TO) Descriptive part

· Type of vegetation and forestation

· Statistics of fires over the past 20 years

· General and sector organization charts

· Competent subjects

· Human and technological resources

· Characteristics of technological resources

· Personnel database

· Logistic references

B) Regulatory references

Laws, regulations, circulars, town plans, ordinances, etc.,

C) Operational part

· Indices of danger

· Operational structures

· Coordination and control

· Alarm activation procedure

Alarm levels (two)

· Outline of procedures and information flows between Bodies

· Diagram of dynamic functional flows

· Radio-telephone connections diagram

· Alarm ceased

· Information to the population

D) Activities by fire investigation

Read regulations, circulars, town plans, ordinances, etc,

IS) Economic-financial forecast of the activities provided for in the plan itself

3i. the consistency and location of access routes and fire-spreading paths as well as adequate sources of water supply

Preventive structural and infrastructural interventions are carried out to hinder the spread of fire and / or to also favor extinguishing activities.

The fire avenues (also called fire screen, firebreak or fire barrier) have the function of interrupting the continuity of the vegetation thus hindering the spread of fire. Width and layout depend on the type of vegetation, on the windiness (strong winds can however cause embers and sparks to cross the avenue) and on the slope (in particular, it is preferable to have tracks that follow the contour lines along the lines of maximum slope. it could in fact risk causing a real "chimney effect"). In the presence of landscape constraints or erosion hazards, an adequate herbaceous cover must be provided, which however involves continuous and costly maintenance (with mechanical or natural means in this sense, in compliance with current legislation, the grazing tool can be envisaged. ungulates). These avenues can also serve as service roads in fire extinguishing operations or in surveillance and control activities.

Anyhow, streets. tracks and trails however, for these purposes they must be carried out, taking into account technical and visual measures that minimize their impact on the territory and on the soil. The forest road network must be adequate for the passage of vehicles responsible for fire intervention, closed to tourist and public vehicle traffic, accompanied by fire risk and prohibition signs, parking and overtaking areas for fire-fighting vehicles.

When planning firefighting, the location of the water supply points for air and land vehicles: often, in fact, areas and periods of high danger are characterized by shortages of water resources that can be used for extinguishing. Therefore, first of all it is necessary to proceed with the census of the reservoirs (specifying the possibility of use for air vehicles), of the water courses and of the aqueducts in second place, to install, according to the degree of risk and on the basis of the forecast of the need, of accumulation works in easily accessible areas: tanks (in plastic or masonry) and small reservoirs (also, after waterproofing the bottom, by accumulating rainwater). The Regions, in the exercise of their competences in urban planning and territorial planning, take into account the degree of whistle of forest fire in the territory and provide in the plan that in high-risk areas the building permit costs take into account the creation of appropriate points of water supply and interventions of interruption of the vertical and horizontal continuity to hinder the propagation of the flames.

Finally, in the areas considered to be at greatest risk, in areas where there is a wide visibility, they can be installed watchtowers for sighting timely fire or automatic detection systems (cameras and infrared sensors) and alarms.

All planned and implemented structural and infrastructural interventions (and the related management and maintenance activities) must be reported on the dedicated thematic cartography and, preferably, on the activated GIS (it is evident the importance, from this point of view, of having georeferenced information , for example, for water supply points).

3l. forestry operations of cleaning and maintenance of the forest, with the option of providing for interventions to replace the defaulting owner, in particular in areas at higher risk

Among the various components of a forest formation, the lowest ones (i.e. the herbaceous or litter layer, especially if with a strong presence of necromass) favor the ignition of the fire but it is the shrub and tree layers, based on their intrinsic characteristics, to make the propagation of the fire and the development of the flame front more or less intense and fast. For this reason> prevention interventions on vegetation essentially consist of two stages: removal of the easily flammable lower layers, creation of solutions of continuity both horizontally and vertically.

These operations are carried out with mechanical means (billhooks, hatchets, brush cutters, which have the drawback of requiring skilled labor and large amounts of work, but can be used in any context, adequately and specially equipped buildozers, which upset the ground and do not allow targeted interventions), chemists (contact and systemic herbicides, used mainly for maintenance operations), biological (appropriately regulated forest pasture), structural (replacement, through targeted reforestation interventions, of particularly flammable species with others having better fire resistance characteristics).

The plan contains the planning of forest management, maintenance and cleaning interventions aimed at: the reduction of particularly combustible biomass and the removal of necromass to obtain mixed forest stands, uneven in groups, well structured where possible the conversion of coppice into high forest the regeneration of stumps and the protection of natural renewal to the thinning and thinning of old reforestation of excessively dense conifers to clearing, mowing, cleaning and weeding (by the competent bodies, in compliance with the Highway Code and other regulations in force) of the slopes and edges of roads, motorways and railways adjacent to woodland formations.

The reforestation interventions and those of naturalistic engineering (with particular attention to those necessary for the restoration of the hydrogeological structure of the slopes and for the environmental enhancement of the sites) must be carried out, in compliance with the provisions of Law 353/2000 regarding stands crossed by fire in order to regulate the spatial distribution of the different types of. vegetable fuels creating alternation of zones with different fuels and solutions of continuity both horizontally and vertically.

As regards the interventions to replace the defaulting owners, the plan contains the administrative acts that identify the subjects authorized to carry out the necessary interventions (local authorities, voluntary associations, others) as well as the modalities of the same and any reimbursement of the expenses incurred. .

Finally, especially in areas with a backward economy where the fire can represent a job opportunity, it is necessary that local authorities promote interventions aimed at finding employment in the prevention sector (organizing, for example, projects for the management and maintenance of the woods) and providing, where possible, economic incentives related to the results achieved in terms of reducing the areas covered by the fire compared to previous years.

3m. training needs and related programming

The plan identifies the programming of the training and training activities of all the subjects that can be used for the implementation of forecasting and prevention activities (including the use of software and IT tools such as EUDIC and SIM or any other support (315). For those involved in active struggle activities, specific training must be provided in addition to the assessment of physical fitness. training and continuing education centers " for this purpose established at the structures of the CFS and CNVVF under the direction of managers of the same bodies or at similar regional structures. Territorial and local authorities as well as state administrations interested in the matter will also contribute to the establishment of these centers.

3n. information activities

The growth of an environmental awareness in general and, specifically, of the culture of the forest as an irreplaceable asset for the quality of life represents a tool of great power, and with particularly persuasive and lasting effects over time also for the purposes of forest fire prevention.

The subjects competent in the field of forest fires, each at their own level, can use all available means of communication (radio, television, newspapers, advertisements, road signs, internet, etc.) to carry out awareness campaigns on the problem of forest fires and to inform the user of the problems connected with the presence of man in the forest and its functions, the prohibitions and limitations to be observed and the self-protection behaviors to be followed in the event of a fire.

Particular attention must be paid to information in schools of all levels, organizing, in concert with the competent authorities, meetings between students and institutional operators in the sector.

In particular, the information message appropriately conveyed by the media is essential for disseminating news regarding:

- the periods of maximum danger and the provisions for limiting the causes of fire ignition

- the constraints and related sanctions

- damage and direct and indirect consequences caused by the phenomenon of forest fires

- knowledge of behavioral and self-protection rules to be followed in the event of a forest fire.

The information message is addressed not only to the population to increase knowledge of the risk, but also to:

- operators of forestry-pastoral activities

- trade associations

- the owners of the land

- students of all levels

- voluntary and nature protection associations.

The plan provides for the implementation modalities of the various initiatives which may also include the creation of Internet portals, participation in radio and television broadcasts, the creation of advertising campaigns, the publication of competition notices for degree theses on the subject.

3o. The economic-financial forecast of the activities envisaged in the plan itself

The expenditure relating to the implementation of the interventions programmed in the plan and the breakdown of this on the regional expenditure items (relating to ordinary expenses, short-term expenses, medium and long-term investments) is included in a specific section of the plan. same.

Among the items of the estimated expenditure, it is necessary to allocate funds for:

- The costs of medical fitness certifications and for insurance coverage as well as for the purchase of equipment for non-institutional subjects to be used for fire extinguishing operations

- Contribute to the establishment and functioning of the "Training and lifelong learning center "

- The activation of agreements and memoranda of understanding for the implementation of the forecasting, prevention and active fight phases.

4 - Outline of the regional plan for the planning of forecasting, prevention and active fight against forest fires

- Description of the territory
- Historical data analysis
- Conventions, program agreements and memoranda of understanding
- Databases
- Basic cartography

- The determining causes and predisposing factors of the fire
- The areas covered by the fire in the previous year, represented by means of special thematic maps
- The areas at risk of forest fire represented with appropriate updated thematic maps, with an indication of the types of prevailing vegetation
- Periods of high danger of forest fire
- The hazard indices established on a quantitative and synoptic basis
- Interventions for forest fires prediction also through satellite monitoring systems


- Forestry operations, cleaning and maintenance of the forest and railway and road embankments - Identification of interventions to replace the defaulting owner in particular
in areas of greatest danger
- Census and location of access routes, fire-spreading routes, water supply sources and electrical overhead structures
- Structural interventions to favor the activities of the teams to control the territory (restoration of paths, construction of new accesses, etc.)
- Identification of training needs and planning of information activities
- Determination of the prohibitions for actions even potentially determining the ignition of fire in areas and periods at risk of forest fire

4.Active fight

The consistency and location of the means, tools and human resources as well as the procedures for the active fight against forest fires

- Operational phases: reconnaissance, surveillance, sighting, alarm, shutdown

5. Regional protected natural areas section

- Area census

- Objectives to defend

- Organization of activities and human resources

6. Conventions, program agreements, cc.

7. Economic-financial report and planning for the implementation of the activities provided for in the plan

5. Regional protected natural areas section

The programming and planning of activities to combat forest fires in regional natural protected areas must not differ from that provided for in paragraph 3 above.

Obviously, in the choice of the objectives to be defended and in the calibration of the interventions, the areas of particular vegetational, environmental, landscape and socio-cultural value will be duly taken into account, therefore reinforcing measures will be adequately envisaged for forecasting, prevention and active fight against fires. On the other hand, the framework law 353/00, in article 8, already clarifies that the active struggle takes place on the regional territory in a uniform and coordinated way (by means of the SOUPs) while introducing an important novelty in the context of subjects who implement forecasting and prevention activities (scheduled as usual by the region): these activities are carried out by the managing bodies (and only in case of non-fulfillment of these by the provinces, mountain communities and municipalities according to the powers decided by the regions). The agreement in the planning of the activities between the managing body and the Region as well as the approval of the Regional Plan replace in all respects the authorization procedures for the realization of the structural, infrastructural and forestry interventions strictly necessary for the prevention and sighting of fires wooded.

Ultimately, the section of the regional protected areas will follow the structure of the plan reported above; the aspects that must be properly highlighted are also underlined below:

General part

Regarding the basic cartography particular attention must be paid to the fact that the maps and maps must continuously cover the entire regional territory, therefore, for each theme, a single map must be provided that covers the entire regional territory on which adequate evidence will be placed the part relating to natural protected areas.
It will therefore be possible to envisage detail levels for a more prudent management of the planned activities at the local level.

All the analysis and investigation part of the phenomenon> identification of the determining causes e the factors predisposing the fire, the part relating to the mapping of areas covered by / fire, the drafting of the risk mapping, the timely application of the indices of danger must be planned and implemented taking into account the need for further investigation due to the particular relevance of the objective to be defended.

It will be appropriate to provide for the integrated application of the most recent technologies and the most advanced proposals in the technical-scientific sector.
In particular, the protected area appears to be the optimal environment for the use of satellite technologies for the detection of spatial data at a detailed scale as well as for the management of information by means of GIS support and for the application of simulation tools. the behavior of the fire,


Actions even potentially determining the ignition of fire, therefore the prohibitions, limitations and restrictions of use contained in the ordinances of local and territorial authorities, integrated with those already present in the framework law, must be suitably strengthened and integrated taking into account the constraints that the establishment of a protected area entails these measures can be modulated according to the typology of the different zones within the protected area.

As for the structural, infrastructural and silvicultural interventions (taking into account what has been said previously regarding the fact that where they are provided for in the plan drawn up in agreement with the managing body, they are automatically considered authorized by the latter) these measures must be planned and carried out taking into account the peculiarity of the protected area and the eco-compatibility of the intervention in the specific context without forgetting, however, that the purpose of these interventions is, in any case, the protection and protection of the environment and biodiversity.

The educational and training activities as well as those informative of the personnel employed in protected areas must be particularly directed to knowledge of the specific reality, so that both operators and users assume the most appropriate behavior in relation to the specificity of the situation.

Active fight

The active struggle in regional protected natural areas must be carried out and organized according to the intervention model valid throughout the region.

The teams, present to a greater extent than the rest of the territory, will be coordinated by a local operations center - in constant connection with the SOUP - which will preferably be allocated to the structures of the managing body.

Video: Uttarakhand Forest Fire 2020 - Reason behind frequent forest fires in Uttarakhand explained #UPSC

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