Honeysuckle is used not only for decorating plots, but also as a berry crop. In early or mid-May, fragrant yellow inflorescences bloom on the bush. And in early summer, when there are still no fruits in the garden, blue sweet and sour honeysuckle berries ripen. For good yields, different varieties of edible honeysuckle should be planted. When planting bushes, you need to take into account the peculiarities of this culture.
Planting honeysuckle on the site should be carried out during the dormant period, which begins at the end of July and lasts until the end of March. In central Russia, the optimal time for planting plants with open roots is the end of the season, from August to November. Spring planting is undesirable here, since honeysuckle begins to grow early and it is difficult for it to adapt to a new place.
Honeysuckle bushes planted at the optimal time will successfully grow and bear fruit
In the southern regions, where the ground does not freeze, planting can be carried out immediately after the snow melts - in March, before bud break. A later spring planting is undesirable, since sap flow begins in early April, damage to branches and roots during planting will result in stress for honeysuckle. Therefore, planting work in the spring should be carried out as early as possible, before the start of the growing season.
Future yields and longevity of the shrub depend on the quality of the planting material, correct placement on the site and further care.
High-quality honeysuckle seedlings can be purchased at nurseries. Usually they offer plants in pots, which are necessarily supplied with a certificate, which indicates the variety, age, brief recommendations for growing. It is preferable to choose two-year-old bushes about 40 cm in height, with 2-3 flexible branches. You should not buy undersized weakened plants or too tall, more than one and a half meters, which painfully take root and later bear fruit.
It is best to purchase two-year-old honeysuckle seedlings with a closed root system - there is less risk that the plant will not take root due to root damage
If the seedlings are purchased after the onset of the autumn cold, they should be properly preserved until spring planting. The remaining leaves must be torn off - they accelerate the drying of the plants.
Until spring, honeysuckle seedlings can be dug in the garden, covering them on top with prickly spruce branches or juniper twigs
So that during the thaw the snow on the dug-in seedlings does not melt, experienced gardeners cover the snowdrift on the ditch with sawdust with a layer of at least 10 cm.
Honeysuckle bushes are well preserved in a cool room at temperatures from 0 to +2 ° C.
The roots of honeysuckle seedlings are wrapped in plastic wrap with holes for ventilation and the plants are placed in the basement
If in the middle of winter buds of more than 2 cm appeared on the honeysuckle, it means that it has woken up, the vegetation process has begun. It urgently needs to be planted, but since it is still cold outside, the plant is transferred to a larger pot.
A pot of honeysuckle is placed in a bright room, watered and monitored
Transfer to a new container should be carried out very carefully, trying to keep the earthen ball intact so as not to injure the young roots.
It is necessary to regularly moisten the soil, maintain the temperature + 5–12 ° С - in a hot room the plant will begin to develop intensively. Once the snow melts, the honeysuckle can be transplanted into the garden.
Before planting the bushes on the site, you should decide on the choice of location. Honeysuckle loves to grow in the sun, productivity drops significantly in the shade, berries lose their sweetness. Resistance to unfavorable conditions allows you to grow shrubs in open areas not protected from the wind by a hedge or outbuildings - there it grows better, blooms more abundantly and bears fruit.
In an open, sunny area, honeysuckle will bear fruit more abundantly.
Honeysuckle is an unpretentious crop, but it feels most comfortable on fertile sandy loam or loamy soil with a low level of acidity. In areas with acidic soil, the plants wither, the color of the foliage will fade, and there are much fewer berries. Swampy lowlands with a close location of groundwater are not suitable for the berry field - water layers should lie no higher than 1.5 m from the earth's surface.
The best predecessors of honeysuckle are potatoes, cucumbers, radishes. It will get along well next to berry bushes such as dogwood, black currant, barberry.
A cross-pollinated crop for the formation of fruit ovaries requires other varieties of edible honeysuckle, which are planted at a distance of 1.5 m from each other, leaving 2 m between rows. Shrubs that are too close, growing over time, will cast a shadow on each other. In addition, fragile shoots can be easily broken when picking berries in narrow passages between overgrown bushes.
Enough space should be left between the bushes so that they, growing, do not interfere with each other and are evenly illuminated by the sun.
Berry bushes can be planted in groups or arranged in a row along the edge of the plot as a hedge. Honeysuckle is also used for garden zoning to delimit and decorate the territory.
The site is being prepared in the fall:
The composition of the soil can be improved by applying the fertilizer AVA (15 g / m2) - a concentrated complex of minerals and trace elements. Top dressing dissolves in the ground slowly, saturating plants with nutrients over 2–3 years. As a result, the seedlings quickly gain strength and are easier to adapt to the new environment.
Complex fertilizer AVA dissolves slowly in the soil, saturating plants with nutrients
Instead of mineral fertilizer, biohumus is often used - vermicompost, which improves and reclaims the soil. Add 1.5 kg of dry fertilizer or 3 liters of solution to the pit and mix with the ground.
Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are immersed in water for several hours with the addition of a growth stimulant.
A honeysuckle seedling is placed in the center of the pit
Honeysuckle bushes, unlike other berry crops, are not shortened after planting, so as not to cause a delay in their growth and development.
In the early days, young bushes need to be shaded from bright sunlight and regularly moisten the soil by adding at least 10 liters of water under the plant.
The most favorable time for transplanting honeysuckle in spring is after the snow melts before bud break.
Since the roots of the dug out bush quickly dry up and wither, the planting hole is prepared in advance:
Pits for transplanting honeysuckle bushes are filled with humus
Do not use fresh manure as fertilizer when planting honeysuckle - it can burn the roots and cause viral infections.
Before transplanting, in bushes older than 5 years, the branches are shortened by one third of the length, the damaged shoots are completely cut off. Young shrubs do not need pruning, only broken or dry branches are removed from them.
A honeysuckle bush with a clod of earth is removed from the pit and transferred to a tarp
Honeysuckle is planted in a new planting pit in cloudy weather.
Organic mulch is the best fertilizer for honeysuckle in the spring
A layer of organic mulch is an excellent fertilizer in the spring, good protection against dry roots in summer and freezing in winter.
Honeysuckle bushes transplanted to a new location before the start of the growing season will take root well
For reproduction of honeysuckle when transplanting a young bush, it can be divided into parts. Strong wood is cut with a saw or cut with an ax, and each bush with roots and 2-3 branches is planted separately.
If the honeysuckle bush is transplanted correctly and on time, it will quickly and painlessly take root in a new place and will begin to bear fruit in June.
Honeysuckle is the earliest berry in our gardens
Honeysuckle is an unpretentious berry bush, characterized by early ripening of fruits and high winter hardiness. It can grow in one place up to 20 years old, while quickly taking root after transplantation at almost any age. It should only be remembered that the planting and transplanting of honeysuckle can only be carried out during the dormant period, before the beginning of the growing season.
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For some time now, the cultivation of edible honeysuckle has become very popular among gardeners. The fact is that this plant is not only a wonderful ornamental shrub that is used to decorate alleys and arbors. Edible honeysuckle has oblong dark blue fruits that have a pleasant sweet and sour taste and a high content of vitamins and healing properties, which allows the plant to compete with the benefits of blueberries and blackberries, and even surpass. That is why many people want to grow shrubs on their personal plot, and not walk through the forests in search of berries or buy at the bazaar, worrying about the environmental friendliness of the product. In addition, the plant is quite unpretentious and does not require much effort. But to know about the peculiarities of planting and caring for edible honeysuckle is, of course, necessary.
Before planting edible honeysuckle, it is important to choose the right place. Since the plant is quite light-requiring, a sunny place should be chosen for it. The shrub does not like shade and waterlogging, as well as dry or sandy soils. Honeysuckle grows poorly on higher elevations.
Regarding when to plant edible honeysuckle, its seedlings root better in autumn in September, although planting is also possible in early spring and mid-summer.
Honeysuckle bushes are planted at a distance of 1 m from each other. First, you need to dig a planting hole 40 cm deep, and then add a mixture of humus, wood ash and superphosphate there. After that, a seedling is inserted into the hole and carefully buried, not forgetting to trample the ground around the trunk. It remains only to water the bush with water and mulch with dry soil.
By the way, many experienced gardeners recommend planting at least 3 different varieties of edible honeysuckle on the site to improve the taste of its fruits, since the plant is cross-pollinated.
As mentioned above, honeysuckle requires little maintenance. It is important to water the plant in a timely manner (1-2 buckets per bush), especially in spring and summer, mulch the soil and weed it from weeds. Honeysuckle and feeding is necessary, which is carried out every two to three years. In the spring, when buds bloom on the bushes, humus, manure or urea are brought under each bush. But in the fall of honeysuckle, ash is needed.
Pruning of edible honeysuckle can be carried out from the age of six in the fall or early spring. Sick or dried branches are removed, and young shoots should not be touched - buds are tied there. For 20-year-old shrubs, rejuvenating pruning is recommended 50 cm above ground level.
If you need to transplant edible honeysuckle, then you can produce it in the fall for bushes at least 6 years old that have already shed their leaves.
The main diseases of edible honeysuckle include powdery mildew, spotting and phytoviruses. As a rule, the main treatment involves treating the infected bush with a copper-soap solution or a Bordeaux mixture.
Perhaps in edible honeysuckle propagation by cuttings, seeds, layering and dividing the bush. The first method is considered the most effective.Engaging in cutting edible honeysuckle should be during flowering or when the first fruits have appeared. Having chosen strong annual shoots, they are pruned. The middle part of the shoots is suitable for cuttings. It needs to be cut into a length of 10-12 cm so that there are several buds and leaves on each cutting. Cuttings are inserted into a container with a peat-sand mixture in a greenhouse. In September, the seedlings can be transplanted into the soil.
If we talk about how edible honeysuckle multiplies by layering, then in the spring at the end of April, strong annual shoots should be pinned to the ground and covered with earth with humus. In the fall, when the roots appear at the cuttings, they can be transplanted. With the method of dividing the bush in early spring or late autumn, 3-5 year old plants are dug up and divided into several parts, then planted.
Honeysuckle seeds are planted in spring in a small box with soil and covered with earth in a layer of 2 cm. Before the emergence of gatherings, the container must be covered with foil. Already in September, seedlings can be planted in the ground.
Features of planting edible honeysuckle in the spring are as follows:
Immediately after planting, it is not necessary to make the branches shorter, this will slow down the growth of the seedling and make the future harvest significantly worse and weaker. In addition, if honeysuckle is edible - planting and care, reproduction will be carried out from material purchased not in a specialized garden center, but from friends, it is better to take several cuttings of different varieties for propagation.
Honeysuckle shrub is edible, planting and care, culture reproduction does not cause big problems. For placement, experts and experienced gardeners recommend choosing a separate site where only honeysuckle varieties will grow. The most successful place is an open area, on which the sun's rays fall in large quantities. But if there is no way to place the plant in a sunny place, you can also use partial shade.
The soil for edible honeysuckle should be loose, with a medium acidity level (7.5). In closed lowlands and deep pits, planting is not recommended, too dry soil is not suitable for shrubs either. If the soil is too wet, then the roots of the bush can rot. Therefore, it is worth sticking to the golden mean.
Let's figure out what to plant next to edible honeysuckle. It has good compatibility with pome and stone fruit crops, such as other berry bushes. The neighborhood with black currant bushes is well tolerated. It is not worth placing any plants in the trunk circle, since the honeysuckle has a superficial root system.
Let's talk about when it is better to plant edible honeysuckle. Planting is permissible from spring to autumn, but in May and June it is better not to do this, because during this period the honeysuckle shoots are actively growing. In the spring, planting is carried out before the buds bloom, and in the fall from September to mid-October.
In spring, edible honeysuckle wakes up early, and this must be borne in mind when planning planting. The distance between the bushes should be left in the order of 1.5-2 meters. A landing pit 40 cm in size is made.It is introduced into:
All this mixes up and is spilled with water. After the water leaves, the honeysuckle bush is placed in a hole, the root system is straightened and sprinkled with earth, tamping it. The root collar is buried in the ground by about 5 cm.After that, it is again spilled with water and mulched with peat. The landing site must be prepared 7 days before the start of all work.
How is honeysuckle useful? Honeysuckle fruits contain sugars (galactose, sucrose, glucose and fructose), organic acids (oxalic, succinic, citric and malic), provitamin A, vitamin C, vitamins B1, B2, B9, trace elements (potassium, magnesium, iron, silicon, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, zinc and copper), as well as pectins and tannins. In this regard, honeysuckle berries are able to increase gastric secretion and enhance the digestive property of gastric juice. They have a choleretic, diuretic, anti-scurvy, tonic, astringent, laxative, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and antibacterial effect.
Traditional healers use them in the treatment of stomach diseases, diarrhea and constipation, hypertension, anemia, as well as for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, as an antipyretic, vaso-strengthening and multivitamin remedy for cardiovascular diseases. The juice of honeysuckle berries removes lichens, the decoction of the berries cleanses the eyes, relieves pain in the mouth and throat. The benefits of honeysuckle are not only in its edible berries - inedible plant species, such as honeysuckle, honeysuckle, are also useful.
The vitamins, polyphenols, glycosides, tannins and catechins contained in the plant make honeysuckle not only useful, but sometimes a necessary remedy.
Edible honeysuckle is not contraindicated, but overeating of its fruits can cause indigestion and muscle cramps, as well as a skin rash. Any useful product, if consumed excessively, can become dangerous, and honeysuckle is no exception. That's all the harm of honeysuckle, which should be feared.
Inedible honeysuckle species are also healing, but if you do not know how to make a decoction or extract from them, it is better not to try to do it. And remember: you can only eat blue or black honeysuckle berries, and species with red and orange fruits are poisonous!