Description and features of the Borovinka apple tree


The Borovinka apple variety is one of the oldest varieties. Many gardeners have chosen it for planting in plots. thanks to the positive qualities:

  1. Unpretentiousness.
  2. Early fruiting.
  3. High yield.
  4. Resistant to frost and disease.

Characteristics of the Borovinka variety

From the history

Borovinka was first described by A.T. Bolotov at the beginning of the 19th century and more than 150 years ago, the scientist M. V. Rytov wrote that apples of this variety are tasteless and equated them with the Antonovka variety. At the same time, the North Americans liked the variety and they began to grow it in their gardens, where it was named Oldenburgsky.

Western Europeans also began to grow Borovinka. The apple tree has spread throughout the regions of Russia. It was named differently in different places. They called her:

  1. Kharlamovka.
  2. Filling Kharlamov.
  3. Borovitsky.
  4. Bravina.

For the entire existence of the variety, the origin has not been established. Currently, it is generally accepted that this variety appeared as a result of folk selection... On the basis of Borovinka, breeders have bred more than two dozen varieties.

Characteristics of trees and fruits

The Borovinka variety is grown by gardeners in many Russian regions. The apple tree is tall and grows up to 4.5 m. The dense crown is 5.5 m in diameter, oval in shape. Smooth, green branches have a brown tint... Wide, rounded leaves with a glossy, dark green color are located at an angle of 90 degrees to the shoot.

Apple trees of this variety have thin, long petioles of a dark crimson hue. This variety always blooms early and profusely. White inflorescences with a slight pink tinge of medium size.

Apples grow from 90 to 200 grams... Correct, rounded shape. The apple color is green, light shade, but usually light yellow on the sides with red streaks. The peel on apples is smooth, with a slight waxy coating. Juicy, firm pulp. Sweet and sour taste. They are eaten fresh, as well as jam, compote, dried. Juices are made. Soaked apples are prepared.

Borovinka variety differs from other varieties by dents on the leaves.

Advantages and disadvantages

Many gardeners have chosen this variety, but what is it good for?

  1. Early ripe variety.
  2. Can grow in any conditions.
  3. Doesn't need much leaving.
  4. Abundant harvest.
  5. Frost resistant.
  6. The fruits are good when fresh and revised form.
  7. High pest resistance and diseases.

Disadvantages:

  1. Fruit with mild taste.
  2. Grows poorly in the heat and drought.
  3. Ripe apples fall from the tree.
  4. Fragile branches.

According to the positive characteristics, it is clear that Borovinka can be grown in any garden without much effort... Watering is important for the plant during a drought.

Types of apples of this variety

On the basis of the Borovinka variety, many species have been bred. These include:

  1. Borovinka pineapple... Late ripening variety. The apples are juicy. Pleasant sweet and sour taste. Apples from 80 to 120 grams. Can be saved until March. Not prone to scab.
  2. Orange... Late maturing. Apples grow up to 150 grams. Stored until June. Freeze resistance. Not sick with scab.
  3. Pink superb... Early ripe. Apples weighing up to 150 grams with a bright blush. Short shelf life - 10 days. Suffers from fruit rot and scab.
  4. Borovinka Sergeeva... Summer variety. Ripens at the end of summer. Fruits up to 150 grams. Stored for up to ten days. The apple tree is hardy and high-yielding.
  5. Borovinka red... Medium ripening. Juicy apples. Intense red color and sweet and sour taste. Weight 100 grams. The tree is frost-resistant. Not susceptible to disease.
  6. Borovinka Akulovskaya... Apples weighing 90 grams. They have a light green color with a slight blush. Stored until spring. In severe winter they can freeze, but quickly restore the crown. It should be treated for powdery mildew.

Apple trees begin to bear fruit from the age of 4. Stable and high yields. More than 100 kg of apples can be harvested from a 20 year old tree. In the southern regions, they ripen at the end of summer. In other regions, fruits ripen in September.

Since the variety is self-fertile, then planting of pollinator varieties is required. The following varieties are suitable for Borovinka:

  1. Folding.
  2. Astrakhan red.
  3. Anise.
  4. Antonovka.
  5. Cinnamon striped.
  6. Astrakhan white.

Planting and leaving

It is possible to grow Borovinka from seeds, but no one can predict the taste and size of the fruit. But lovers of experiments can grow Borovinka seedlings from seeds... Such seedlings can later be used as a rootstock. Such seedlings are grafted with varietal plants from which excellent yields are obtained.

It is best to buy seedlings in special nurseries where seedlings are grown. Biennial plants bear fruit much faster than seedlings of other ages.

When buying, pay attention to the condition of the plant. If the root system is open, then it should have a good lobe. Roots should not be dry or rotten... The aerial part must also have a healthy appearance. Those plants that are purchased with closed roots can be planted at any time, but apple trees with an open root system must be planted immediately in the soil or put into water before planting.

For apple trees to grow well, they need loamy or chernozem soil.... It is better if the groundwater is more than 1.5 m deep. The earth should be light and allow moisture and air to pass through.

To plant, use the following tool:

  1. Shovel.
  2. As a level, take twine and stakes as it.
  3. Small pebbles or gravel as drainage.
  4. Pegs are needed for the garter.

Fertilizers are also needed for planting.

Apple trees are best planted in autumn... Plants planted at this time take root better. Prepare the pit a month before planting. Planting is possible in the spring, but then the holes for planting should be prepared in the fall.

In the selected area, dig a hole 60 cm deep and 1 m in diameter. Pour 10-15 cm of drainage on the bottom. Mix fertilizers with soil. For 1 pit, you should make:

  1. Manure 5-7 kg.
  2. Peat 8-10 kg.
  3. Superphosphate 80-100 grams.
  4. Potassium sulfate 30-40 grams.
  5. Wood ash 1 kg.

Drive a peg in the center of the hole and attach a seedling to it.

When planting, the root collar should be 30 cm higher than the soil.

It is more convenient to plant plants together. One holds an apple tree, the other falls asleep with soil. The soil should completely fill all the voids, so shake the tree from time to time.

After the hole is filled with earth, it must be trampled down... After that, add another layer of soil. Now tie the tree to the peg. This must be done so that the immature plant does not break with the wind.

After planting, the apple tree should be watered abundantly. It is better to water in several steps so that the soil is thoroughly saturated with moisture... First, carefully pour out one bucket of water and then two more at intervals.

Apple tree maintenance requires little. In the heat, with a lack of moisture, they usually drop apples. Therefore, in a hot, dry period, abundant watering is necessary. Water 4-5 times a week.

After watering or rains in tree trunks, it is necessary to loosen the ground... This will increase air access to the root system of the apple tree. After loosening, add a layer of peat or humus mulch. This will prevent unnecessary work to remove weeds and dry out the land.

With the onset of autumn, treat the trees with garden pitch and whitewash the trunks. Dig up the trunk circles, and add 20-30 kg of humus or compost for digging. In order to protect the tree from frost, the trunk is wrapped with roofing paper, branches or covering material.

Prevention of diseases and pests

Borovinka variety, practically not susceptible to diseases and pest attacks, but prevention is still necessary. To do this, before the buds swell on the apple trees, it should be treated with copper sulfate. For 10 liters of water, 200 grams of vitriol is diluted. Apple trees are treated with this solution. Until the buds bloom, treat the trees with Bordeaux mixture. It should be 3-4%.

At the beginning of spring, it is recommended to prune the crown and clean the tree stem from dried bark.... At the same time, remove all frozen and broken branches. This procedure should be repeated two weeks later.

For prevention, you can use drugs such as "Topaz", which is diluted with 2 ml per 10 liters of water or "Skor". Fungicides help with apple scab.

When the apple tree has faded, spray it with "Karbofos"... For 10 liters of water, take 80 grams of the product. Mix thoroughly and treat trees from insects.

Borovinka apples are stored until January-February. To preserve the fruits until spring, fold the apples in a container in rows... Lay them stalk up and sprinkle with sawdust. The storage temperature should be within + - 1 degrees. Humidity should be kept at 90-95%. Sprinkle the rows with apples with sawdust or wrap each apple in paper.

Gardeners liked the Borovinka variety for its yield and unpretentiousness. He is able to adapt to different natural conditions. Therefore, this variety has become widespread in gardens around the world. If you take into account the characteristics of the variety and follow the rules of care, then Borovinka will bring big harvests annually.

Testimonials

Valery: I planted winter Borovinka on my site. Does not have time to ripen.

Alexander: Summer Borovinka bears a lot of fruit, but it is required to put props, otherwise the branches simply break off under the weight.

Olga: Not very tasty apples, but fruitful variety. In the fall, you can cook jam and stewed fruit.


Origin of the variety [edit | edit code]

An ancient autumn variety of folk selection, first described by AT Bolotov at the end of the 18th century, in the multivolume "Images and descriptions of different varieties of apples and pears born in Dvoryaninovskiye, and partly in other orchards" (1797-1800).

It was assumed that Borovinka, or in Moscow - Borovina, means a pine-tree apple grown in a pine forest. In German pomology of the 19th century, there is an assumption that the variety came to the south of Russia from Persia, from where it spread to the Lower Volga region, and then to the western regions of the country.


One of the most delicious autumn apple varieties - "Nadezhda"

Apple variety Nadezhda Is a fairly popular variety.

It has a high yield and good fruit taste.

Ease is average, they are quite unpretentious in care.

What species does it belong to?

Variety Nadezhda is an autumn apple variety.

The fruits reach maturity in early - mid September. Hope is a frost-hardy apple tree.

The fruits have a long shelf life, with proper care they do not deteriorate for up to 90 days, that is, they can lie until mid-December.

It will be stored for the longest time in cellars and basements.

It is not required to insulate the boxes, but watch out for the humidity - with increased fruits, they may begin to rot.

Pollination

The apple variety Nadezhda is pollinated; for successful fruiting, one of the following varieties must be planted:

  • Zhavoronkova
  • Miasskoe
  • Memory and Anis Purple

Description of the variety Nadezhda

The apple tree of the Nadezhda variety is a tree that is distinguished by its tallness and rather small fruits. Height is high, the shape of the crown is round, pyramidal.

The bark is dark brown on the main branches and trunk. Leaves of Hope are egg-shaped, rather large in size and small-town edges.

During the flowering period, buds appear, they are also large, slightly shaded in color with pink.

Small, less than average, round-flat shape. The surface is smooth and dry, the skin is rather thin.

The color of ripe fruits is greenish-yellow, in places a blurred purple blush appears, by the time of ripening it covers the entire fruit. The apple pulp is light beige in color, juicy, with a sweet-sour aftertaste.

  • 10.1% sugars
  • 27 mg / 100g ascorbic acid
  • 13.8% soluble solids
  • 1.1% titratable acids.

In the photo, the fruits of the "Nadezhda" apple tree:

Breeding history

The apple variety Nadezhda was created artificially, by crossing the Borovinka Ural ribbed apple variety.

The authors are: P.A. Zhavoronkov and M.A. Mazunin - employees of the South Ural Scientific Research Institute of Horticulture and Potato Growing.

Region of natural growth

It has a fairly wide growing area, feels most comfortable in the Ural region, where it was zoned in 1988 year

Adapted to severe frosts, but feels best in temperate latitudes.

Yield

The apple tree of the Nadezhda variety is capable of producing crops for 5-7 years of life. At first it bears fruit regularly, but soon the yield becomes irregular, periodic.

Ripening of fruits and the possibility of harvesting occurs in the first half - mid-September.

With proper care, you can harvest up to 85 kilogram from one plant.

The fruits lend themselves well to technological processing, they are most actively used for home preservation.

Planting and leaving

In order for your tree to actively bear fruit and produce large volumes of harvest, you must follow a few simple requirements.

The most optimal period for planting an apple tree of the Nadezhda variety is autumn.

It is much easier for the tree to settle down in new places at this time of year. The tree rests during the winter, and in spring it already begins to grow actively.

If the cold comes earlier, the tree may die, as it will not have time to take root.

When choosing a place, be sure to keep in mind that the distance between trees should not be less than 4 meters. If you plant it closer, the apple trees will interfere with each other.

If the trees in your garden grow in rows, make sure that a distance of at least 4.5 meters is maintained between them (rows).

After you track the distance between the planting holes, you can start creating the planting holes.

Dig a hole... The depth should be about 70 cm, the diameter should be 100-115 centimeters. Fertilizers are mixed with the loosened soil. The pit should eventually become a mound.

Drive a peg into the center of the mound - it will serve as a support for your seedling. The tree is placed on a mound, sprinkled with earth and tamped. Water abundantly.

An important part of caring for an apple tree is pruning the branches. It is produced after winter, when the frosts have already subsided.

If the apple tree is older than seven years, then the upper shoots are cut first; if the seedling is younger, the shoots should not be cut.

At any age of the tree, carefully remove damaged branches and sections, as well as last year's leaves (if they were not removed before winter), as old and unusable parts can rot and later become a refuge for pathogenic bacteria.

Thoroughly remove weeds that grow at the base of the apple tree during the warm period.

Loosen the ground around a mature tree occasionally.

Diseases and pests

Green aphid

Colonial pest. It multiplies quickly, with the onset of spring, already in the first days of warmth, it can capture all the young shoots that your plant gave.

Aphids suck the juice from the sprouts, which is why no flowers and, accordingly, fruits appear on those.

Treatment: excellent resistance to aphids - ladybugs. They are sent to places where pest colonies have settled. The cows eat the pests in no time. You can also spray the wood with tobacco-soap broth.

Apple moth

When the flowering stage begins, these pests affect many apple trees. Caterpillars of moths overwinter on shoots or bark of branches, wake up with warming and feed on foliage and flowers.

On the eaten leaves, the parasites build nests and pupate.

Treatment: before and after flowering, spray shoots and branches with a 7% chlorophos solution and a 2% zolone solution.

Scab

The apple tree of the Nadezhda variety is quite resistant to scab, but nevertheless it sometimes becomes infected with this disease. Scab is a fungus, the causative agent of which spends the winter on the bark or fallen leaves, and in the spring it affects the plant.

Greenish spots are formed on the foliage, brown on the fruits. If the scab is not treated in time, the foliage begins to fall off, and the fruits shrink.

Treatment: Always burn fallen leaves outside the garden, then spray the ground with a 3% nitrafen solution. Wash the buds with one percent Bordeaux liquid.

Black cancer

It affects the trunk, leaves, fruits and branches. Expresses either in ulcers or in growths of black-brown color, the affected parts of the tree dry out, the bark begins to fall off.

If proper treatment is not provided in time, a tree with this disease can live for a maximum of three years.

Treatment: Cut off the affected bark and branches with a sharp knife. Treat bark wounds with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Also spray the buds with the solution before flowering.

An apple tree of the Nadezhda variety is no more difficult to keep than any other variety.

It has a high yield, the fruits are excellently processed.

Such a tree is suitable not only for a nursery, but also for an ordinary private garden.

But the variety also has disadvantages: Hope has irregular yields and needs a pollinator tree.

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The crown of the apple tree is not too thick... Has a rounded shape or the shape of a wide pyramid. Branches are rare. The crown shines through to the trunk, which allows all branches and leaves to receive the necessary sunlight.

About 250 kilograms of apples can be removed from one tree. To increase the yield and the formation of beautiful, developed fruits, the ovary must be thinned out. The central fruit and fruits with external defects are removed from the bundle of ovaries. Two or three apples should be left in each ovary.


Description of the Borovinka variety

Here we will describe Borovinka from the ground to the crown.

In the Borovinka variety, the tree itself can and reaches heights over 4.5 meters.

Rounded, thin crown is in diameter about 5.6 m.

Branches are rarely located on the trunk; they branch off from the trunk at an angle ranging from 30 to 45 degrees.

Smooth surface, light cranking - this is their structure in color - green with a brown tint. The bark is olive green.

Shoots are dark brown (it happens that there is a brownish-greenish tint), the buds are well formed, the growth internodes are slightly curved, sparse, usually long.

The leaves have a wide oval shape, there is a short sharp tip, the surface is glossy, dark green in color.

For this variety of apple trees, a distinctive feature is the characteristic depressions on the leaves (dents) with a diameter of about a pea. Leaves grow at an angle of almost 90 degrees relative to the shoot.

Inflorescences are an umbrella. Flowers of medium size, mostly white, sometimes a pale pinkish tint.

The pistil of the flower is small, the same size as the anthers, it is slightly accrete at the base, strongly pubescent at the fork.

Now, finding yourself in an apple orchard, you can easily distinguish Borovinka between trees of other varieties. And a few more words about seeds and fruits to maximize recognition.

The correct rounded shape of the Borovinka variety has a smooth surface and shines moderately in the sun. The apples are very large slightly larger than average (weighing about 90 grams each).

The pulp of the fruit is juicy, soft, friable, granular. A yellow color with pinkish streaks in the fruit is rare, it is mainly light green.

There is a small waxy coating on the surface, while the skin of the fruit is dry and smooth.

The peduncle is usually thin and long, light green in color. The seeds are dark brown.

The Borovinka variety of apples is good for eating "from a branch", directly fresh, and also suitable for harvesting, undergoing any processing (drying, processing for juices, jam, wine).

We've just figured out what the apple tree looks like now, but it's worth mentioning how it became like that: the history of its creation and its distribution.










Apple-tree Borovinka: characteristics and description, methods of cultivation

Apple tree Borovinka is an old Russian variety created with the help of folk selection. It is grown both in Russia and in North America and Western Europe. Borovinka gained its popularity due to its unpretentiousness and good yield.

Description of the variety, collection and storage features of the crop

The apple tree grows at an average speed and reaches an average height. Its crown is round, the main branches are rare and grow from the conductor at an angle of 30-40 degrees. Borovinka shoots are of medium size and thickness. They are curved, slightly articulated. The color of the shoots is dark brown with a purple or green tint. Their cover is slightly pubescent, with small rounded or elongated lenticels.

The dark green leaves of the Borovinka apple tree are large, oval in shape with a clearly visible tip. The surface relief is flat. In some areas of the leaf blade, pea-sized grooves are noticeable. The edge of the plate is wavy, crenate-serrated, slightly pubescent. The leaf petioles are thin and elongated with a dark crimson color. The leaves are at right angles to the shoot.

Apple flowers are of medium size. The inflorescences are in the shape of a white umbrella with a slightly pinkish tone. The pistil is medium in size, but short in length. At the base, it is fused and significantly pubescent at the fork. Borovinka fruits are usually medium or medium sized, regular in shape with a smooth surface.

The main color of the apple is light green or yellow with a pink tint. The skin of the fruit is pink with a speckled and striped blush. Also, on the surface of the apple, a lot of light subcutaneous points stand out.

The funnel is deep and relatively wide. The light green peduncle is thin, long and protruding from the depression. The seed nest is large with closed chambers. The dark brown seeds are large in size. Ripe yellow pulp. It is a little rough, but juicy and sweet and sour in taste.

Borovinka apples contain the following chemical components:

  • acidified acids vary from 0.62 to 0.87%
  • ascorbic acid ranges from 8.2 to 15.3 milligrams per 100 grams of fruit pulp
  • the share of dry matter is in the range from 15.3 to 16.3%
  • the amount of sugars ranges from 9.9 to 11.5%.

Apple trees bear fruit since the age of four. A bountiful harvest occurs almost every year. At the age of twenty, one tree brings 100 kilograms of harvest. In the southern territory of the country, the fruits ripen at the end of August, in all other regions - in September. Do not consume the apple immediately after removal. The best taste properties are revealed in it after a week of storage.

If all the criteria are met, apples are stored until December: you need to put the fruits in rows in a cardboard box or wooden box, always with the stem down. There should be no cracks in wooden containers, rows of apples are covered with sawdust from deciduous trees.

In the absence of such an opportunity, it is permissible to store the fruits in plastic bags, but suspended from the ceiling. The room temperature should be from +1 to -1 degrees, and the air humidity should be 90-95%.

Advantages and disadvantages, varieties of varieties

Borovinka variety is endowed with many positive qualities. Among them:

  • unpretentious character
  • early appearance of the first harvest
  • fertility
  • frost resistance
  • resistance to pathogenic pests
  • high transportability of fruits.

This apple variety also has weaknesses. It:

  • frequency of fruit offering
  • common second-rate taste (associated with high acidity)
  • weak fixation of fruits on the branches
  • inability to cope with arid climate and heat
  • brittle branches.

But even these shortcomings did not prevent Borovinka from becoming one of the most important varieties in breeding. Thanks to this variety, about 20 new varieties of apple trees were bred.

Apple trees of the Borovinka variety are of several types: Pineapple Borovinka, Orange, Rose Superiority, Sergeeva Borovinka, Akulovskaya Borovinka and others.

Borovinka pineapple is a winter variety with increased scab resistance. The fruits are juicy and sweet and sour in taste. Apples are medium or small in size, weighing from 80 to 120 grams. In the coolness, the fruits are stored until March.

Winter variety Orange - trees are frost-resistant and resistant to scab. Fruit weight reaches 150 grams. Apples do not spoil until June under appropriate storage conditions.

The apple trees of the summer variety Pink Superiority are not resistant to diseases of fruit rot and scab. Fruiting begins as early as 3-4 years. The apples are large in size. The average weight of each fruit is 140 grams. Storage duration - no more than 10 days.

The fruits of the Borovinka Sergeeva variety are of medium size and good taste. Apple trees are hardy and produce a good harvest in late summer. The fruits are not stored for a long time - only 10 days.

Borovinka Akulovskaya is distinguished by its fruits of light green color with a striped blush. Apples are easy to transport and store for several months. Depending on the region of growth, it can be considered both a winter and a summer variety. Apple trees can freeze slightly in winter, but they quickly get in shape. The variety is not resistant to powdery mildew diseases.

Rules for planting and caring for a tree

Borovinka is grown from seedlings and seedlings. Seedlings are suitable for rootstock. The seeds are harvested at an early stage of development. Each apple tree grafted in the wild will be durable and highly productive. Growing an apple tree from a seedling is a rather painstaking and unpredictable job.

It is impossible to determine the taste of future apples in advance. The most suitable option for growing Borovinka is the use of seedlings.

They are planted in the spring or autumn before the first frost. In order for the apple tree to take root and grow well, several criteria must be observed:

  1. When choosing a seedling, it is better to give preference to two-year-old apple trees.
  2. The landing site should be sufficiently lit. But in order to prevent the bark of trees from receiving thermal damage, it is better to plant seedlings of this variety in those areas where the exposure to direct sunlight is short-lived during the day. It is also desirable that the young tree be blown a little by the wind.

For Borovinka apple trees, moisture-absorbing soils are preferable. This variety is suitable for sandy loam, floodplain soils and leached chernozems. Fruit trees are also grown on sandy soils.

But this requires good care and weak soil acidity.

  • Manure and humus can be used as fertilizers for the land.
  • When planting a seedling, the root system should be completely filled with earth, and the soil should be trampled on top with your foot.
  • During planting, the seedlings must not be buried. The area where the root passes into the trunk (root collar) should be exactly 5-7 centimeters above ground level.
  • It is important to immediately water the planted trees with 2-3 buckets of water.
  • It is better to tie a young tree to some kind of support in order to prevent fractures in unfavorable weather.
  • When planting an apple tree in the northern territory of the country in winter, it is worth insulating the root system.
  • To increase the fertility of apple trees, it is important to regularly care for the trees. Basic care measures:

      Feeding trees. Feeding is allowed from the second year of the apple tree's life. For the strength of apples and the fertility of trees, it is worth adding potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, urea and many other additives. Top dressing is applied in the form of a liquid during watering or in a dry mixture, which is placed in the ground during digging.

    Pruning. After a year after planting Borovinka, the crown of the tree must be shaped. To do this, select about the five strongest branches that do not interfere with each other, and slightly shorten them. It is advisable to cut the remaining branches. Excess shoots slow down growth. Pruning is done annually.

    Autumn is considered the most suitable time. In the spring, dead or diseased branches are removed with the help of pruning.

  • Watering. During drought periods, in the absence of sufficient moisture, Borovinka sheds foliage and fruits. To avoid this trouble, it is necessary to maintain complete control of the water regime. In winter, snow is regularly compacted at the base of the tree.
  • Disease prevention. Even resistant varieties of apple trees are important to additionally protect against diseases. Bordeaux mixture is very popular among gardeners. Also, agents are used to protect against fungi and viruses, such as scab, anthracnose, maliniosis and others. For pest control, trapping belts and a variety of baits are used. In the fall, the trunks are dug and the fallen leaves are removed.
  • Observing simple rules, you can easily grow a Borovinka apple tree in your garden and provide the whole family with useful vitamins.

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    Video

    We offer you to watch several videos in which an experienced gardener talks about the Borovinka apple tree:

    A biologist by education. He is interested in discoveries in the field of natural sciences and the achievements of modern breeders. He is fond of indoor floriculture. I will be happy to share my knowledge with readers.

    Found a bug? Select the text with the mouse and click:

    Compost - rotted organic residues of various origins. How to do it? Everything is stacked in a heap, a hole or a large box: kitchen leftovers, tops of garden crops, weeds mown before flowering, thin twigs. All this is interlayered with phosphate rock, sometimes with straw, earth or peat. (Some summer residents add special composting accelerators.) Cover with foil. In the process of overheating, the pile is periodically ted up or pierced for the flow of fresh air. Usually compost “matures” for 2 years, but with modern additives it can be ready in one summer season.

    Humus - rotted manure or bird droppings. It is prepared like this: manure is piled in a heap or pile, sandwiched with sawdust, peat and garden soil. The collar is covered with a film to stabilize the temperature and humidity (this is necessary to increase the activity of microorganisms). The fertilizer "ripens" within 2-5 years - depending on external conditions and the composition of the feedstock. The output is a loose homogeneous mass with a pleasant smell of fresh earth.

    It is necessary to collect medicinal flowers and inflorescences at the very beginning of the flowering period, when the content of nutrients in them is as high as possible. Flowers are supposed to be picked with hands, breaking off rough pedicels. The collected flowers and herbs are dried, scattered in a thin layer, in a cool room at a natural temperature without access to direct sunlight.

    It is believed that some vegetables and fruits (cucumbers, stalk celery, all varieties of cabbage, peppers, apples) have a "negative calorie content", that is, digesting more calories than they contain. In fact, the digestive process uses only 10-20% of the calories from food.

    The novelty of American developers is the Tertill robot, which weeds in the garden. The device was invented under the guidance of John Downes (the creator of the robot vacuum cleaner) and works autonomously in all weather conditions, moving on uneven surfaces on wheels. In doing so, he cuts all plants below 3 cm with the built-in trimmer.

    Both humus and compost are rightfully the basis of organic farming. Their presence in the soil significantly increases the yield and improves the taste of vegetables and fruits. They are very similar in properties and appearance, but they should not be confused. Humus - rotted manure or bird droppings. Compost - rotted organic residues of various origins (spoiled food from the kitchen, tops, weeds, thin twigs). Humus is considered a better fertilizer, compost is more readily available.

    Natural toxins are found in many plants, and those grown in gardens and vegetable gardens are no exception. So, in the seeds of apples, apricots, peaches there is hydrocyanic (hydrocyanic) acid, and in the tops and peels of unripe nightshades (potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes) - solanine. But do not be afraid: their number is too small.

    Oklahoma farmer Carl Burns has developed an unusual variety of colorful corn called Rainbow Corn. The grains on each ear are of different colors and shades: brown, pink, purple, blue, green, etc. This result was achieved through many years of selection of the most colored common varieties and their crossing.

    In Australia, scientists have begun experiments to clone several grape varieties from colder regions. Climate warming, which is predicted for the next 50 years, will lead to their disappearance. Australian varieties have excellent characteristics for winemaking and are not susceptible to diseases common in Europe and America.


    Watch the video: Apple Tree Staking and Ran Over a Tree


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