How to recognize and control potato diseases?


Potatoes are one of the most popular crops in the garden plots of Russians. But for some reason, many believe that you can just throw the tubers into the ground and forget about them until the fall. Often, with such "care", most of the crop is lost, because potatoes often suffer from various diseases. Therefore, the bushes should be regularly inspected for suspicious symptoms, and if they are found, appropriate measures should be taken immediately. Prevention is also important - after all, it is much easier to prevent a problem than to deal with it later.

How to deal with potato fungal diseases

Potato diseases caused by fungi are the most common. Their spread is facilitated by long-term cultivation of crops in one place, thickening of plantings, unsuitable soil, and poor-quality seed material. Also, don't plant potatoes next to other Solanaceae. They suffer from the same diseases, the pathogens of which are carried from plant to plant by insects.

Late blight (brown rot)

One of the most common diseases of potatoes, the spread of which is facilitated by heavy rainfall combined with heat. As a rule, it appears in early summer, about a month after the first shoots appear.

Dark, rapidly growing spots appear on the leaves and stems. The reverse side of the sheet is covered with a thick layer of pale gray "pile". If nothing is done, the fungus spreads to the forming tubers. They are covered with the same spots, the pulp in these places darkens, then rots.

Often, the gardener himself is to blame for the appearance of the disease, using already infected tubers from the last crop for planting. Seed potatoes must be carefully selected in the fall and re-examined in the spring.

Experienced gardeners, in order to protect the planting material, advise to mow all the tops 10–12 days before the expected harvest, leaving only the stems 7–10 cm high, and if this was not done, immediately remove the plant debris generated during the harvesting of potatoes from the garden. The tubers, which may well be healthy, quickly pick up the fungus from the infected leaves.

It is useful in the spring to shed a potato bed with a solution of Thanos or Ridomil in order to destroy the spores of the fungus, which may have overwintered in the soil. Planting material is sprayed 7-10 days before planting with Agatom-25, Planriz, Zircon.

Late blight is one of the most common potato diseases

When the first signs of late blight are detected, potatoes are sprayed with any fungicides. The most common of them are Bordeaux liquid and copper sulfate (5–10 g per 10 l), as well as Kuprozan, Oleocobrite, Kuproksat. If drugs of biological origin are used (Baktofit, Alirin-B, Binal, Pralin), they can be used up to 4-5 times per season. Necessarily - before hilling, before the tops close into a continuous carpet and as soon as the buds are formed.

There are also folk remedies. It is more expedient to use them for prophylaxis, repeating the treatment with an interval of 10-12 days starting from the moment of emergence:

  • Milk or whey. Diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio.
  • Wood ash. You can simply powder the leaves or prepare an infusion (a liter jar for 10 liters of boiling water). He is ready in a day. To make the product "stick" to the leaves better, add a little shavings of household or green potash soap.
  • Garlic infusion. For cooking, both cloves and "arrows" are suitable. 150 g of crushed raw materials are poured with 200 ml of warm water. Insist 2-3 days, filter before use, add another 10 liters of water and 0.5 g of potassium permanganate.
  • Infusion of horsetail. Crushed leaves and rhizomes (1.5-2 kg) are poured into 10 liters of water, infused for 3-5 days, filtered before use.
  • Iodine solution. 15 drops and a liter of milk per 10 liters of water.
  • Trichopolus. Tablet per liter of water. The frequency of processing is once every 15–20 days.
  • Compost. About 1 kg of raw materials is poured into 10 liters of water, insisted for 4-6 days. Before use add 15–20 g of any nitrogen-containing fertilizer.

Video: late blight of potatoes and the fight against it

Rhizoctonia (black scab)

The disease often manifests itself already at the stage of tuber germination. Some of them do not sprout at all, on others they look more like a spiral. This is due to the fact that tubers were selected for planting, covered with small black specks, as if adhered to soil particles. Since they can be easily scraped off with a fingernail, the defect was considered minor, and completely in vain. Bushes from such potatoes are stunted, with small leaves and thickened stems.

In general, the symptoms typical of rhizoctonia largely depend on the weather during the summer. In extreme heat and drought, the tubers are covered with deep cracks, if, on the contrary, it is damp and cold - with "ulcers", gradually growing deeper. On bushes, the disease manifests itself as a whitish, poplar-like plaque on the underside of the lower leaves and dry rot of the stems. Their base becomes thinner and darker, shoots are effortlessly pulled out of the soil.

When planting tubers affected by rhizoctonia, a large harvest can be avoided

For the prevention of rhizoctonia when growing potatoes in the same place for three years or more, the garden bed is spilled in the spring with Quadris solution. Tubers are sprayed 7–12 days before planting with Baktofit, Integral, Maxim, or soaked in solution for 10–15 minutes, reducing the concentration by half compared with the manufacturer's recommended one.

If a disease is detected during the summer, Ditan M45, Fenoram, Mancozeb, Kolfuto are used. During the season, no more than three treatments are allowed with an interval of 12-15 days. The last time - no later than 20 days before the expected harvest.

Alternaria (dry spot)

Most often, the source of the appearance of the disease is plant debris left in the garden since last year. Damp warm weather contributes to its spread.

Large brown-brown spots on the leaves are most typical for Alternaria. They rapidly increase in size, after 3-4 days their surface is covered with small gray-black dots. Leaves dry and die off, then similar spots appear on the stems. Alternaria and tubers are affected. They form depressed black-brown spots with a "wrinkled" surface. The pulp dries in these places, turns into beige dust.

In autumn, the potato bed must be cleaned of plant debris - this is the main source of the spread of Alternaria

In order to identify infected tubers in advance, it is recommended to keep them for 3-5 days at a temperature of 16-20 ° C before planting. When the smallest dark spots appear on the skin, they are immediately discarded. An alternative is pre-planting treatment with Reglon, BP.

During the summer, if suspicious symptoms are detected, Profit, Abiga-Peak, Poliram, Acrobat MC are used. For prevention, the first spraying can be carried out while the leaves are closing into a solid green carpet. No more than four treatments are allowed per season.

Varieties that are completely resistant to Alternaria do not yet exist, but Nevsky, Sineva, Lyubava, Master, Resource have increased resistance.

Fusarium wilting

The disease develops rapidly, seemingly completely healthy bushes wither in 3-5 days. Moderate heat (22–25 ° C) contributes to the spread of the fungus. The fungus enters the plant tissue through the roots, but first infects the upper leaves. They turn yellow, curl along the central vein, then wither and fall off. After that, the stems are covered with a pinkish-orange bloom, rot quickly spreads from these areas. Shoots are effortlessly removed from the ground, they are brown on the cut.

It is impossible to fight fusarium wilting, the disease develops very quickly

It is impossible to fight fusarium due to the rapidity of the development of the disease. For the prevention of potatoes before laying for storage or before planting, they must be greened by holding them in the light for 15–20 days. 7-10 days before planting, it is treated with a solution of copper sulfate (1-2 g / l) or boric acid (0.5 g / l). An alternative is soaking in a solution of fungicides (Maxim, Kolfugo Super Color, Fitosporin-M).

Do not get carried away with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. The excess in the soil reduces the plant's resistance to this disease. But potassium has the opposite effect, increasing immunity.

The varieties Detskoselsky, Priekulsky early, Berlichingen are resistant to fusarium. But it is still not absolute.

Verticilliasis

Most often, verticillary wilting begins to develop during potato flowering. Individual "lobes" of the lower leaves slightly wither and turn yellow at the edges. Then they become covered with light beige spots with a brighter yellow border. In hot, humid weather, the seamy side is covered with a pinkish-gray bloom. Further, the disease spreads to the stems, "streaking" them with thin dark brown strokes. Gradually the plant dries up, the aboveground part dies off.

The potato varieties Lorkh and Ermak have good resistance to verticillium. The fight against the disease is mainly in competent prevention, similar to that which is carried out to prevent the development of fusarium.

Not only potatoes, but also some other crops, for example, garden strawberries, suffer from verticillosis.

It is also good to feed the bushes 3-4 times during the season with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers or infusion of wood ash to increase their immunity. For spraying the leaves, a solution of potassium permanganate (10 g), boric acid (3 g), copper sulfate and zinc sulfate (2 g each) in 10 liters of water is used.

Having found the first warning signs, treat the bush with a solution of Previkur, Topsin-M, Trichodermin. But these drugs do not give a 100% guarantee of victory over the fungus.

Powdery mildew

Most often, potatoes planted in warm southern regions suffer from powdery mildew. Heat and high humidity are a prerequisite for the development of this disease. It is easy to identify it by dark brown spots of a round or oval shape. They appear on the surface of the sheet, but are clearly visible from the inside out. The spots gradually increase in size, spreading to the stems. Then their surface is covered with a thick layer of off-white powdery plaque, the tissues underneath turn gray and die off.

The whitish bloom that appears on the leaves seems relatively harmless, but in fact, powdery mildew is a dangerous disease.

The only way to deal with powdery mildew when the disease has gone far is to dig up and burn diseased bushes. Having found the first signs, the leaves are sprayed with Azocene, Bayleton, Tiovit, or a solution of soda ash (3-5 g / l). For prophylaxis, only the shoots that have appeared are dusted with colloidal sulfur or treated with a solution of any drug containing this trace element. During the summer, the procedure can be repeated 2-3 more times with an interval of 12-15 days.

Scab

Scab affects potato tubers, which, as a result, greatly lose their taste, their keeping quality is sharply reduced, as well as the content of starch and other nutrients. You can eat such potatoes if you first cut off the infected part.

The scab that struck the planting material is also spread over the next harvest. Such tubers germinate very reluctantly.

Scab is divided into several types:

  • Ordinary. The tubers are covered with dark brown "scabs" or raised small "warts" of a brick color. In severe cases, deep reddish-purple "ulcers" appear. Most often, early potatoes with a red skin suffer from it.
  • Powdery. Small light-beige "warts" on the skin are characteristic. Over time, they dry out, two deep intersecting cracks appear on the surface. Gradually, the tuber dries up and "mummifies".
  • Lumpy. Small swellings and bumps that do not differ in color from the skin. When this type of scab is affected, the percentage of starch in the tubers is sharply reduced.
  • Silver. The skin becomes covered with raised spots resembling pimples - a black dot on a whitish surface. Gradually they turn into slightly depressed silvery-beige "ulcers".

Photo gallery: types of potato scab

It is problematic to deal with scab, since it does not manifest itself on the plants themselves. To prevent the development of scab, tubers are sprayed with Polycarbacin before storage. For seed potatoes, the procedure is repeated 7-10 days before planting. He must be greened.

The fungus is most comfortable in alkaline soil. For its "acidification" use ammonium sulfate (40-50 g per 10 liters of water). It is necessary to abandon the fertilization of the beds with fresh manure, it is advisable to replace it with green manure (soybeans, mustard leaves, clover, lupine).

Video: how to deal with fungal diseases of potatoes

Diseases caused by bacteria

Fighting bacterial diseases is almost impossible. Moreover, they are very dangerous and can destroy almost the entire potato crop. Therefore, infected bushes must be immediately dug up and burned.

Ring rot

Its development is facilitated by the degeneration of the planting material during the propagation of potatoes in a vegetative way. At the same time, the disease may not manifest itself for a long time, being transmitted from generation to generation, in anticipation of suitable conditions - heat and low humidity.

Outside, nothing is noticeable on the tubers. Only if you cut them can you find a ring of yellowish-brown spots almost under the skin itself. In high humidity conditions, the pulp turns into a translucent slimy mass. On bushes, symptoms do not always appear. In some cases, the stems become thinner and turn yellow, the leaves become smaller and curl, the bush seems to "fall apart".

Ring rot can only be detected by cutting a potato tuber

There are no specific remedies for ring rot. To identify infected potatoes, planting material is heated for 2-3 weeks at a temperature of about 20 ° C. Those tubers, on which shallow black "pits" have appeared with the pulp softened under them, are immediately thrown away. In case of mass destruction, it is recommended to replace all planting material.

"Blackleg"

The disease affects not only potatoes, but also most vegetable crops. Cool rainy weather contributes to its development. Symptoms are noticeable as early as 2-3 weeks after the first shoots appear. The leaves turn yellow, curl into a tube, dry up, the stems turn black from below and begin to rot. It is very easy to pull them out of the soil. If nothing is done, the "black leg" will spread to the tubers, their pulp will begin to rot.

The bacterium-causative agent of the disease is carried by many insect pests of potatoes - the Colorado potato beetle, aphids, wireworms, leafhoppers. Therefore, it is also necessary to fight with them. It is worth paying attention to the varieties that are most resistant to disease - Ukrainian pink, Volzhanin, Iskra, Volshebnitsa.

Pre-planting prophylaxis consists in the treatment of tubers with Maxim, Integral, Baktofit. Dolomite flour and colloidal sulfur are added to the soil when preparing the beds.

"Black leg" affects not only potatoes, but also most horticultural crops, sometimes already at the seedling stage

When the first signs are found, the bushes are watered with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate and powdered with sifted wood ash. This will not kill the bacteria, but it will slow down the rate of disease progression. The holes formed on the site of the dug bushes are watered with a 2% solution of Bordeaux liquid or covered with a mixture of wood ash (a liter can) and copper sulfate (15–20 g).

Bacterial wilting

The disease is common mainly in the southern regions of Russia. The leaves turn yellow, the stems collapse in just a few days. Brown "streaks" are clearly visible on them - the affected vessels. Then the tops turn brown, the bases of the stems soften and rot. If you make a cut, a cloudy yellowish-creamy liquid will stand out from it.

Bacterial wilting develops rapidly

For prophylaxis, planting material is etched with a solution of Ditan M45, Rovral, Griffin 5-7 days before disembarkation. Processed potatoes are dried and kept under plastic wrap at a temperature of 20–22 ° C until planting.

Bacterial cancer

Potato cancer is a very dangerous disease, in Russia it occurs mainly in the North-West region and much less often in the middle lane. The varieties Nevsky, Zhukovsky early, Pushkinets have good immunity to it. The tubers, roots and stems are covered with ugly growths. Small at first, they quickly increase in size and change color from greenish-beige to black-brown.

Bacterial cancer is a very dangerous disease that can lead to a quarantine

The discovery of potato crayfish should be reported immediately to the plant protection inspectorate. It is strictly forbidden to eat such tubers and feed them to animals. There are no effective remedies for the disease, so quarantine is likely to be announced.

You can minimize the risk of disease by observing crop rotation and placing potato beds away from other Solanaceae. Also, do not purchase planting material, the quality of which cannot be vouched for.

Crop-Dangerous Viruses

Viral diseases are the most dangerous for potatoes. Effective measures against them, as well as against bacterial ones, do not yet exist. Infection occurs through direct contact of diseased plants with healthy ones. Or viruses are carried by insects, primarily aphids and leafhoppers.

Mosaic virus

Hot, dry weather contributes to the spread of the mosaic virus. If it appears, you can lose up to a third of the future harvest. This disease is divided into several types:

  • Striped mosaic. Most often it appears during budding. The front side of the leaf is covered with yellowish-green stripes, the back side is covered with brownish spots. The stems become thinner, often breaking under their own weight. For prevention, potatoes are sprayed with Bravo, Shirlan fungicides.
  • Wrinkled mosaic. The leaf tissue between the veins is covered with wrinkles. Gradually, they nod and dry out, but do not fall off, acquiring an unnatural bronze tint. For prophylaxis, Ditan, Ridomil are used.
  • Speckled mosaic. The leaves are covered with randomly located pale green spots of various shapes. The most dangerous of all types of mosaics, yield losses reach 50% or more. Preparations for prevention - Quadris, Revus.

Photo gallery: different types of potato mosaic

The first time potato seedlings are sprayed 7-10 days after they appear. Processing during budding is also required. During the season, 1-2 more procedures can be performed with an interval of 12-18 days.

Rolling the leaves

The virus that causes potato leaves to roll is transmitted through the soil and is also carried by the wind. Dry hot weather contributes to its spread. The leaves roll up in a "boat" or "tube", acquire an unnatural yellowish or pinkish tint, break with a crunch at the slightest touch.

Not only plants but also tubers suffer from it. If you try to germinate them next spring, the sprouts will either not appear at all, or will be very thin, threadlike.

Sometimes the leaves of potatoes can curl from the heat, but most likely this is a dangerous virus

Infected plants must be destroyed as soon as possible. Particular attention will have to be paid to the quality of the planting material, immediately rejecting tubers with long thin sprouts.

Tuber necrosis

The damage caused by the virus is practically invisible from the outside. Sometimes small yellowish dots may appear on the leaves, and individual flowers may be deformed, but this is not a necessary sign. Only if you cut the potato do dark spots and streaks in the flesh become visible. At the edges, they rot, if the process of the development of the disease has gone far, mucus oozes from the place of the incision. You cannot eat such tubers.

Potato tubers infected with necrosis virus should not be eaten.

Yield losses in case of tuber necrosis development can be 25-50%. No chemicals will help protect the crop. The only effective preventive measure is the most careful selection of planting material and regular crop rotation. Most often, the virus affects potatoes grown in unsuitable soil - and too light, sandy, and marshy, muddy.

Gothic tubers

Tubers infected with this virus greatly lose their presentability, although this does not particularly affect the taste. The starch content in them is reduced by 15–20%.

Potatoes become smaller, strongly elongate, becoming like a spindle. The number of "eyes" in them increases, they are located in small depressions. Yield losses are within 20%. Sometimes the Gothic can be identified by the leaves - they shrink, acquire an uncharacteristic ink tint, the skin of the tubers is painted in the same color.

The virus that causes the Gothic tubers mainly affects their appearance.

The virus from diseased tubers is transmitted to the future harvest, so it is not worth planting deformed potatoes. It is also transmitted by direct contact in the presence of mechanical damage to the skin, it is carried by aphids, Colorado beetles, grasshoppers, bedbugs.

There are no potato varieties that are immune to the virus. The best prevention is regular crop rotation, the use of green manure plants and disinfection of garden tools. We must not forget about the fight against harmful insects. If there are a lot of diseased tubers, it is better to store them separately from healthy ones.

How potatoes can get sick during storage

It is no less important than growing a potato crop to be able to preserve it until next spring. To do this, you need to create an optimal microclimate. A dark, well-ventilated room is best suited, in which a constant temperature is maintained at 2–4 ° C and humidity within 75–80%.

Even with a slight deviation from these parameters, a significant part of the crop can be destroyed by diseases, primarily fungal ones. Therefore, stored potatoes should be regularly inspected, and if there are any suspicious signs, they should be thrown away immediately.

Most often, the harvested crop in the cellar suffers from the following diseases:

  • Late blight. Gray-brown "dents" appear on the skin of the tubers, and thin brownish "streaks" appear in the pulp. Potatoes affected by the fungus quickly rot. It penetrates into tubers through the smallest cracks in the peel, not to mention mechanical damage received during the harvesting process. To prevent the development of late blight, potatoes are sprayed with any fungicide and dried a day or two before storage.
  • Rhizoctonia. It most often develops during storage if the potatoes were harvested too late. Small growths on tubers, similar to adhered soil, turn into black-gray "moss" under conditions of high temperature and humidity. The pulp under these "ulcers" dries up, turning into beige dust. For prophylaxis, potatoes intended for storage are sprayed with a solution of Planriz, Agata-25.
  • Dry fusarium rot. Most often it develops towards the end of winter. The tubers become covered with dull gray spots of irregular shape, then dents form in these places. The pulp under them dries up, the resulting voids are filled with yellow-gray "dust". The fungus is transmitted from diseased tubers to healthy ones by direct contact, especially if the latter has mechanical damage or droplets of moisture. The best prevention is to ensure optimal storage conditions.
  • Wet bacterial rot. Of all diseases, it develops the fastest, the tuber completely rots in 10-12 days. It manifests itself rather quickly, already in the first 4–5 weeks of storage. The skin darkens and oozes mucus, the pulp softens, turning into a grayish-brown gruel that exudes an unpleasant odor. It is possible to prevent the development of the disease by maintaining the required temperature and humidity in the storage facility, and regularly airing it.
  • Phoma rot. The only way to "catch" the disease is mechanical damage to the skin. Its source can be soil or tops. Rounded spots appear on the tubers with the skin as if tightly stretched over them. Then their surface cracks, overgrown with a grayish-beige bloom. The pulp turns brown and dries. Phomosis develops only at elevated (10 ° C and more) temperatures, therefore, this indicator must be carefully monitored.

Photo gallery: storage potato diseases

Video: how to properly store potatoes

Other problems

Sometimes, during harvesting, other damage is noted on the tubers, not caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi, but by the influence of environmental factors, if they are very different from those that the potatoes need for normal growth and development. These are known as non-communicable or functional diseases. Most often, such damage drastically shortens the shelf life of potatoes.

  • Darkening of the tuber pulp. In some places it takes on a grayish or brownish color. Most often this is due to a deficiency of potassium in the soil. Other possible reasons may be extreme heat or, conversely, too cold summer, as well as blows and pressing that did not damage the skin. At the same time, spots of pinkish or lilac color in potatoes, the skin of which is painted in the same shade, are not a defect.
  • Glandular spot. Copper-rusty "stains" in the pulp. Formed most often during severe drought, their number increases with calcium deficiency and excess iron in the soil.
  • Cracks in the skin. They are a consequence of the growth of the tuber "jerky", which is provoked by a sharp alternation of drought and abundant watering, the introduction of fertilizers in doses exceeding the optimal ones.
  • Hollow in the pulp. Most often formed in the largest potatoes. The reason is insufficient watering, as well as potassium deficiency.
  • Green skin tone. It appears when the tubers have been in direct sunlight for a long time. It is impossible to eat such potatoes due to the increased concentration of solanine in it, but it is perfect for planting next year. The thickened "poisonous" skin will reliably protect it from pathogens and all kinds of pests.
  • Freezing. Potatoes do not tolerate even small freezing temperatures. The pulp of such potatoes acquires an unnatural pinkish tint, quickly turns black on the cut. When pressed, a translucent liquid oozes from the tuber.
  • Strangulation. In places where future sprouts appear, whitish growths are formed, similar to warts. This is due to the fact that potatoes are grown in too "heavy" soil, which prevents normal aeration.
  • "Doubling" of tubers and other deformations. Caused by the sudden change in weather conditions during the summer.

Photo gallery: non-communicable potato diseases

Growing potatoes, despite all the seeming simplicity, is a rather complicated procedure. With improper care, the crop can be affected by many pathogenic fungi, viruses, bacteria that can deprive the gardener of most or even all of the crop. You will have to spend a lot of time and effort to fight them, so do not forget about competent prevention. Not insured against diseases and tubers harvested for storage. In this case, it is very important to create an optimal microclimate for them.

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Description of cabbage diseases in the open field, treatment and control of them

The bacterium, scientifically called Pectobacterium carotovorum, is found throughout the world. Most often it affects leafy vegetables, pumpkin crops and nightshades.

The risk of infection for cabbage persists at all stages of its growing season. Especially the development of the disease is promoted by high humidity and overripening of heads of cabbage in the beds. And the most vulnerable periods for a vegetable are transportation and storage.

The outer leaves are the first to suffer - spots appear on them, merging into one slimy conglomerate of a brown hue. The mucous area gradually moves towards the cabbage stem.

If you cut a cabbage affected by mucous bacteriosis, an abundance of dark wet rot with a foul smell emanating from it will open to your eyes.

To prevent cabbage disease, you must:

  • avoid excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers
  • protect vegetables from pests that injure the outer covers
  • transport carefully
  • observe the storage regime
  • use special means to protect against rot
  • stick to a 2-3 year crop rotation
  • remove plant residues from the soil surface.

It is equally important to notice the onset of the disease in time so that the affected vegetables do not end up in storage along with a healthy harvest.


Why is the potato nematode dangerous?

Nematoda sucks sap from plants and blocks the supply of nutrients. The plant gradually dries out, the roots become too branched. Potato tubers are shallow or not formed at all.

The activity of the pest in the 1st years is invisible, but in the 3-4th year all its signs appear. The danger of a nematode is that it spreads easily. It is carried by wind, water, tools, shoes. The crop yield can be reduced from 60% to 80%.


Striped mosaic

The causative agent of the striped mosaic of potatoes is the Y virus. The first signs of the disease appear on the lower and middle leaves of the bush. Light specks of a mosaic type appear on them, that is, of an irregular shape. If at this time you do not begin to pluck and burn the affected leaves, then soon, along with the spots, dark stripes and dots will begin to appear.

All of them are located at the bottom of the leaf along its central vein, and then the entire surface is affected by the mosaic. This can be seen in the photo of the leaves of a potato with mottling.

Dark spots or streaks spread over the stems of the potato. This happens when the gardener stubbornly ignores the above signs of the disease. Further, the stems become brittle, dry quickly.

The striped mosaic on potatoes usually occurs before the flowering of the bushes.

The Y virus enters potatoes along with the seed. It can also be delivered by insects or birds. With their help, the virus spreads to neighboring bushes.

You need to carefully consider the choice of seed. All tubers showing dark spots or necrotic rings are not suitable for planting.

Treatment

The striped mosaic, however, like other viral diseases of the potato tops, is still incurable. There is no cure for this virus. However, with early detection of striped mosaic, the bush can be saved if all affected leaves are cut off in time. With a late discovery, the gardener has no choice but to uproot the bush and burn it.

Prevention

The only preventive way to protect potato tops from mosaics is careful selection of the seed and impeccable care of the entire area.


Causes of potato late blight

Oomycete, which is the causative agent of the disease, plants are obtained from the soil. Spores can get into the ground not only during the migration of conidia, but also in other ways:

  • through contaminated equipment - during the planting of tubers
  • with fungus-infected seed
  • with compost containing infected tops
There may be pathogenic fungi
  • during watering with water in which fungal spores are present
  • oversaturation of the soil with nitrogen or an insufficient amount of copper, potassium, phosphorus in it.

On the shovel, there are spores that got there from the soil when digging a site. Therefore, before using the equipment for planting, it should be processed.

Birds, insects, rodents, and domestic animals are carriers of the late blight pathogen. Disputes easily get on clothes and shoes, and from there to the garden and cellar.


Potato pests: photo, description and treatment, the fight against flea and scoop

Potatoes can be safely called the most popular vegetable of Russians. The demand for tubers is high all year round, so many varieties have been bred by breeders. Unfortunately, the fruits of the potato were to the taste not only of humans, but also of insect pests. Every agronomist, breeder, and just a gardener who respects his work should know at least the minimum ways to combat such insects.

There are several pests of potatoes, each has its own characteristics of life and harms the crop. To defeat parasites, you should carefully read the description of the treatment of an already infected area. If a pest is found on the plantation, this is not a reason to give up, it is necessary to mobilize all forces for the fight.

The life cycle of each insect is unique, which means that everyone destroys the crop in different ways. To fight pests as efficiently as possible, you need to determine which insects you have to deal with and choose the right method.

A universal remedy for controlling potato pests has not yet been invented. Each insect needs a specific approach. Below are the main pests of potatoes with photos, their descriptions, as well as methods of dealing with them.

Colorado beetle

Adult beetles are about a centimeter long, have an orange head and a light yellow body with black stripes. They hibernate in the soil and appear in late spring at about the same time when the first shoots of potatoes hatch, which the beetles eat. They lay small orange eggs on the inside of their leaves.

Young larvae are red with black heads. In warm weather, the development of the larva of the pest occurs in just 10 days. In regions with long, hot summers, potato beetles can have two or more generations each year.

For potato beds, Colorado beetles are a real disaster, because they can leave a bush without foliage. Potato plants usually survive a bush infestation early in the season. But damage is serious if it occurs when the potato tubers are actively growing, usually immediately after flowering.

Colorado potato beetles also feed on any plant related to potatoes, including peppers, tomatoes, and eggplants. If this pest is found on the site, you must immediately begin to fight it. Attempts to get rid of insects should be continued until they are massively lying upside down.

Potato flea

They are small and shiny beetles, but with large hind limbs. Their eggs are laid at the base of the plant stems in early summer, after a feeding period. Larvae feed on roots, and adult beetles feed on foliage, producing chips.

The potato flea usually does not cause fatal damage to potato plants because the leaves are too large for them. The real danger is that these insects can spread bacterial diseases from plant to plant.

Wireworms

They are popularly called the drotyanka - these are the larvae of the nutcracker beetles. They are a problem in many vegetable gardens, especially those that have recently been covered with grass. Wireworms grow up to 25 mm in length, have a thin yellowish-brown body.

Harmful insects feed on seedlings, roots and stems. The affected roots of an infected plant cease to perform their functions normally, but the main damage occurs in the tubers, in which they gnaw through many passages. The larval stage can take up to four years before the larvae pupate and develop into adult nutcracker beetles.

Wireworms are most harmful in newly plowed, grass-free land, but become less abundant with regular cultivation because adult beetles prefer to lay their eggs in grassy soil.

Cicadas

This potato pest is similar to aphids or moths. It feeds on plant sap, which means it spoils potato tops. In the place where the leafhopper begins to gnaw a leaf, damage is formed, and over time, the tissues die off.

By itself, the leafhopper is not capable of causing great harm to the plant, but bacteria and harmful spores penetrate the plant through the damaged places, which can cause the disease of the potato bush.

And the insect itself is a carrier of diseases.

Potato moth

Outwardly, this pest looks like an ordinary house moth, but its target is a potato bush. Most often, the female insect makes a clutch of eggs on potato leaves. When the larvae appear, they fall to the ground and burrow into it until they reach the potato tuber. The larvae bite into the tuber most often through the "eyes".

The ripening time of the potato moth population is from 17 to 125 days, depending on the temperature. This means that in a hot year, several populations can change, which makes this insect a dangerous potato pest.

Potato scoop

The potato scoop is another insect that does most of the damage during the caterpillar stage. They appear in mid to late spring and initially feed on the leaves of wild grasses. Further, cultivated plants, including potatoes, are already under threat.

The larva eats up the stem of the plant and eats away at the core. The caterpillar often damages the potato tubers. The damaged areas of the healthy pulp of the plant become covered with mucus and begin to rot.

Potato nematodes

The potato nematode is a serious pest of potatoes and is subject to strict quarantine and regulatory procedures wherever it is detected. Nematodes can lay eggs twice a year (up to 1200 pieces). When a bush is infected with nematodes, the potato tops wither, and the lower leaves turn yellow.

The following types of nematodes are distinguished:

  • golden
  • stem
  • gallic.

The first signs of a nematode appear by the harvesting period. Brown spots are visible at the point of entry of the parasite. If such places are noticed, you need to carefully sort out the potatoes.

How to deal with potato pests

Potato pests and the fight against them are an urgent problem for almost all gardeners. Effective measures to combat garden pests exist, they can be fully used. After planting potato bushes, it is necessary to constantly monitor, and as soon as traces of the presence of one of the pests are noticed, take the necessary measures to curb the spread.

Chemicals

To get rid of the Colorado potato beetle, it is best to use insecticides (Sonnet, Apache, Confidor, Aktara, Mospilan). The products must be applied at least three times. Stop processing at least 20 days before harvesting potatoes.

These same preparations are good for getting rid of potato moths. Against the wireworm, it is better to bring Bazudin into the holes when planting potatoes. It is advisable to use chemical agents if other methods do not work.

Folk remedies

The folk methods of fighting the Colorado potato beetle include mechanical collection and destruction of all insects, spraying potato bushes with infusions of celandine and basil. Poplar branches with foliage are also stuck between the rows of potatoes, in this case the beetle will not lay eggs.

Against the wireworm, the method of trapping the pest with bait in the form of potatoes buried in the ground is used before planting seed tubers. Treating the soil with urea or irrigation with chicken droppings will help ward off the nematode.

It is useful to alternate crops on the land, and process the affected fruits with lime. Watering small areas with a weak solution of potassium permanganate can also be attributed to successful methods of preventing the appearance of beetles.

Agrotechnical techniques

Subject to the agrotechnical methods of protecting potatoes, the chances of the appearance of pests or diseases, although not reduced to zero, are minimized. These techniques include:

  • crop rotation, that is, the alternation of crops when growing them
  • adding crops to the potato beds that repel insect pests
  • fertilizing the soil
  • destruction of weeds and plant residues
  • correct timing and methods of sowing
  • use of resistant varieties
  • proper irrigation.

The combination of these methods of pest control (chemical, folk, agrotechnical) contributes to the correct and healthy development of plants and significantly increases their resistance to various kinds of parasites and potato diseases.

With long-term planning of the site, it is worth paying attention to agrotechnical methods. This will avoid many problems at an early stage. Folk remedies are easy to use. Chemicals should be used only if others do not bring the desired result.


Viral diseases

The main distributors of viruses are insects - aphids, thrips, nematodes. Diseases of this nature are less common, but they pose a greater threat.

A distinctive feature of such diseases is the destruction of plant cells by the virus. As a result, it leads to pathologies in the development, growth and deformations of different parts of the bushes.

Tobacco mosaic

This disease received this name because the virus destroys chlorophyll. As a result, spots appear that form a marble pattern on the leaves. Plant cells gradually die off.

What to do to fight:

  • Treat the seeds before planting.
  • When diving and transplanting, do not allow damage through which the virus can penetrate.
  • Periodically, you need to process the bushes from the pests of the vectors of this disease.
  • Plant residues should not be left in greenhouses and the premises and soil should be disinfected regularly.

One week before transplanting, pepper seedlings are treated with boric acid. This procedure is repeated again a week after disembarkation.

Pillar

The second name is phytoplasmosis. It manifests itself from the upper shoots of pepper, the edges of the leaves roll up and dry out. In the future, this is thrown over the entire bush of the plant, the fruits take on an irregular shape and turn red ahead of time.

The causative agents are insects, so the main fight is with them. Affected plants must be removed and disposed of, and after harvesting, the soil must be treated with special preparations.


Watch the video: How to control. potato blight. Latest upload 2018


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