Young potatoes are expected with special impatience after winter. Of course, you can buy this product brought from overseas countries, but, as expected, it will not be as tasty and healthy as that grown in your region, and even more so independently. We will help the gardener get an exquisite vegetable as early as possible and of the best quality, using modern varieties and methods of agricultural technology.
In general, the agricultural technology of early potatoes obeys the same rules as the cultivation of mid-season and late varieties, but at the same time it has a number of features, observing which you can count on getting decent yields. The specified features are included in the application of the following agricultural techniques:
Vernalization of potatoes usually means the process of awakening shoots before planting in order to reduce the time of emergence.
|Variety||Tuber mass||Productivity, c / ha|
|on the 45th day after full germination||on the 55th day after full germination|
|For northern regions|
|For the middle lane, including the Moscow region|
|For southern regions|
|For Siberia and the Urals|
Interesting! Early potato varieties differ from mid-ripening and late ones in that they begin to grow tubers before budding and flowering.
As already mentioned above, to obtain early yields, large tubers weighing 80-100 g should be selected. This is done in the fall, and also at this time it is necessary to subject the selected specimens to greening by exposure to light at above-zero temperatures.
Before laying for storage in the fall, tubers intended for early planting are subjected to greening by exposure to light at a positive temperature.
After that, the seed is placed for storage in the basement at a temperature of + 3-5 ° C. Approximately 25-30 days before planting, vernalization is started. For this:
For germination of potatoes, the tubers are tightly placed in boxes with a damp substrate.
As soon as sprouts 2-3 cm long and small roots appear, the potatoes are ready for planting
The beds for planting early potatoes are prepared in the fall. At the same time, for digging (plowing), organic matter is introduced in the form of straw manure at a rate of 20-30 t / ha (2-3 kg / m2) and superphosphate in the amount of 300 kg / ha (30 g / m2) in the case of cultivation in non-irrigated areas. If it is supposed to water the beds, then the amount of manure is increased to 4-6 kg / m2, and superphosphate - up to 40-50 g / m2... In early spring, at the first opportunity, the soil is harrowed (loosened with a rake) in order to prevent drying out and ensure the preservation of moisture. In cold regions, to speed up the melting of snow and warm the soil 2-3 weeks before planting, the beds are covered with a film. A good result is also given by the method of sprinkling the beds with coal dust, which contributes to faster snow melting.
In cold regions, to speed up the melting of snow and warm the soil 2-3 weeks before planting, the beds are covered with a film
They directly depend on the climatic conditions of the region and the weather conditions of a particular season. A sign that you can start planting is the fact that the soil warms up to 5-7 ° C at a planting depth (10 cm).
|In open ground||Under a film shelter / in a greenhouse|
|North, North-West||End of May - first half of June||Mid may|
|Middle lane, including the Moscow region||Second half of April||Early April|
|Southern regions||Early April||Second half of March|
Potatoes are traditionally planted in furrows or in holes for a shovel to a depth of 10-12 cm. As mentioned above, planting of early varieties is done with a thickening compared to later ones. The optimum density is 55 thousand bushes per hectare. This is achieved by placing the rows at a distance of 60-70 cm from each other, and the interval between the bushes in a row is kept equal to 25-30 cm.
Planting early potatoes is carried out at intervals of 25-30 cm
In this case, it is advisable to direct the rows from north to south with a slight slope to the south. In cold regions, you can prepare a kind of warm beds for potatoes. To do this, a trench 30 cm deep is dug along the row and half filled with straw manure, on top of which a layer of earth 5-7 cm thick is poured. Then the tubers are planted and covered with soil. An important condition is manual planting, in which the tubers are laid with sprouts up and with roots down. Failure to comply with this condition will negate the advantages that vernalization of the planting material gives.
When planting potatoes, it is important to put the tubers in the holes with the sprouts up
The use of film shelters for potato beds or planting in spring film greenhouses allows you to get the first young potatoes 2-3 weeks earlier than in the open field. In this case, the landing methods are used the same as in the open ground, the only feature is the landing pattern. In order to make it convenient to cover the beds, their width is made equal to 120 cm and 2 rows of potatoes are placed on them at a distance of 60 cm from each other and 30 cm from the longitudinal borders. Then along the beds, arcs are installed with a step of 1-1.5 m, on which the film is laid. It should be remembered that on warm sunny May days, the temperature inside the tunnels can reach values exceeding + 35-45 ° C and above, and this should not be allowed. Therefore, on such days, you will have to open the beds for airing. To avoid this procedure, instead of a film, you can use a non-woven covering material (spunbond, lutrasil, etc.) with a density of 40-60 g / m2... Such material has moisture and air permeability, which will protect plants from burning out.
To cover potato beds, you can use spunbond with a density of 40-60 g / sq. m
Some gardeners cover potato beds without using arcs directly along the bushes, but we cannot recommend this method, since this does not exclude freezing or burns of leaves that are in direct contact with the film or covering material.
When grown in a greenhouse, there are more options for controlling and adjusting heat and humidity parameters. It is undesirable to allow the temperature to go beyond + 10-30 ° C. The optimum range is + 20-23 ° C during the day and + 14-15 ° C at night. Soil moisture in the first phases of development should be about 50-60%, and during budding and flowering - 70-75%. Of course, it is not necessary for a gardener to have special devices for determining humidity - organoleptic signs are quite enough:
Using the seedling method of growing, you can get the earliest yields. Of course, this implies additional material and labor costs, but in limited volumes it is quite feasible. The algorithm for growing seedlings is as follows:
For growing potato seedlings, peat pots with a diameter of at least 10 cm are used
Potato seedlings are planted in the ground along with peat pots
With this method of planting, the yield of young potatoes will be 20-30% higher than with conventional vernalization.
The result of cultivation largely depends on the careful implementation of the required agrotechnical work. Any deviation from the rules in this case leads to a decrease in the yield and its quality.
Provided that a sufficient amount of fertilizer is applied before planting, there is no need for additional fertilizing. But watering in case of dry spring may be needed. In this case, one should be guided by the state of soil moisture according to the signs described above. In greenhouses and under a film cover, plants should be watered once a week, while consuming 50-70 liters of water per 1 m2.
Deep loosening at the same time as hilling is the most important agricultural technique. For the first time it is carried out after the emergence of seedlings, and then 2-3 more times during growth. This contributes to the creation of a better thermal and air regime of the soil, which is an important condition for the development of vernalized potatoes and enhanced growth of tops, in turn, leading to abundant growth of tubers.
Loosening and hilling of potatoes is the most important agricultural technique for early potatoes.
As a rule, selective harvesting without digging the bushes begins as soon as tubers of sufficient size appear by digging. When the mass of marketable tubers in the bush reaches 600-700 g, you can start mass harvesting. In most early varieties, this occurs 40–45 days after full germination. Larger harvests can be achieved by waiting another 7-10 days. Therefore, usually at the earliest dates, only part of the crop is harvested in the right amount, and then the phased digging is continued as needed until the harvest is complete.
When the mass of marketable tubers in the bush reaches 600-700 g, you can start mass harvesting
Since early potatoes are harvested in a short time, it is quite natural to want to use the vacated areas for a second planting. And subject to certain rules, such an event will be successful. Let's make a reservation right away that if a gardener chooses a method of growing in a two-yield crop only to increase the total yield per unit area, then this is not the best solution. There are many other techniques for obtaining high yields of later potatoes, which will have better shelf life and will be much easier to implement. It makes sense to plant potatoes for the second harvest in two cases:
In the southern regions, for replanting, you can use the tubers of the current crop, as well as green tops with the remains of small non-marketable tubers. In the middle lane, in the northern regions, in the Urals and in Siberia, only last year's tubers can be used for planting a second crop. At the same time, it will be possible to grow potatoes only in greenhouses or under a film shelter.
Such a landing is carried out according to a certain algorithm, which has features and differences from the usual landing. Here's what it is:
This is possible in cases where the first crop is harvested during flowering or immediately after its completion. They do it like this:
Before re-planting potato tops, marketable tubers are cut off, and small ones are left for further growth.
The bushes planted in this way lie on the ground, but after 5-7 days they usually rise and grow as usual.
If the summer is dry, then special attention is paid to maintaining optimal soil moisture. At the same time, it remains important to ensure air permeability through regular loosening. Young bushes will be a good bait for Colorado potato beetles, which at this time are experiencing nutritional deficiencies. Therefore, 2-3 preventive treatments with biological pest control agents should be carried out, for example:
In order to prevent late blight disease, which can occur in a humid September, 2-3 treatments are carried out with the biological product Fitosporin M Potatoes. The processing interval is two weeks. Harvested, as a rule, in late September - early October. The tops should be cut 1.5-2 weeks before.
Growing young potatoes in the early stages is quite within the power of a novice gardener, and for an experienced one it will not be difficult at all. It is only important to scrupulously and carefully follow the rules of agricultural technology and the result will be worthy. At the same time, you can not only provide your loved ones with a delicious root crop twice a season, but also replenish the family budget by selling surplus of a far from cheap product.
Potatoes are planted in May, when the soil is already slightly frozen and warmed up after winter. Tuber crops will actively germinate only after its temperature reaches 8-10 degrees. In this case, the air temperature should be set at 12-16 degrees during the day, and from 5 degrees at night. The time when it is best to deepen the seed into the soil also depends on the location of the heavenly bodies, the region of planting, its variety and purpose.
Gardeners and astrologers recommend planting potatoes in the waning moon phase. They attribute this to the fact that this way it adapts to the ground more quickly and roots are formed faster. It is better to plant potatoes in 2021 according to the lunar calendar on the following days:
|April||3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 25, 26, 28|
|May||1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29|
|June||2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 29, 30|
In addition to good days in the calendar for planting potatoes, there are also unfavorable periods during which it is not worth doing land work, including planting tubers and tillage. These include April 11, 12, 13, 27, 10, 11, 12, 26
May, 9, 10, 11, 24 June. At best, the gardener's work will be neutral, at worst, the crop will be harmed.
In addition to the timing for planting potatoes, keep in mind that the climate in all regions is different. In one place, the earth warms up earlier, in another later. In central Russia and other regions, adhere to the following deadlines:
|Moscow suburbs||Early may|
|Crimea||The end of March|
|Ural||The end of May|
In Ukraine and Belarus, potatoes are also planted by region. First, landing is carried out in the South - at the end of March, then in the South-East and South-West - in mid-April. In the West of Ukraine, the deadline for landing in open ground is the beginning of May.
Consider favorable days for planting potatoes, depending on which one you use it for and when you plan to pick it, its variety also depends on it. Early tubers can be planted in early May if the ground has warmed up to 8-10 degrees. Then, in late June - early July, it will be possible to harvest the first harvest.
Planting a medium variety can be done at the end of May, but late potatoes should be planted outdoors in the last week of spring or in the first two weeks of summer. The cultivation of these types of tubers is aimed at long-term storage for the winter.
To get a chic harvest of sweet peppers, you first need to properly grow strong seedlings at home. The procedure for growing a crop is in many ways similar to eggplant and partly to tomatoes, but there are also fundamental differences. Pepper reacts sharply to the wrong watering regime, temperature fluctuations and unsuccessful transplantation (picking), due to which the level of its vitality sharply decreases, it grows slowly.
Therefore, before you start sowing pepper seeds for seedlings, you need to familiarize yourself with the main features and growing rules. Next, you will find detailed step-by-step instructions on how to grow sweet pepper seedlings at home.
It is very important to properly plant the seeds of peppers themselves for seedlings, and first choose the optimal sowing time, prepare and process the planting material itself, soil and containers, without making annoying mistakes.
To make the correct and effective planting of pepper seeds for seedlings, it is important to pre-prepare the seeds. This procedure will help disinfect the planting material, as well as activate its vitality in a shorter time.
Important! On sale you can find pelleted (granulated) pepper seeds. Such planting material does not need any preparation, it is already processed and covered with a special nutritious shell. It must be sown exactly dry, so as not to wash off the protective film.
Technology for preparing pepper seeds for sowing:
Alternatively, you can use an infusion of ash (1 tablespoon per 500 ml of water, let stand for 2 days), in which you need to keep the seeds wrapped in a gauze bag for 4-5 hours.
If you just submerge the seeds in water, then there will be no effect, because oxygen is required to awaken them. therefore seeds must be soaked in a damp cloth (namely a cloth or cotton pads, they can grow into cheesecloth with roots)so that the seeds have access to both moisture and air), eg, putting it on a saucer, and covering it with a plastic bag (cling film)so that moisture does not evaporate quickly, in other words, create a greenhouse effect.
Wherein optimum temperature for seed germination pepper - +23-28 degrees. Therefore, the saucer with soaked seeds must be removed to a warm place, for example, on a kitchen cabinet nand 2-3 days before germination.
In order for the seedlings to have all the necessary components for growth and development at the initial stage, a special soil should be selected.
The soil mixture itself should be loose, light and nutritious, and its acidity should be close to neutral.
If the gardener is not able to cook it on his own, the problem can be solved by finished soil for growing pepper seedlings (which is generally also suitable for eggplants and tomatoes).
If desired, the necessary the soil mixture can be prepared by yourselfby combining and mixing the following components:
Some gardeners initially sow germinated seeds in pure coconut substrate (no soil), to later be transplanted into pots with soil, although again you can mix earth with coconut. But the method is very risky, it is better to just experiment with it at first.
Advice! Before sowing pepper seeds, the right decision is to preliminary disinfection of soil. For example, it can be baked in the oven or microwave. Or spill with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, a drug «Fitosporin» or "Previkur"(According to the instructions).
Each gardener decides which container is best to use for planting a crop.
Naturally, if you are going to grow with a pick,
Although initially you can sow in small (0.1-0.2 liters) personal cups (pots or cassettes).
If without picking, then, of course, immediately into separate sufficiently voluminous containers (from 0.5 liters).
- The main requirement for the landing container is that it must have drainage holes.
- Alternatively, you can also (optionally) add a layer of expanded clay or fine gravel drainage.
To understand what are the advantages and disadvantages of one or another landing container, it is worth considering several options.
The advantage of this container is that it is durable and you can do it yourself, saving your family budget. In addition, when transporting seedlings, no additional devices are required.
The disadvantage of a wooden box is that, that when filled, it has a lot of weight, and with further transplantation into the ground, it is almost impossible to pull out the seedlings without damaging the root system.
Therefore, the boxes, as a rule, are used only for the initial sowing of seeds, and in the future, individual containers are already used for picking.
The advantage their use is that they are already equipped with drainage holes, are easily cut with scissors into separate specimens, and also have a low weight and allow you to easily remove the seedlings from the cell (when transferring and planting in the ground).
By cons structures can be attributed to the fragility and relative inconvenience in the further transportation of seedlings.
The main advantage is that they dissolve in soil and additionally nourish plants, the root system is not damaged. In other words, seedlings are planted without taking out, but together with the pot burying it in the ground.
The main disadvantages of these landing tanks is that they have a very moisture evaporates quickly, pTherefore, regular and frequent watering is essential. However, because of this, they often enough grow moldy (due to overflow). In addition, peat cups are relatively expensive.
By the way! There are also peat cassettes.
The tablets are easy to use, stimulate the development of a strong root system, as they have a balanced nutritional composition.
To the disadvantages can be attributed to the rapid evaporation of moisture, the need for an additional pallet and the high price.
By the way! Recently it has become popularly planted in snails. Indeed, this is convenient, but the peppers do not tolerate the dive well, and with this method, rather strong damage to the roots occurs during the dive. Therefore, it is better to leave it for tomatoes, for which the transplant is not at all scary.
When sowing sweet pepper seeds, it should be understood that over time, the seedlings will need more space, so they should initially be planted with a distance so that they can fully develop before picking without interfering with each other.
Important! In the case of thickening of the plantings, the risk of developing diseases increases, the seedlings will be excessively stretched and poorly developed due to lack of light and nutrition.
It is recommended to plant bell pepper seeds in rows at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other and with a row spacing of 3-4 cm... The more free space each seedling has, the longer it will be able to fully develop without picking. This optimal sowing technology will contribute to the normal growth of seedlings in the future.
Step-by-step instructions for sowing sweet pepper seeds for seedlings:
By the way! Some plant pepper to a depth of 1.5 cm, but the recommended one is exactly 1 cm.
For stable growth of the aboveground part without compromising the development of the root system
Important! As mentioned earlier, pepper seedlings are very sensitive to heat, a drop in temperature below +12 degrees can have a very detrimental effect on young plants, they will simply die.
Pepper is a short-day plant.
Therefore, in order for the seedlings to fully develop, daylight hours should only be about 9-10 hours (and even less for later varieties).
Interesting! Pepper often does not stretch when there is a lack of light, but simply stops developing.
Because sowing for seedlings occurs early enough, then, of course, it is optimal to place the seedlings on the southern windowsill, but the western or eastern window is also suitable.
Advice! Every 2 days, the seedlings should be turned with the other side to the window so that the seedlings do not stretch to one side.
In this case, the seedlings of pepper on the windowsill, as a rule, will have enough natural light, in other words, you do not need to turn on additional lighting (phytolamps).
However, if your windows face the north side or you often have cloudy weather, then you cannot do without additional illumination of the seedlings.
To water pepper seedlings at home should only when the topsoil dries up, avoiding overflow and drying out of the earth (especially wilting of plants).
Important! Water for watering pepper seedlings should be separated and warm (+ 25-30 degrees) or at least room temperature.
Watering itself must be carried out carefully along the edge of the container so as not to put the plants. In this case, it is necessary to water so that the soil is completely saturated with moisture.
All excess moisture should be released through the drain holes.
Pepper negatively tolerates any damage to the roots and recovers for a long time after transplanting. Therefore, the pick should be done very carefully.
Note! If you use a container with a volume of 0.2-0.3 liters, then after a while you will need to carry out another transplant (picking), more precisely, a transshipment.
The soil mixture can be used in the same way as when sowing seeds. (loose, light and nutritious, almost neutral acidity). But now it is already possible to add humus and wood ash to it, i.e. make it even more nutritious. And do not forget to disinfect.
A couple of hours before the pick, the seedlings should be spilled abundantly with warm water so that the soil does not crumble from the roots when they are transplanted, and the earthen lump is well separated.
By the way! Some gardeners at the same time (1-2 hours before the pick) are advised to spray the seedlings with one of the growth regulators "Epin" or "Zircon" (according to the instructions) in order to neutralize possible stress.
The picking procedure itself is standard: fill individual containers with soil, make holes, carefully remove the seedling with an earthen lump (with a spatula or spoon) and put it in the hole, slightly deepening, but not directly to the cotyledon leaves, but leaving a small distance, i.e. about half the stem.
The roots of the plant should have good contact with the soil, therefore, after transplanting, the soil around the seedling should be lightly pressed and spilled abundantly with warm (room) water.
In the future, if necessary (the seedlings will stretch out a little), then you can add earth to the seedlings of peppers. The main thing is not to deeply deepen from the very beginning.
Attention! More about the procedure and subtleties pepper picks read here.
By the way! If you live in the south, where the summer is long, and you have planted a low-growing early variety, then you can dive 2 seedlings into one glass.
Further care for pepper seedlings is similar: you need to maintain temperature and light conditions, as well as watering on time and start feeding.
Top dressing is an important element of caring for pepper seedlings at home. However, if you originally used nutrient soil, then, as a rule, you can do without additional fertilization. But, if the appearance of the seedlings causes concern, then feeding is simply necessary, it will help the plant to develop normally.
Usually, no top dressing is carried out before picking.
For the first time, pepper seedlings should be fed in the phase of 2-3 true leaves, i.e. after a pick, most often after 7-14 days.
How can you water pepper seedlings to make them strong?
In the seedling period (after picking), the pepper is picky about:
Thus, almost immediately after the pick, fertilization should be performed with fertilizer with a high phosphorus content, and a little later a couple of times with nitrogen fertilizers.
Micronutrients complement the action of macronutrients. So, pepper requires:
You can also feed the seedlings with humic fertilizers, for example, "Gumi", "Sodium humate" or Potassium humate ".
Important! Before feeding, the seedlings must be watered to improve the availability of nutrients and prevent root burns.
Against stretching (overgrowing) of seedlings, you can use fertilizer, more precisely, the growth stimulator "Athlete".
Also, as an option, you can use the complex fertilizer "Cytovit" (according to the instructions, as a rule, 10 ml per 10 liters of water), which contains the whole complex of trace elements in an easily accessible (chelated) form, as well as a small amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ...
By the way! More details about feeding pepper seedlings read in this article!
Since the seedlings are grown at home, before planting seedlings in open ground, they should first be adapted to more severe environmental conditions (for example, to sudden temperature changes, direct sunlight, etc.) so that after transplanting it does not get into a strong stressful situation ...
To do this, 2 weeks before planting the seedlings in a permanent place in open ground, you should begin to prepare it, in other words, to harden it.
At first, you can simply open the window, and then put the seedlings on a balcony or loggia in direct sunlight, in a greenhouse or outside (where the temperature is about + 12-16 degrees), gradually increasing the time (starting from 30 minutes).
This procedure will help strengthen the immunity of plants, adapt them to more severe external conditions.
Planting pepper seedlings in a permanent place should only be when the air temperature is not lower than +15 degrees regardless of the time of day, and the soil will warm up to at least +10, and preferably + 12-15 degrees.
Thus, the approximate timing of planting pepper in the ground in the South of Russia is the second half - at the end of April, in the Middle zone (Moscow region) - in the middle or at the end of May, and in the northern regions (Ural, Siberia) - not earlier than the beginning of June.
Important! Ignoring the favorable temperature conditions for planting seedlings can lead to hypothermia of the seedlings, they will stop growing, begin to hurt, which will negatively affect the future harvest, which in the end may not be. In the case of spring frosts, the seedlings may die altogether.
As for the requirements for appearance, the pepper seedlings by the time of planting should be strong, with a well-developed root system and have 8-12 true leaves. In addition, early cultivars should have pronounced first formed buds.
The very procedure for planting pepper seedlings in open ground is standard: you transfer the seedlings into pre-prepared planting holes, preserving the integrity of the earthen coma, and then spill it thoroughly.
Let's consider the most popular ones:
|Alyona||Ripening period 50-60 days. The first shoots can be obtained in 45 days. Differs in high productivity, the color of the peel is red, the color of the flesh is creamy. Preferred for growing in the West Siberian regions.|
|Ariel||Ripening period 50-70 days. First shoots after 45 days. You can get 2 crops per year. The peel is light yellow, the flesh is creamy.|
|Timo||The first roots can be obtained in 45-50 days. The variety is suitable for growing on different types of soils. Fully ripens in 70 days. The peel is light, the flesh is creamy.|
|Karatop||You can harvest the first crop for 50 days. Vegetative period up to 65 days. It is famous for its good yield, disease resistant. The potato peel is light, the flesh is yellow.|
|Bellarosa||The first fruits appear after 45 days. The vegetative period is 50-60. The flesh is yellow, the skin is light pink, rough to the touch.|
|Lark||Young potatoes can be dug up already for 40 days. The skin has a bright yellow hue, the pulp is soft lemon.|
|Impala||Belongs to the superearly variety. Full maturity is reached in 65-75 days. Harvest can be obtained in 45 days. The peel is yellowish, the pulp is also.|
|Romano||The peel is pink, the flesh is creamy lemon. The average germination rate is 80 days.|
|Zhukovsky early||Suitable for planting in the North-West, Siberian regions. The first fruits can be harvested in 55-60 days. The skin is pinkish lemon, the flesh is white.|
|Lileya||Belarusian potatoes have a high yield. The peel is a muted lemon shade, the flesh is light yellow. You can taste a young vegetable after 50 days.|
|Red Scarlet||The skin is bright red, the flesh is creamy yellowish. Produces fruits in 45-55 days.|
|Luck||The peel is yellow, the flesh is the same. The first harvest is obtained on the 45th day. The entire growing season is 65 days.|
|Uladar||A young crop can be obtained in 45 days, the entire growing season is 75 days. Several fruiting per season are possible.|
|Bullfinch||The peel is pinkish, the flesh is creamy. Ripening occurs at 45-55 days.|
|Charoite||The full growing season is 80-90 days. The first harvest can be obtained in 60 days. The peel is yellow, with the same pulp.|
|Veneta||Unique German variety. The skin is smooth, dark brown or yellow in color. The fleshy part is tender, light brown. Ripening occurs 50-55 days after germination.|
|Meteor||It gets along well in the Siberian regions. The peel is yellow, the flesh is also bright yellow. Landing is carried out in late April and early May. The first fruits ripen after 45 days.|
|Breeze||It takes 60-80 days to ripen the tubers, the first fruits are obtained on the 50th day. The peel is yellow, the flesh is creamy.|
|Riviera||Get fruits already 35 days after germination. The peel of the potato is yellow, the pulp is also.|
|Rosara||An early maturing German variety gives its first shoots already on the 50th day. The skin is red, the flesh is yellow, the tubers are well stored for a long time.|
You can't plant potatoes - on Palm week, on Wednesday and Saturday - they will be spoiled. And when the elder or bird cherry blossoms, it is planted. Ask When to plant vegetable seedlings.
As soon as the mother-and-stepmother begins to bloom, this is the beginning of spring for the gardener. It is from this day in the old days that you need to count 11 days and whitewash the trees, rake foliage, loosen the ground, plant tree seedlings. On the 14th day, they plowed the land, marked out the beds. And on day 23, you can already plant early vegetables:
After 30 days, early potatoes were planted. But if the mother-and-stepmother blossomed earlier than April 7 of the Annunciation, then the planting was postponed and waited for the color of the bird cherry. There is a rule for planting potatoes, which has been tested for decades: "potatoes do not fall into the ground before the leaves blooming on the birch and no later than the flowers bloom on the bird cherry". Interesting information April: Lunar landing.
In early spring, onions and cabbage are sown in the fourth and fifth weeks of Lent. Late spring is the last days of Holy Week, preferably on Saturday.
Good afternoon to all readers!
What is the largest berry? Watermelon. Previously, it was grown only in warm, southern regions.
Now, when selection has stepped far forward, an amateur gardener can pick the largest berry on his site in the Moscow region, and in the Urals, and in Siberia.
To do this, you just need to choose the right seeds, grow seedlings, transfer young sprouts to the ridge at the right time and harvest in time.
You need to start by choosing seeds.
When choosing seeds, it is necessary to take into account the region in which the watermelon plant will grow. In regions where summers are short, it is slightly better to sow hybrid seeds on sunny days. Their advantages are increased resistance to diseases, early maturity, the ability to grow a decent harvest in a short summer and a lack of solar heat.
In the suburbs, in the Urals or Siberia, it is better to grow early maturing hybrids. The fruits are tied on them in the middle of summer. Thin-bordered watermelons do not grow large, not heavier than 3kg, but are just as juicy and sweet, almost like southern ones.
In March and April, seeds of early ripening watermelons are planted. Seedlings are transplanted into the ground when the sprouts become strong and sufficiently hardened. It is necessary to choose zoned varieties for planting in your region.
The first berries on the plant ripen within 80 days after germination. Fruits grow up to 5 kg, spherical, shiny, bright in color. The pulp of the fruit is sugar, fragrant. Requires serious care.
Ripe fruits can be harvested as early as two months after the germination of the plant. Long lashes of the bush require the obligatory formation by pinching the shoots. The fruits grow medium-sized, up to 2 kg, but very sweet and long-lasting.
Ripe fruits can be harvested at 75-85 days. Fruit weight reaches 1.5 kg. The watermelons of this variety have an original taste, the color of the fruits is dark green, almost black. The advantages of Ogonyok include increased resistance to fungal diseases and low temperatures.
Of the lesser known varieties in these latitudes, you can grow watermelons such as Superearly Dyutina (SRD), Stetson, Charleston near Moscow, Sugar Baby (Sugar baby).
A very early variety. The harvest is ready to be harvested 70-80 days from the day of germination. The scourge of the plant grows up to 2.5m. Watermelons are spherical, striped.
A juicy, red pulp with sparse and small dark-colored seeds is hidden under a thin crust. Can be grown both under cover and outdoors.
The variety can be grown through seedlings, and when the soil warms up above 14 degrees, sow the seeds directly into the ground.
A hybrid that gives high yields under unfavorable conditions and a lack of heat. Fruits of regular spherical shape, dark green, weight reaches 10-13 kg. The pulp is bright red, contains a lot of sugars and a small amount of dark seeds. Fruits ripen in August-September.
Another very early variety. Watermelons ripen on day 80. Like all watermelon plants, it loves warmth and sunlight, but how few are resistant to temperature extremes. Round, striped fruit with a thin rind and sweet flesh. Seeds are dark, small, few in number.
Varieties of watermelons with photos and descriptions
Seedlings of watermelons are planted in a greenhouse or open ground when the soil at the root depth warms up above +18 degrees, and frosts do not return even at night.
In the Urals or in the Moscow region, this happens in mid-June. From this time, we will begin the countdown of the date of sowing seeds for seedlings.
If the soil temperature near the roots is below + 15⁰, the plants will take root for a long time, they may weaken and die. It is also not worth delaying planting - a ripening crop may fall under the first frosts.
Watermelon seedlings are best transplanted at the age of 25-30 days. Treated seeds germinate from ten days to two weeks.
Simple calculations show that sowing seeds should be started in late April - early May.
The results of cultivation will be even more significant if the sowing is coordinated with the movement of the moon, with the lunar calendar.
Experienced summer residents say that half of the success in growing crops depends on the correct planting dates. Especially for gardeners, a lunar calendar is published annually, the recommendations of which it is advisable to use so as not to be surprised why plants are lagging behind in development or get sick. Depending on the region, the sowing of watermelon is carried out in different months.
Favorable days for planting in 2019 will be the following dates:
On the days of the new moon and full moon, as well as on the eve and immediately after these dates, it is not recommended to land, transplant and dive. These days:
What else can you consider to get healthy planting material:
Despite its rather large size, watermelon seeds germinate for a long time. Watermelon belongs to the pumpkin family, and it means and prepare its seeds for sowing in the same way as cucumber seeds - to warm them up. You can hold them for a month at a temperature of about 40 degrees.
In the old days, peasants carried such seeds in a bag around their necks. Nowadays, they are stored in a warm place - above the stove in the kitchen or near the radiator.
Before sowing, it is useful to free the seeds from infections, the pathogens of which remain on the shell. As disinfectants, use a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, aloe juice, Fitosporin, soda solution or just hot water with a temperature of no higher than 50 degrees.
Disinfected seeds are germinated in a humid environment before pecking.
While the seeds are disinfected and stratified, we prepare the soil.
The soil should be light, loose, permeable, but at the same time nutritious. Purchased cucumber soil is suitable.
To prepare the planting mixture yourself, you need to mix well:
The soil mixture spread over the planting containers is disinfected. Hot water or Fitosporin solution is suitable for this. The mixture prepared in the fall can be frozen during the winter. The soil in the planting containers can be enriched with useful soil microflora - we water them with the working solution of Baikal EM.
It is necessary to grow watermelon seedlings in an individual container - pumpkin seeds are very painful to damage the roots. Seedlings ready for planting should have a strong root system and 3-4 formed leaves - a large plant.
Peat pots, milk or juice boxes, plastic cups or cut plastic bottles are suitable for her. There are two requirements for the dishes - a volume of at least 0.6-0.8 liters and drainage holes.
Planting containers are filled with an earthy mixture by 2/3. The mixture is compacted, spilled, prepared seeds are placed on the surface, covered with soil by 2 cm. If there are a lot of seeds, then two seeds can be sown in one pot. To accelerate germination, the seed pots are sealed and placed in a warm place.
After emergence, the weak sprout is cut off. Pulling is not recommended - you can damage a stronger seedling.
The remaining sprouts during the day are kept at 20-25 degrees of heat during the day, at night the temperature should drop to 18-20. Every day it is necessary to air the seedlings - lift the film or cover to remove excess moisture.
Daylight hours for watermelon seedlings should last about 12 hours. The lack of light so that the plants do not stretch out is compensated for by additional lighting.
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Seedlings are watered infrequently, but abundantly with warm, settled water. Water must be poured at the root, being careful not to get on the leaves. The water should not stagnate in the sump and should be removed regularly. Excessive moisture leads to rot and oxygen starvation of the root system. It is harmful and overdrying the earthen lump. The best option is moderately moist soil.
When growing seedlings, it is necessary to provide free space for young plants - the seedlings should not touch the leaves.
At the age of ten days, the seedlings are fed for the first time. The second and last time the seedlings are fertilized 10 days after the first feeding. For all dressings, fertilizers are used in liquid form.
The first fertilizer mixture contains more nitrogen in its composition - for accelerated growth of green mass.
The fertilizer mixture for the second top dressing should add phosphorus and potassium to the soil - they have a beneficial effect on the root system.
Seedlings damaged by infections are removed, the remaining plants are treated with fungicides and watering is reduced.
Most often, with such symptoms, brown spots are found at the base of the stem. Such seedlings must be isolated and destroyed. For prophylaxis, it is necessary to disinfect the soil before planting, and keep the seedlings at sufficiently high ambient temperatures.
The main conditions for obtaining healthy seedlings of watermelons:
The frost is over, the soil has warmed up, a third leaf has grown on the plant - the seedlings can be transferred to the garden bed. Indoors can be transferred a week earlier.
For a watermelon bed, choose a place lit by the sun, protected from cold winds. When planting seedlings on virgin soil, fertilizers do not need to be applied.
In other areas, good humus is introduced for planting up to 10 kg per 1 m2. Ideally, humus is scattered over the garden in the fall and immediately dug up.
In the spring, a complex fertilizer is poured into the planting holes, it can be specialized for pumpkin seeds.
In addition, you can warm the soil before planting by covering the hole with a dark film or spilling it with hot water when planting seedlings. Like all pumpkin seeds, watermelons do not like to be disturbed by the roots.
When transplanting, it is advisable to keep the clod of earth intact - this will accelerate the survival of the plants.
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The likelihood of seedling survival will increase if, after planting, it is covered with film or plastic bottles with a cut bottom.
The scheme for planting watermelon seedlings on melons is 50 cm between bushes in a row and 150 - 200 cm between rows. It takes a lot of space to get a decent harvest of watermelons. Each lash can grow up to 2.5m or more.
With a lack of area, the fruits will not reach the declared weight. Will not give standing crops and planting watermelons between trees - there will be a lack of sun.
Planted plants should be watered approximately twice a week. About ten liters of water heated in the sun should be poured into each hole. In areas with high humidity, in the Urals or Siberia, during the entire growing season, watermelons are watered only 5-6 times. During the period of fruit ripening, one and a half to two weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped completely.
You can get three fruits on each bush (the plant will not be able to feed more) if you form the bush correctly.
Watermelon plants planted in a permanent place must be fed in a timely manner, despite the beds filled with fertilizer.
Fertilization scheme at a permanent growth site:
As on all fruit plants, pests and diseases are found on watermelons.
To combat pests in the early stages of the growth of watermelon bushes, insecticides with a long waiting period can be used; when the fruits ripen, it is necessary to process the plantings only with biological products with short waiting periods.
Most often, the planting of watermelons is affected by all kinds of rot, anthracnose, bacteriosis, powdery mildew.
The main measure to combat diseases is prevention - crop rotation, correct planting scheme, seed and soil treatment, autumn harvesting and destruction of plant residues.
The only way to combat rot is the timely removal of diseased parts of the plant or the entire plant from the garden. For powdery mildew, you can use a baking soda solution, unpasteurized milk whey, ash infusion.
It takes a lot of effort to grow a sweet watermelon in the Moscow region or Siberia. But a fresh, sweet, environmentally friendly watermelon on the table will justify the effort and expense.
The main criteria for choosing a variety are frost resistance, ripening time, yield, size and taste of the fruit.
The farther north the growing region, the more important it is to choose self-fertile varieties, since in cold latitudes there are no insects that can pollinate figs.
Among the self-fertile varieties of figs, the following are more popular:
Of course, growing figs in unusual conditions is a laborious process that requires patience and strength. But if we put aside doubts about success and uncertainty in their capabilities, then eating a fig tree fruit grown with our own hands is a completely doable task.