Growing early tomatoes is always challenging, especially for beginners. Experienced gardeners know firsthand about the pickiness of tomatoes, and why they share useful information with those who need it. With good care and constant attention, tomatoes after transplanting into a greenhouse will give a rich harvest.
Meeting deadlines and good seedling is a guarantee that the transplanting work is done correctly. Otherwise, the seedlings will take root for a long time, hurt and bear little fruit.
Planting times depend on some factors that need to be considered:
Transplanting seedlings into greenhouses begins in the end of April... During this period, planting is carried out in unheated greenhouses made of film. In polycarbonate greenhouses, planting work can begin a week earlier... For heated greenhouses, the seedlings are transplanted in the last days of March, early April... In the middle lane and in the south of Russia, these terms are ideal.
There will be no problems in these regions, since the seedlings have enough heat for the growing season. In Siberia, Moscow and Leningrad regions, transplanting ahead of schedule is a risky undertaking. You can shift the dates if you are sure that all the necessary conditions have been created inside and that there is heating.
To get seedlings on time for early transplanting, seeds are sown 60 days before planting.
Transplanting seedlings begins with soil preparation Is a very important process. If you follow all the recommendations, you can achieve success in growing tomatoes.
In order to avoid contamination of the soil with pests and diseases, it is not recommended to plant tomatoes in one place for several years in a row. The place needs to be changed, the best predecessors will become - cucumbers.
Mandatory measures for preparing the soil inside greenhouses:
Tomato bushes are transplanted when the greenhouse soil warms up to a temperature 15-16 degrees, around the beginning of May. To speed up this process, the primer can be additionally covered with a film. The sun will warm up the greenhouse, and the covering material will allow the soil to warm up faster.
If the greenhouse with heating - these measures are optional. Additional heating will create a comfortable environment for early vegetables.
You can get an early harvest thanks to agronomic methods of accelerating the set and ripening.
Preparatory work for the new season must begin in the fall. During the growing season, many pests and diseases accumulate inside the greenhouse. If they are not destroyed, they will begin to destroy the planted vegetables with renewed vigor.
Preparations for the new season consist of the following stages:
Conduct an audit of the greenhouse structure, check the fixings that are out of order, replace them.
I change the contents of the beds or partially fill with new soil to a depth 10 cm, disarm the earth, loosen and fertilize. Check the integrity of the barriers, if any. The garden bed must be fully prepared for planting seedlings.
If the greenhouse is made of glass or polycarbonate and there is heating, you can transplant tomatoes much earlier than the deadlines (with the onset of stable weather). Therefore, it is so important to carry out preparatory work in the beds in advance, before transplanting the seedlings, so that everything is ready in the spring.
According to the advice, the best varieties of tomatoes for greenhouse cultivation in the far northern regions are Verlioka, Arctic, Yamal, in the south of the country - Taman, pink Saladny, Shiva.
Most often, the beds inside the greenhouses are organized along, their width is 0.5-1 m... The number of beds depends on the size of the greenhouse. There should be a passage between the beds. As for the planting scheme, it depends on the variety of tomatoes.
Common varieties are traditionally planted at a distance from each other. 35 cm... Pay attention to the scheme, too densely planted bushes will not give a good harvest, they can rot or get sick.
After transplanting, the plant experiences a state of stress, even if all the rules are followed, the bushes need rest.
Tomatoes should be sprinkled, as soon as they take root well and start to sprout... Before this, hilling should not be done, since the roots can be damaged. In addition to watering, tomatoes will need airing and feeding over time. After 3-4 days, the plant will need some kind of support or twine to tie the bushes to it.
Compliance with the rules existing among gardeners at first glance may seem superfluous. However, as practice shows, step-by-step preparatory work for transplanting allows you to grow a decent harvest of early tomatoes.
Today it is impossible to imagine a garden without the most popular vegetables - tomatoes. With proper care, they grow well and produce large yields. It is often necessary to transplant these plants. Such an event not only has a positive effect on tomatoes, strengthens them, but also allows you to increase yields significantly. Next, we will consider the features of transplanting tomatoes and how many times it should be done.
Most gardeners, when working on a personal plot, take into account a number of factors: climate, weather, properties of varieties. The lunar calendar, compiled on the basis of long-term observations of the cycles and phases of the moon, helps to choose the date. It has different effects on plants:
Planting tomatoes according to the lunar calendar makes it easier to choose the date. In a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is easier to maintain optimal temperature and humidity. Therefore, the gardener can draw up a work plan for the season without fear of frost or heavy rains.
After choosing a variety, it is necessary to calculate the dates for the waxing moon. It is not recommended to deal with seeds and seedlings 2 days before and after the full moon. It is better to devote this time to soil preparation, fertilization, soil disinfection. It is necessary to plant tomato seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse according to the lunar calendar in 2021 according to the table:
There are unfavorable days when the moon negatively affects the growth of tomatoes. When planting seeds, the seedlings do not emerge, they often die from the "black neck" and rot, and have poor immunity. It is better to refuse to work in the greenhouse in the following period:
On neutral days that are not marked in the table, you can harvest, dive and feed, and thin out seedlings. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the variety, the presence of heating, the method of planting.
It is necessary to transfer the seedlings to a polycarbonate greenhouse taking into account the weather conditions. In the absence of heating in the middle lane, the Moscow region and the Leningrad region, it is better to postpone work until the last decade of April - the first week of May. During this period, frosts appear more often, which can damage the root system.
Tomatoes should be planted in an unheated greenhouse in the Urals and Siberia no earlier than the second half of May. The soil warms up well, a positive average daily temperature is established. Favorable days for planting tomatoes - May 17, 21, 26-28. When transplanted in June, the fruits may not have time to ripen before harvest.
Transplanting seedlings to a new location in the greenhouse is very stressful for the plants. The root system of tomatoes takes time and effort to adapt to new conditions. To facilitate adaptation and in order not to postpone the harvest, tomato seedlings should be prepared.
Before the transplant in two weeks seedlings must be hardened. To do this, in the rooms where it grows, the vents are opened for the whole day. In the early days, in sunny weather, the seedlings are brought out to the balcony or loggia for 2-3 hours, gradually increasing the hardening time to a whole day. In warm weather, you can leave it overnight. It is even better if it is possible to harden the seedlings immediately in the greenhouse, where they will then be transplanted. This is also done gradually, starting from 2-3 hours and bringing to the whole day... Weather permitting it is good to leave it in the greenhouse overnight. Seasoned tomato seedlings take on a purple tint to the stem and to the back of the leaves.
Indicators that tomatoes are ready for transplant are:
The age of seedlings suitable for planting in a greenhouse depends on the variety of the tomato and ranges from 30 (for early maturing) to 45 (for late maturing varieties) days. However, younger seedlings, provided that they have well-developed thick stems with highly branched roots, take root better, even if their age is somewhat younger than above. Overgrown plants are more troublesome, they break more easily and their survival rate decreases.
Grown plants should be planted in the evening or in cloudy weather, when the heat has subsided. In this case, tomatoes are easier to adapt to a new place. The cotyledons and yellowed leaves are removed from the plant, the pots are watered abundantly with water so that when the seedlings are removed from them, the root system is not damaged.
When planting tomato seedlings, it should be borne in mind that the ground temperature should warm up to 15 degrees Celsius at a depth of at least 40 cm. It is at this depth that the roots of the transplanted plants will be. To quickly warm up the soil in the greenhouse, you can cover it with a black film that attracts the sun's rays and will give off heat to the soil. In this way, you can increase the temperature by 4-5 degrees.
It is important to take into account the light regime of the day at the time of transplanting tomato seedlings. Short daylight hours delay the development, flowering and fruiting of tomatoes. If the daylight hours are less than 14, then the planted seedlings must be provided with additional lighting. The temperature for normal development should be around 18 degrees. A short-term drop in temperature is allowed, for example, at night, to 12-15.
There are two ways to plant tomatoes:
A week before the planned planting of seedlings, in both cases, holes are dug with a shovel or hoe. Complex fertilizers or natural fertilizers are introduced into the holes: humus, ash, manure. The depth of the holes should be calculated for burying the tomato stem into the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm, provided that the seedlings have not overgrown.
If the seedlings have grown over 40 cm in height, it is recommended to plant it obliquely. For this, the holes are made elongated so that part of the stem can be laid in it. A deepened tomato stalk is capable of producing additional roots, but as a result, the overgrown plant spends more time on rooting, which is acceptable in the southern regions, but not very good for the more northern ones due to the lack of sunny days. The stem that goes deep into the ground should not have leaves, otherwise they will start to rot and can infect the entire bush.
When planting in mud, the dug hole is poured with water and stirred until the consistency of liquid mud. Carefully removed seedlings lowered into a hole and covered with soil. With the dry method, a well-moistened clod of earth with plant roots is placed in a hole without water. Watering is done in a week. At the same time, it is believed that the roots receive more oxygen and take root better.
The distance between the holes is kept in accordance with the height of the adult plant. Close-planted tomatoes will lack nutrients and may produce less yields. And too much distance reduces the greenhouse area useful for planting and growing tomatoes. It is optimal for low-growing determinant varieties of tomatoes to observe a distance of 40 cm, for medium-sized varieties - 45 cm, for high indeterminate - not less than 50-60 cm.
It is convenient to plant tomato seedlings in a checkerboard pattern, then the plants have more space for the development of the root system. It is necessary to make holes with a distance from the walls of the greenhouse so that the plants do not have obstacles to growing up.
For watering tomato seedlings and adult bushes, you need to take only warm water. Its temperature should not be lower than 15 degrees. Cold water dramatically lowers the temperature of the soil and plants can get sick, for example, late blight. Drip irrigation application solves this problem, because the water has time to warm up on the way to the roots.
Thus, it is not difficult to plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, but you can get a harvest earlier and more.
Before you start planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is important to pay attention to the seedling variety. Indeed, the landing pattern depends on its height. For example, for undersized, early ripening hybrids, a checkerboard planting with 2 rows and a half-meter distance between them is suitable. Between the holes in a row, it is advisable to leave up to 40 cm. Such tomatoes are best planted around the perimeter of the greenhouse.
For crops with limited growth, experts also advise a checkerboard pattern with similar aisles, only between the bushes you need to retreat up to 25 cm. Tall varieties can be planted in one or two stems. The first method provides for row spacings up to 80 cm wide, and the distance between the stems up to 60 cm.And the second option is carried out by increasing the gaps between adjacent bushes up to 75 cm.
If you prefer to combine several varieties, do not forget to take into account the illumination of each of them - neighbors should not create shadow and discomfort. Experienced vegetable growers place low-growing early ripening along the edges of the structure, and tall giants are planted in the center (and preferably closer to the aisle).
When you have decided on these nuances, you can proceed directly to the preparation of the landing holes. They are made up to 15 cm deep. Fertilizers are not applied, since this was done during the preparation of the soil. If desired, in each recess, you can pour half a glass of wood ash and pour it well with warm, settled water.
Planting seedlings must be carried out carefully so as not to destroy the root ball of earth and not to damage the stems. To do this, it must be abundantly moistened in advance. After that, place the seedlings in the holes and cover with fresh soil. Experts advise against deeply deepening the plants. This will affect their further development and growth rates. But in order for the stems to grow strong, they need to be planted at an angle. Over time, additional roots will appear on the sprouts, which will contribute to the vitality of the tomatoes.
Having decided to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, the gardener should know some of the nuances. For example:
After the greenhouse is built, you can proceed directly to growing tomatoes in the greenhouse. This process should consist of several mandatory steps:
Outwardly, greenhouse tomatoes are indistinguishable from ground ones: absolutely any varieties of tomatoes can be grown in a greenhouse. But nevertheless, special tomatoes have been selected, intended specifically for indoor ground. Such varieties have a number of features:
Having decided on the variety of tomatoes for your greenhouse, you can go for seeds. If tomato seeds are selected, enclosed in colored capsules, they will not need additional processing before sowing - the capsule already contains all the substances necessary for normal and rapid development.
Untreated seeds will need to be prepared for sowing seedlings:
Now the seeds can be planted in the prepared substrate. The soil for tomato seedlings should be slightly acidic, loose, retaining moisture well and allowing air to pass through. A mixture of equal parts of such ingredients is suitable: peat, turf soil, humus.
You can add a liter can of coarse river sand and the same amount of wood ash to the mixed soil. Now the earth needs to be disinfected, for this you can freeze it on the street (if the temperature is below freezing there) or hold it for about 30 minutes in the oven (you can use it in the microwave).
A solution of potassium permarganate is considered a good antiseptic - it is simply poured over the earth laid in a container. By the way, containers for tomato seedlings should be shallow - about 5-7 cm high. So, the root system can develop normally.
At the bottom of each pot or box for tomato seedlings, drainage from pebbles, bark or gravel is laid. Pour the substrate on top and tamp it a little. Now they make depressions and place the germinated prepared tomato seeds in them. The seeds are covered with a thin layer of fine soil and sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle.
Containers with tomato seedlings are covered with glass or foil and placed in a very warm place - there they will be there until green sprouts appear.
As soon as tomato loops begin to appear from under the ground, the shelter is removed, and the containers with seedlings are placed on the windowsill or in another bright and warm place.
Like regular seedlings, greenhouse tomatoes need to be watered regularly. This is done at first only with a spray bottle, when the plants get stronger, you can use a small watering can or a mug. Water can wash out the roots of plants - this must be remembered.
At the stage of appearance of two or three true leaves, tomato seedlings dive - transplanted into larger containers. Diving also helps the tomatoes prepare for future transplantation into the ground; at this stage, you can also control the length of the stems, and form the root system.
After diving, you can slightly lower the temperature - it can be 18-23 degrees. It is not worth feeding tomato seedlings, it is better to apply fertilizers when the tomatoes are transplanted into the greenhouse and undergo the acclimatization process.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse will be healthier if they are taken outside or on the balcony a couple of weeks before transplanting (you can leave the seedlings daily for several hours in the same greenhouse).
Tomato seedlings are ready for transplanting into the greenhouse when the stems have reached 18-25 cm in height, there are 7-8 true leaves on the plants, the first inflorescences begin to appear, but there are no ovaries yet.
Until this moment, the ground in the greenhouse should also warm up - the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm should be at least 12 degrees. If you plant tomatoes in too cold soil, the development of plants will stop, later they may die altogether, or this will affect the yield of tomatoes. On the day of transfer, the weather should not be too hot, it is good if it is cloudy or rainy outside.
You can speed up the warming up of the soil using black plastic wrap. They simply cover the ground in the greenhouse with it until they reach the desired temperature. As a last resort, you can use hot water to water the wells before planting the tomato.
Before this, the walls and structures of the greenhouse must be thoroughly washed and treated with an antiseptic. It is recommended to use a new soil every year, but you can simply disinfect it.
Fertilizing the land before planting tomato seedlings is required - for this, superphosphate and potash fertilizers are used. Peat, humus or rotted sawdust will help to loosen the soil, the amount of such additives should be about a bucket per square meter. When everything is ready, make holes for tomato seedlings.
The scheme for planting tomatoes in a greenhouse, of course, depends on the type of plant and variety. So:
The most important thing is that the tomato plantings do not thicken. If this trend is observed, it is necessary to deal with the removal of side shoots. But there should not be too much distance between the tomato bushes, otherwise the plants will begin to fall.
The process of planting a tomato is no different from planting seedlings in the ground: about a liter of warm water is poured into the hole, the seedlings are taken out of the pot, the roots are straightened and placed in place, covered with earth and lightly tamped.
Do not deepen the seedlings too deep, this will lead to the formation of lateral roots, which will slow down the growth of plants. Only overgrown tomatoes can be planted a little deeper, but it is better not to allow this.
Experienced gardeners recommend removing the cotyledon leaves before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. Do the same with yellowed or damaged leaves.
For 10-12 days after transplanting into the greenhouse, the tomatoes are not touched: at this time they are acclimatized, so it is not worthwhile to water or fertilize the seedlings in the greenhouse yet.
Two weeks after planting the seedlings in the greenhouse, you can start tying the stems. Tall tomatoes in the greenhouse need to be tied up unambiguously, usually for this they use trellises, about 180-200 cm high.With low-growing varieties, everything is much simpler - their stems can not be tied up (only when there are too many fruits on the bushes, it is better to install supports after all) ...
For tying, you should use a thread that is not too thin, otherwise the stems of the tomato may be cut. Better to use bandages or thin strips of cotton for this. The free end of the rope is tied around the bottom of the bush and carefully wrapped around the entire stem. As the tomatoes develop, the stems are tied up additionally.
Grasshopping - the formation of a bush by breaking off unnecessary shoots. This procedure is also not performed with all varieties of tomatoes, for example, standard tomatoes already give a few lateral shoots, the bush itself is compact and not spreading.
In other cases, it is necessary to regularly remove stepchildren in order to prevent the formation of an excessive number of ovaries - this will deplete the plants and reduce yields.
Tomato bushes are formed into one, two or three stems. In the case when only one stem is left, it turns out to collect the earliest harvest, but there will be few fruits, because only 4-5 brushes remain.
Therefore, most often tomatoes are formed into two or three stems - so the yield will be high, and the fruits will ripen early enough. 7-8 brushes are left on each stem, all other shoots must be removed until their length has reached more than five centimeters.
As mentioned above, not all varieties of tomatoes need pollination - for a greenhouse, it is better to use tomatoes that do not require insect participation. But many gardeners note a more pronounced taste and aroma in the varieties that require pollination.
In this case, you will have to seriously tinker with greenhouse tomatoes:
Greenhouse maintenance consists of feeding and watering tomatoes.
Watering tomatoes is rarely necessary, but abundant - this rule applies to both ground and greenhouse plants. High humidity is destructive for tomatoes, especially in a closed greenhouse. This provokes the development of fungal infections, which can lead to the loss of the entire crop.
To prevent such a situation, you should remove the lower leaves, monitor the thickening of the plantings, and regularly ventilate the greenhouse. And the main thing is to water the tomatoes only at the root, not allowing the stems and leaves to get wet. Drip irrigation of tomatoes in greenhouses is very effective, therefore, if possible, this system should be installed without fail.
Greenhouse tomatoes should be watered no more than twice a week. The amount of water for each bush changes depending on the phase of plant development: at first, watering should be more abundant, and by the phase of formation of ovaries and ripening of fruits, the amount of water should be gradually reduced. If this is not done, the fruits will crack, and the plants themselves can get sick with late blight or other infection.
For the entire growing season, tomatoes are fed at least three times. The feeding schedule is approximately as follows:
It is very important not to overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers, because their excess will only lead to an increase in green mass - the yield will not increase from this. To understand what tomatoes lack, one should observe the color of the leaves and the general condition of the plants.
Another essential component of care is airing. Tomatoes are not afraid of drafts, so you can ventilate the greenhouse in any way. Windows and doors must be opened for at least a couple of hours after each watering. In addition, the greenhouse is ventilated every day in too hot weather, or when the temperature "overboard" rises above 23 degrees. At night, the greenhouse should be about 16-18 degrees Celsius.
In a greenhouse, growing a tomato takes 1.5-2 months. During this time, the fruits have time to ripen and turn red. This means it's time to start harvesting.
Tips for growing and picking tomatoes in a greenhouse are as follows: