When growing seedlings of most vegetable and flower crops, you have to perform a picking procedure. The basic rules for this process are suitable for tomatoes, cabbage, eggplant, bell peppers, and many other plants. If we talk only about tomatoes, then before diving seedlings, it is necessary to perform several more important stages in the cultivation of a tomato crop qualitatively. Preparing and sowing seeds, the optimal time for picking, growing strong and strong seedlings are important moments for capricious tomatoes and the future harvest.
Preparatory activities with tomato seeds are recommended in the last week of February or early March. You need to start with sorting. All tomato seeds must be poured into a prepared solution consisting of water (200 g) and salt (about 10 g), shake thoroughly and after about 10-15 minutes go to sorting. High-quality and healthy seeds are heavier, they will sink to the bottom of the jar with liquid. Damaged and empty specimens are very light and will float to the surface. These floating seeds are unsuitable for sowing and must be thrown away, and all the rest must be drained and washed in plain water.
The next stage is the processing of tomato seeds with special fertilizers, prepared independently or purchased in specialized stores. The nutrient solution consists of nutrients and trace elements. In it, the seeds must be left for 12 hours or better for a day, and then discarded on a sieve. Seed material can be germinated in the soil or in conditions of high humidity. The first shoots begin to hatch after 3-4 days, and in the ground after about a week. The room must be kept at a constant temperature - at least 25 degrees Celsius.
Options for complex fertilizers for soaking seeds:
The purchased soil mixes do not guarantee that they contain all the declared components. Therefore, it is advisable to prepare such a mixture yourself. For cooking, you will need: 2 parts of sod land and dried manure, 10 parts of rotted humus, 2 glasses of wood ash and 1 incomplete glass of superphosphate. The mixture must be thoroughly mixed in a large container, and then spread the required amount in the planting boxes.
The first method is to sow dry seeds. With this method, the seeds can be poured densely, which in the future will require a lot of time for repeated thinning. It is better to do everything thoroughly at once in order to facilitate further care for the seedlings.
The second method is to plant pre-soaked, hatched seeds. First, you need to water the soil mixture abundantly in the planting containers and leave them for a while to soak the soil. Then it is important to drain the excess water from the pan and compact the potting mix a little. Prepared seeds (1-2 pieces each) are laid out on the ground with an interval of 1.5-2 cm.This planting will greatly facilitate the picking process. The planted seeds must be sprinkled with dry soil in a thin layer (no more than 1 cm) and again slightly compacted.
Planting boxes should be kept in a dark room with a temperature of at least twenty-five degrees before young shoots appear. With their appearance, the containers are immediately transferred to the bright room. Throughout this time, daily moistening of the soil is carried out using a fine spray. Water should not fall on the seedlings, only the soil is moistened.
Young seedlings within five days after the emergence of shoots are grown at a temperature of 14-17 degrees in the daytime and 10-13 - at night. Such a temperature regime is necessary to protect plants from "stretching". When the plant stretches upward and grows excessively at this stage, the formation of its root part suffers. After a five-day period, the planting containers with seedlings are again transferred to warm conditions of detention: about 25 degrees Celsius during the daytime and about 15 degrees at night.
In early spring, even a window sill on the south side of the house will not save the seedlings from lack of light. Adequate lighting during these months can be achieved with a fluorescent lamp, which is placed at a low height (approximately 65-70 cm) above the seedling boxes. To form strong plants with a powerful root system, it is recommended to highlight tomato seedlings from 6 am to 6 pm.
The picking of tomato seedlings is carried out after the appearance of the second full-fledged leaf on the seedling. Individual seedling cups (as well as special cassettes or small pots) must be filled with soil mixture with the same composition as for planting seeds. Each container must be at least 10 cm high and at least 6 cm in diameter. First, the container is filled with soil only two-thirds of the volume and watering is carried out. The soil will settle down a little. Containers with seedlings are also pre-watered so that the earth is soft. The sprouts are gently pryed with a wooden or plastic stick and, together with a lump of earth, are transferred to a new container, the soil is poured, pressed a little and moistened again. With the correct picking, each sprout should be sprinkled with soil almost to the very leaves.
It is recommended to keep the seedlings in a dark room for the first 2 days after diving to facilitate the adaptation process in a new place and in new conditions.
Since tomatoes are prone to black leg disease, special attention should be paid to the volume and regularity of watering. On hot and dry days, watering is carried out every day, and the rest of the time - three times a week are enough. Do not forget about timely feeding. Fertilizers for tomatoes are recommended to be applied 2-3 times a month.
It will be possible to transplant seedlings into a greenhouse or greenhouse in 25-30 days.
How to dive tomato seedlings
Tomato seedlings are normally a pick, so many gardeners initially sow in a common container - a wooden or plastic box. But also tomato seedlings can be grown calmly and normally without picking. In this article, we tell you in detail and give step-by-step instructions on how to grow tomato seedlings without picking at home, toHow to properly care for seedlings that do not need to dive.
To achieve high yields, when choosing seeds, you should always read the recommendations on the package. Colorful photos of tomato varieties on seed bags should not mislead gardeners - tomatoes will grow well only if the variety is adapted to the local climate.
If it is printed on the bag that these are seeds for a greenhouse, they will not give a large yield in unprotected soil. Without a doubt, something will grow on them, but this will only be enough for summer salads, but not for preparations and conservation.
It is not necessary to plant varieties for open ground in greenhouses - they will not withstand high humidity and high temperatures.
Tomatoes will grow beautifully in pots and special boxes on the windowsill in urban apartments - then choose compact varieties with small fruits.
Before you buy tomato seeds based on the shape, color and weight of the fruit, you need to ask about the shape of the bush: the most productive are tall and large-fruited. But they will need the installation of supports during the fruiting period, they will need to be tied up.
The best varieties of tomatoes occupy as little space as possible on the site. If you make a choice in favor of low-growing varieties, you will need a large area to obtain the same harvest volume: 10 high varieties will give a crop equal to 50 bushes of low-growing tomatoes.
The varieties are chosen for food purposes: for fresh salads - juicy (you can have a thick skin), for conservation with vinegar - tomatoes with dense pulp, for tomatoes in their own juice and pasta - varieties with sweet pulp. Preserving thick-skinned tomatoes - you need to have a special skill, because it is almost never salted.
And the most useful advice is to take seeds based on the desired harvest time: for example, if tomatoes are needed for conservation, you need to buy seeds of late ripening varieties. For summer cottages and city dinners, take - early ripening species.
In addition to the age of the tomatoes, many gardeners take into account the recommendations of the Lunar calendar when picking.
The most favorable period for the procedure will be the moment when the Moon is in Virgo, but other days are also suitable.
Favorable days for picking tomatoes in 2021:
According to an ancient popular belief, it is better to practice picking on men's days of the week (Monday, Tuesday, Thursday).
The days of New Moon and Full Moon are unfavorable for working with plants. In March, these are the numbers 13 and 28, in April - 12 and 27.
At the end of winter, summer residents who are growing vegetables on their site begin sowing seeds for seedlings. And since tomatoes are one of the most popular vegetable crops, tomato seedlings are most often grown in the homes of gardeners. You can plant tomato seeds for seedlings both with a subsequent dive, and initially grow in such a way that you do not have to dive. Below we will talk specifically about the latter method.
To begin with, picking is a process in which seedlings are transplanted from a common container into individual containers, or from separate smaller containers into larger ones. The procedure is necessary so that plants can grow normally, develop, and build up the root system.
Thanks to the pick, the growth and nutrition area of the seedling expands. You can also reject weak, frail and sick seedlings by replanting only the strongest and healthiest specimens into a new container.
But some growers are wary of the picking process because it can do more harm than good. What does it mean? The fact is that if it is incorrect, inattentive and inaccurate to perform a pick, then you can damage the root system or the aerial part of the seedling, cause stress in the plant... And this, in turn, will make the seedlings weaker and frail, it will be more susceptible to disease, and in especially severe cases it may die.
Tomato seedlings are normally a pick, so many gardeners initially sow in a common container - a wooden or plastic box. But also tomato seedlings can be grown calmly and normally without this manipulation.
Note! Here provides information on picking tomato seedlings.
If you dive correctly and accurately and provide full care after, then, of course, there will be no problems with the seedlings. However, the method of planting and growing tomato seedlings without picking at home has very significant advantages:
Planting tomato seeds for seedlings without subsequent picking is done in almost the same way as for ordinary sowing.
You can read information on how and when to properly plant seeds for seedlings in this detailed article.
With any method, the landing technology is carried out according to the following algorithm:
But unlike the usual landing, for growing tomato seedlings without picking, it is necessary to initially select suitable planting containers! For these purposes, the following are ideal:
By the way! When sowing in peat cups or tablets, you can transplant seedlings into open ground directly into them, just make an incision on the side.
You need to initially choose bulk containersso that from the moment of sowing to planting in open ground, the plants do not become cramped in the container. The optimal volume is 1 liter. If you do choose a smaller container, please note that it should be not less than 0.5 liters!
But wooden or plastic containers, individual containers of small sizes should be left for planting and growing, followed by picking.
Before boarding, you must disinfect containers, for example, with a solution of potassium permanganate and make drainage holes, if they were not there initially (no holes need to be made in peat pots!). Peat tablets do not need to be disinfected and holes drilled in them, they should be prepared in a different way.
Before planting, the container is filled with earth by 1/3... In one individual container you need sow three seeds at a time... This is necessary in case some seeds do not germinate. And if 2 or 3 seedlings grow at once, then you can simply leave one, the strongest sprout, and carefully cut off the rest with sharp scissors. But if you want to get as many seedlings as possible, you can simply transplant the sprouted "extra" seedlings into other containers.
After sowing, seedlings will gradually appear, and as the seedlings grow, it is necessary to add soil to the container... This technology contributes to the growth of additional roots.
There is another interesting and profitable landing technology. - in soft bags from under any products (for example, milk, kefir) or in bags made independently of polyethylene. Examples of such cultivation in the photo:
The edges of the bag are wrapped and filled with earth according to the standard pattern. After sowing and sprouting, as it grows, the edges of the package unfold and the earth is poured into them.
The method of growing seedlings without picking in bags is very economical: you do not have to spend on planting containers.
If you do not have a sufficient number of planting containers, then you can plant tomato seeds for seedlings and in a common volumetric box. Subject to special technology, this can also be done without further picking:
Thus, tomato seedlings can be grown in a common container, but they do not need to be dived. Thanks to the partitions, the roots of different seedlings are not intertwined.
Caring for tomato seedlings at home, grown without picking, and according to the usual scheme, in fact, is no different. It is necessary to regularly water and monitor humidity, provide normal temperature conditions and lighting, and feed. Here here provides detailed information about how to properly care for tomato seedlings.
Caring for seedlings that are grown without picking has one main feature - you need to add soil as the seedlings grow!
Transplant tomato seedlings to a permanent place in open ground should be when the plant has 8-10 true leaves, and the height is about 25-35 centimeters. Also, the soil in the garden should warm up to + 12- + 15 ° C.
How to plant and grow tomato seedlings at home is up to you. For the sake of experiment, you can try to grow seedlings in the usual way and try the method of growing tomato seedlings without further picking. And then compare the results and decide which technology is more convenient and closer to your liking, in order to save your time and energy in the coming years.
There are several interesting picking methods that are the most popular and well known. Classic assumes simple transfer into separate containers. In this case, the glass must be filled with soil mixture by one third, place a seedling in it, sprinkle a little with earth. There are also other ways.
The option is suitable for those who do not have large areas for planting seedlings, since this is the most compact way. When using the snail method, the seedlings are well prepared for transplantation to a permanent place, and the soil in the container is warmed up in the best way.
The bottom line is to lay out a thin layer of nutritious soil on a long piece of tissue, in which the seeds must be placed. After that, cover the seedlings with the remaining matter and twist them into a spiral. It looks like a snail. Next, the tissue is placed in a suitable container and grown in a standard manner. As the seedlings grow, the roots of the seedlings do not intertwine. You can also monitor the condition of the plants and remove the weak, while leaving the good shoots at the desired distance from each other.
The easiest way is to transfer sprouts from the ground. Before starting work with the soil, it should be well watered. Even if before that the number of watering was reduced to prevent decay, when diving, the clods must be softened so as not to injure the delicate roots.
After all the moisture has been absorbed, each plant must be carefully pulled out of the ground using a spoon or other handy tool. Small holes should first be made in a new container. They should be smaller than the rootlets - this will promote the growth of the lateral processes. Pour some water into the hole to compact the earth. So, it will be easier for the seedling to strengthen in a new container. Cut the longest central root by about one third, place the tomato in the hole. Pour a little warm water so that the roots stretch out, sprinkle with soil, wrinkle a little.
In warm regions, it is allowed to dive tomatoes to a permanent place of growth under a shelter. It can be a greenhouse or a greenhouse. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the ground at a depth of about 25 cm warms up by at least 15. For transplanting, it is better to choose seedlings on which at least 6 true leaves have formed. Such sprouts quickly adapt to a new location and low temperatures.
The transplanting process is similar to picking from the ground. In areas with hot climates, you can plant seedlings directly into the open ground. In this case, it is necessary to regularly monitor the temperature and, when it drops, cover the plants with greenhouse film or other material.
You should not start picking pepper seedlings if the plants have only cotyledonous leaves. In such seedlings, the roots are still poorly developed, there is only a main root that is not able to take root after transplantation.
The need to pick a pepper creates problems for beginners. If the seeds were sown immediately in separate pots, then this operation is not necessary. Such seedlings will develop without problems until the time comes for disembarking to a permanent place.
When 2-4 true leaves appear, the peppers can dive... This will happen no earlier than after 2 weeks after sprouting, so plan to dive pepper seedlings according to the lunar sowing calendar 2021..
In March 2021 the number of works associated with the garden is increasing, you need to pay attention to the seedlings that were sown in February. The seedlings have grown, and it is required pick.
The best days in March 2021 to dive peppers are:
In April 2021 the seedlings of peppers should already be developing in their individual pots, but we will cite the most favorable April days for pepper picks:
Important! On April 27, the Earth's satellite will be in the Full Moon phase. On this day, you can not do any work related to seedlings.
In May 2021, according to the lunar calendar, favorable days for picking pepper seedlings are:
When deciding how to dive peppers and when, novice gardeners often overlook the need for careful preparation for this procedure. Before you start diving, you need to prepare a stock of soil, containers, study the technology of how to dive pepper seedlings.
Before diving the peppers into cups, it is important to prepare a nutritious loose mixture, one third consisting of organic matter - humus, compost, peat. Garden soil (two-thirds of the total volume) and sand (a liter jar per bucket of mixture) are added to the base. Add 1.5 tablespoons of superphosphate to a bucket of prepared soil, a tablespoon of ammonium nitrate and potassium sulfate each. Prepared in advance and equipped with drainage pots with a capacity of 200 ml are filled with soil.
Pepper picking is carried out using the following technology:
If the basic rules on how to dive peppers and when it is better to do it have been followed, the seedlings will recover in a week and fresh green leaves will indicate that the roots have begun to grow.
After the peppers have been dived into separate containers, the seedlings are placed in a warm, slightly shaded place for several days. Bright light can lead to wilting of the ground part of the seedlings, which will delay their growth. However, it is still better to put the pots in the place where the seedlings grew before transplanting - this way it will be easier for them to adapt. In this case, the role of the shade can be played by sheets of paper installed between the source of natural light and the pots.
Water the peppers after the top layer of the soil has dried 2-3 times a week, in the first days after transplantation, their number can be increased. 2 weeks after the pick, when the roots are restored, fertilization begins with an interval of 7-10 days and the nutrient solution is prepared from the following components (for 5 liters of water):
With the onset of heat, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers alternates with the introduction of organic matter.
Fertilizing with microelements, which are applied twice a month, will also be useful for peppers after diving,
If the cultivation of pepper takes into account the requirements of the plant, then an excellent harvest will be guaranteed, in addition, you can increase the yield if you know how to form the pepper correctly. When deciding how to dive peppers and when, it is important for novice gardeners to carefully study all aspects of this procedure. Pepper is a capricious culture that does not tolerate careless handling, only with delicate and competent care after transplanting you can get viable seedlings that will give a rich harvest.
It is not difficult to cut the peppers, you just need to choose the suitable days and age of the seedlings, and also act very carefully. With good care, the seedlings will quickly begin to grow after the end of the pick, and you will get strong seedlings that can give a decent harvest.
There are plenty of tips on how to grow tomatoes on a windowsill in an apartment on various forums and sites. This business requires tireless care for green "pets". Watering, loosening, lighting, pinching should be done regularly and lovingly. All indoor plants and vegetables are no exception; they respond to a warm, caring attitude. In addition, tinkering in a miniature vegetable garden in the winter is the best medicine to relieve the daily stress of the city. See the article: Tomatoes on the balcony: growing the most common varieties.