Bell pepper is a delicious vegetable with a versatile purpose. It is used fresh for making salads, it is also pickled, fried, stuffed, baked and used in various other variations. For growing and planting such a crop in open ground, areas with a mild climate are suitable; in other areas, such a vegetable can be obtained using a polycarbonate greenhouse.
In such a greenhouse, you can plant a sweet and bitter variety even in early spring. It is much easier to care for and train even in the climate of Siberia, the Urals and the Moscow region.
Bell pepper considered a capricious culturethat grows only at a certain temperature, light, humidity, etc. It is practically impossible to create the necessary conditions in the open field, because there will always be a risk of adverse weather conditions.
In order to get a guaranteed yield, you should build a polycarbonate greenhouse, which also has the following advantages:
For Bulgarian varieties, a polycarbonate greenhouse is best suited, because through the double material scattered sunlight gets on the plants, and not direct ones, thereby protecting the plantings from burns. Also in such a greenhouse the most comfortable temperature is maintained.
In the greenhouse, the Bulgarian will be protected from all natural disasters, so the quality and quantity of the harvest will depend only on the efforts, competent approach and skills of the gardener. It is necessary to cut off flowers in a timely manner, transplant seedlings at a certain time, and also carry out the formation of a bush if any tall variety is selected.
On average, seedlings need to be planted in a greenhouse in mid-May, but more specific dates can be determined by the following indicators:
In order to speed up the process of heating the greenhouse, you should prepare "warm" beds... In the fall, the soil is dug to a depth of 30 centimeters, and small branches, straw, leaves, humus and other plant material are placed on the bottom, after which it is buried with soil and watered with water. As soon as snow falls, it is scattered over the soil in the greenhouse.
Before planting pepper seedlings in a greenhouse, it is necessary to prepare the soil, because the quality of the future harvest will depend on the degree of its fertility.
In the fall, the soil is dug up, cleaned of weeds, stones and other debris. Also at this time make organic fertilizers in the form of compost or rotted manure. For one square meter of soil, 1-2 buckets of fertilizers are used.
Immediately a few days before planting, the soil is watered with a solution of complex mineral fertilizers.
Bell pepper seedlings are placed in a greenhouse, focusing on the area of the room, the variety and the method of growing. For the most rational use of the territory, it is recommended to choose tall varieties... The rules for the arrangement of plants are as follows:
Before planting, seedlings must be accustomed to the bright sun. To do this, they are taken out on the street every day during the week. The exposure time of plants in the open sun is gradually increased from 2 to 12 hours.
Planting bell pepper is carried out on a cloudy day or in the evening... Seedlings are thoroughly watered with water and taken out of the pots so as not to damage the root system and the earthen ball. The seedlings are deepened in the same way as they grew in seedling containers.
The future harvest directly depends on the correct formation of plants.
In order to get a large number of large and tasty fruits, you must adhere to some rules:
On every bush they leave no more than 20-25 fruits, the rest are deleted. It is also necessary to cut off diseased, damaged shoots and leaves growing below the skeleton.
Full formation of the bush is necessary only for tall varieties... On stunted plants, only abnormally growing, diseased and sterile parts are removed.
With a lack of lighting, plant buds may begin to fall off. In order to prevent such a problem, perform the following actions:
In order for the peppers to ripen larger, and their taste was more intense, 40-50 days before the end of the growing season, it is necessary to form and tear off the tops of the shoots.
Watering is a very important procedure for peppers, so it is carried out taking into account the following nuances:
Peppers are watered only at the root, using a watering can, hose or drip irrigation system.
Feeding plants with nutrients is very important for the formation of large and beautiful fruits:
In addition to feeding and watering, pepper needs the following work:
Lack of nutrients in the soil can also lead to various problems:
Peppers, like many other plants, are susceptible to diseases and pests. When growing crops in a greenhouse, the following ailments can most often be found:
Insects most often appear:
To combat pests, they are treated with karbofos or other insecticides, which can be purchased in specialized stores. When diseases appear, in many cases, treatment is useless, the affected plants are removed, they cannot be transplanted, and healthy ones are treated with fungicides.
To avoid such troubles, you should carry out preventive treatment of plants with Brodsky liquid and follow all the rules of agricultural technology.
You can harvest sweet bell peppers from the greenhouse until the onset of persistent cold weather... The first frosts will not be terrible for such plants.
The work is carried out adhering to some rules:
Growing bell peppers in a greenhouse is available to all gardeners, regardless of their location. Thanks to this design, it is possible to harvest healthy and tasty fruits not only in the south, but also in more northern regions.
The timing of planting pepper seedlings in the greenhouse may be different. On average, it is planted in mid-May, but you can more accurately determine the time by the air temperature. It should not be lower than 10-12 ° С, but it can be higher. In the middle lane, such a temperature is established in early-mid May, in more northern ones - in early summer. You can plant pepper seedlings in a greenhouse when she is 2 months old.
Pepper is grown in seedlings, it does not matter at all where the culture will grow later, indoors or outdoors. Moreover, the seedlings can be grown directly in the greenhouse, the plants will not experience stress when moving. However, this is only possible in a heated greenhouse. Sowing starts from 20 February to mid-March. How to grow pepper seedlings in a greenhouse:
Seedlings grown at home are planted in a greenhouse in the second half of April, but it is worth remembering that it must be ready for a change in growing conditions. The bush can be at least 15 cm and have at least 9 true leaves.
Sweet bell pepper is a warm and moisture-loving culture. However, there must be an optimal balance between greenhouse temperature, air humidity and soil condition.
The first and plentiful one was made during the planting of the seedlings in the greenhouse. It is necessary to give the plants time to adapt and not disturb the root system with watering for 5-7 days. Of course, if the weather is extremely hot and the water evaporates very quickly, the interval is shortened.
Special large containers are filled with water for irrigation in advance so that it settles and warms up. In the evening, when the sun rolls towards sunset, they start watering the peppers. However, it should be noted that watering at night significantly increases the humidity of the air and the greenhouse must be thoroughly ventilated.
Watering in the morning is more rational in terms of maintaining optimal humidity indoors.
Irrigation can be carried out by sprinkling, but only in the absence of hot sunlight. Otherwise, droplets of moisture on the leaves will act as a magnifying glass, which will certainly lead to burns.
The method is stopped during the period of opening flower buds, so as not to wash off the pollen and not be left without a crop.
Often, a crust forms on the soil surface after irrigation, which must be systematically loosened to provide air access to the root system.
The cultivation of pepper by our compatriots has been practiced for a long time. The huge selection of varieties on offer and methods of planting them can confuse not only beginners, but also experienced gardeners. In this article, we will talk about how to plant peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse.
In the photo, pepper seedlings preparing for planting
When growing sweet peppers in a greenhouse, you need to remember about some features that will help you get a high-quality and rich harvest.
The main point is preparing the soil for planting seedlings. Experienced farmers are advised to apply potash and phosphorus fertilizers to the soil. At the same time, fresh manure cannot be added, since its use can cause a significant drop in yield. Instead, it is best to use humus or compost at the rate of 10 liters per 1 square meter.
Attention: The seedlings of peppers are planted in a permanent place only after the appearance of 12-14 leaves and the designation of a strong and thick green stem. The approximate height of the plant at the time of planting seedlings in the greenhouse should be about 25 centimeters.
When planting seedlings, it is important to take into account the soil temperature: if the greenhouse is not equipped with heating, then it is necessary to wait until the soil warms up to 15 degrees.
Due to the fact that this culture reacts negatively to replanting, the most suitable way out of this situation is to plant seeds in peat cups.
To obtain a good harvest, it is extremely important to choose the right varieties, adapted specifically for the greenhouse growing conditions.
Breeders and experienced gardeners consider the following varieties of peppers to be the best for a polycarbonate greenhouse:
Due to the fact that greenhouse conditions are more favorable for the cultivation of sweet peppers, the planting of the crop in the greenhouse can be carried out earlier than in open field conditions.
In most cases, planting seedlings in a greenhouse is carried out in May. However, in warmer regions, earlier dates are permissible, and in northern regions, it is better to plant pepper not earlier than the end of spring. For this, seedlings are sown at the end of winter or the first weeks of spring.
The condition of the seedlings is also of great importance. At the time of transplantation, its height should be about 25 centimeters.
Farmers distinguish two methods of planting peppers in the greenhouse: seedling and seedling. The first option is especially popular, as it allows already matured plants to quickly adapt to greenhouse conditions.
When digging holes for planting pepper, it must be borne in mind that the correct planting scheme is extremely important for this culture.
The depth of the holes must be sufficient for the seedlings to fit in the cavity along with the earthy clod. At the same time, it is important not to overdo it with depth, as this can affect the growth and development of the plant.
You must first pour about 1 liter of water into the prepared hole, then let the moisture soak in, and only then place the sprout there and cover it with soil until the first leaves on the stem.
Some farmers recommend putting humus or compost on the bottom of the hole as fertilizer. In some cases, a store-bought top dressing may also work.
As practice shows, it is best to install a support for the planted pepper immediately. At that moment, when the plant requires a garter, it will be possible to do this without much effort by tying the bush to an already existing support.
In addition, you can immediately mulch the soil, since you cannot water the seedlings in the first week after planting, and the mulch will allow the plant to receive retained moisture. Sawdust, dry leaves, tree bark or straw are perfect for this procedure. The cover will keep warm and help the soil stay loose for longer.
Planting sweet peppers with seeds is beneficial if you need to plant a large space with vegetables.
Before planting, it is necessary to soak the seeds in a solution of micronutrient fertilizers for half a day and prepare the soil for planting: mix peat, sand, ash, humus and sod soil. Ash helps to get rid of the acidic reaction of the soil, which has a detrimental effect on this crop. At the initial stage of growth, a large amount of nitrogen is required, and during fruiting, phosphorus.
The depth of planting seeds should not exceed 1 centimeter, and the planting density should be 6 by 6 centimeters. The first shoots will appear in about two weeks.
Important: Seeds are sown in a warm bed, which must be prepared in the fall.
For the germination of the culture, a temperature of 22 degrees is required, therefore, before the emergence of seedlings, the planting must be covered with a film. After germination, the temperature must be reduced for a week to 13-16 degrees, and then again increased to 20-25 degrees, which are comfortable for the pepper.
You can learn how to properly plant peppers in a greenhouse from the video:
The yield of peppers grown in greenhouse conditions directly depends on the correct formation of plants.
Correct plant formation includes the following steps:
It is especially important to monitor the health of the plants undergoing formation, because working with a tool without disinfection after each individual bush, it is very easy to transfer the disease from sick to healthy plants.
The crown bud (crown flower) is a flower ovary that forms in the first fork of the main stem: first, the pepper grows with one stem up to about 20 centimeters, and then begins to branch. For proper development (including branching), it is necessary to remove the crown bud, which will improve the nutrition of the ovaries located above the fork.
The purpose of pinching is to redistribute nutrients and juices in order to improve the quality of the fruit. The procedure consists in removing side shoots that appear during the growth of the main stem. In this case, it is necessary to remove both sterile flowers and excess leaves.
Pinching is carried out in the following sequence:
Experts recommend leaving 15 to 25 ovaries on one bush, as large fruits will be obtained from them. When removing the shoot, it is necessary to leave one leaf, since the nutrition of the entire ovary located under it depends on it. Each subsequent division should be subjected to a similar treatment: you need to leave the strongest shoot, and remove the rest to the first leaf.
When on the first bunch the fruits reach the level of technical ripeness, you will need to cut off the leaves on the stem of the plant. When the fruits of the second brush reach the same level, it is necessary to cut off the leaves growing under it. The same scheme is required to process the entire plant.
It is important to remember that the last such circumcision must be done no later than one and a half months before the planned completion of the harvest. You cannot remove all the leaves at once: it is permissible to cut off only two leaves at a time. Otherwise, the plant may die.
One and a half months before the planned end of the season, it is necessary to make the last pinching: cut off the tops of all skeletal branches, after which all the efforts of the plant will be focused on serving the already existing fruits and the massive formation of pepper.
The algorithm for growing peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse is as follows:
You can get acquainted with the cultivation of peppers in a greenhouse by watching the video:
As practice shows, the main reason for low productivity and damage to plants by pests and diseases are errors in the mode and technique of irrigation.
With a standard irrigation scheme, this crop needs moisture every five or seven days... The most successful solution in this case is the installation of a drip irrigation system.
The soil around the peppers should always be sufficiently moist, but at the same time, waterlogging can destroy the plant.
Gardeners are advised to adhere to the following rules for watering peppers:
Vegetable growers distinguish several types of pepper dressings in a polycarbonate greenhouse:
Top dressing can be either dry or in the form of an aqueous solution.
Peppers can be fertilized by:
Top dressing can be done with any of the above fertilizers, or a combination of them.
Fertilizing the soil is necessary:
The main diseases of greenhouse peppers during cultivation are:
The methods of dealing with diseases of greenhouse plants are different from the methods of getting rid of diseases of peppers growing in the open field.
To combat diseases of a crop grown in a greenhouse, the following recommendations must be followed:
Attention: Plants affected by the mosaic must be completely destroyed.
In order to prevent diseases, breeders advise:
Recently, pepper varieties that are resistant to diseases have been especially popular among summer residents, including:
Pepper varieties and hybrids highly resistant to mosaic are:
In the process of selecting the most suitable variety, preference should be given to zoned varieties adapted to the conditions of a particular climatic zone.
The cost of greenhouses made of polycarbonate varies from nine thousand rubles to twenty-eight thousand. Moreover, this price is fair only for structures intended for growing vegetables in small volumes. If we talk about the greenhouse business, then the cost of such equipment can reach several hundred thousand.
The price of greenhouses directly depends on the quality of the material of the guides, on the area of the structure, the availability of additional equipment in the kit, as well as on a number of other technical characteristics. In addition, the cost of polycarbonate greenhouses also depends on the region, the further south, the lower the price.
Before buying polycarbonate greenhouse equipment, you need to check the quality of the material from which the system was assembled. You should also pay attention to the presence of all permissive documentation and certificates.
Look at the video of the greenhouse for planting pepper:
In order to enjoy the rich taste of bell pepper throughout the year, you need to take care of the place where it will be grown. It is worth paying special attention to the equipment for lighting and heating the greenhouse structure. You should also think about the place where it will be located, because the right choice of place makes it possible to significantly save on electricity. As a result, it will be possible to recoup all spent funds in the shortest possible period of time.
It is not difficult to grow and care for peppers in a polycarbonate greenhouse. The plant will receive enough light, they will not be burned, as, for example, in a greenhouse with a film coating. Maintaining ideal humidity conditions is also more convenient indoors. Seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse require compliance with the following recommendations:
If you follow these minimum care requirements, then the peppers will produce an excellent harvest and beautiful bright, juicy fruits.
No matter how we try to protect our plant from diseases, the seedlings will constantly be attacked by infections. It is better to consider the signs of the disease in a photo on the Internet. The most common disease is aphids. It is very difficult to get rid of it; you will have to constantly monitor the seedlings. Aphids usually settle on the inside of the leaves, so if you buy seedlings, you need to carefully examine them so as not to infect all the plants in the greenhouse garden.
If your vegetable does not receive enough moisture, its leaves may even crumble. So summer residents recommend watering in small portions. Even a polycarbonate greenhouse will not protect your pepper seedlings from pests. May beetle larvae, whitefly, thrips, Colorado potato beetle, aphids - all of them can damage peppers. Therefore, the use of biological agents is considered mandatory. Pepper can hurt just like other plants in your greenhouse with rot, bacteriosis.
Growing pepper in a greenhouse climate will definitely bring good results, if you want to make a place in a closed garden more profitable, then experienced gardeners compact pepper seedlings by planting herbs, for example, onions, dill, parsley. The pepper grows slowly, so you have time to cut the greens before the stem of the pepper branches out.
A large number of species and varieties of pepper are grown in the world. And this is not surprising, since this vegetable, in addition to being a powerful source of vitamins necessary for the human body, is also an invariable, revered and favorite ingredient of many culinary experts.
Peppers of various varieties can be grown in greenhouse conditions, which can have not only a traditional shape, but also an unusual one, but in order to obtain high yields, it is recommended to choose hybrids that give large fruits, while giving preference to seeds of zoned varieties.
When choosing which pepper to plant in the greenhouse, it should be borne in mind that the seeds could already have undergone pre-sowing preparation. It is worth asking the seller or reading the information sheet. If there was no preparation, you should do it yourself. The simplest and most proven option is to pickle in a solution of potassium permanganate or treat with fungicides, after which the seeds should be soaked in 8-12 hours .
Photo - pepper seedlings in pots.
Pepper refers to plants that are grown exclusively in seedlings, while this rule is the same for plants that will be grown both in industrial greenhouses and in the open field.
In addition, this vegetable develops for a rather long time, the germination of seeds occurs in about a couple of weeks, and the period from the moment of laying the seeds to planting on the beds is on average 60-75 days... This factor is important to consider before planning the date of planting on the beds.
The initial stage of growing seedlings can be carried out in a special tray, planting seeds at a distance of 1-2 cm between them, and until the emergence of seedlings, keep it under glass (to maintain the temperature regime and protect against drying out of the soil).
After two or three weeks, sometimes a month, when 2-3 leaves appear, the seedlings can be dived, while planting in small plastic, paper or other cups with a diameter no more than 7 cm .
And the planting of pepper in the greenhouse takes place after the process of setting the buds has begun. As a rule, the plant by this time has a height about 25 cm... and up to 10 leaves have already developed on the bush.
Important! The pepper should be planted at the same depth as it grew in the pot, taking care not to damage the root system, which can cause a low yield.
Peppers are planted in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, glass or film approximately in May, closer to the middle of the month, but if the structure is heated, then transplanting is allowed in April and even in March.
Photo of the two-line tape landing pattern.
It is very important for peppers to follow a certain pattern according to which they should be planted. Often the seed packaging contains detailed instructions with recommendations that are optimal for a particular species or variety.
It is worth noting that the scheme for planting pepper in a greenhouse is mainly determined by the size to which the bush grows.
Important! With a lack of light, the growing season increases, and, therefore, the plants should be arranged in such a way that they have as much space as possible.
To increase the profitability of a greenhouse, for example, a small summer cottage, the so-called compaction of beds with peppers with other plants is possible. This is due to the rather long vegetation period of pepper, which reaches 180 days... Generally, planting green onions, sorrel, dill, spinach, lettuce, parsley, etc. is recommended. such a neighborhood does not negatively affect the yield of pepper.
Although peppers can be grown in almost any climatic conditions, planting and caring for peppers in a greenhouse has some peculiarities and will bring results only if certain requirements and rules are observed.
Peppers require light, breathable soil. Immediately before planting seedlings, fertilizers should be applied, primarily organic fertilizers, such as vermicompost. Ash also plays an important role, which is involved in the formation of fruits.
One of the most optimal soil compositions in which peppers are planted in a greenhouse is as follows: peat, humus, sod land or peat with sod land and sand, in the first case the proportion is 3:1:1... and in the second # 8212 4:2:1 .
For normal growth, starting from the stage of growing seedlings, the application of organic and mineral fertilizers is constantly required. During the season, on average, about four full dressings are carried out. The amount should be increased if necessary. It is recommended to carry out top dressing together or simultaneously with watering (depending on the fertilizer).
If complex fertilizer options are used, the price of which is quite affordable in specialized stores, feeding can be done according to the schedule -
1 time in 2-3 weeks, depending on the condition of the plants, variety, growing season.
In the photo - automatic watering of plants.
Pepper is very picky about the watering regime, it needs moisture for normal growth. above 70%... Leaves should not be allowed to wither. Watering should be done in the morning and, despite the plant's moisture-loving nature, do not allow an excess of moisture in the soil.
A farm greenhouse watering schedule might look like this:
After watering, it is important to loosen the topsoil to provide air access to the root system.
Pepper is a heat-loving plant, for its development the temperature is optimal from 20 to 27 ° C. Sharp changes should not be allowed, a slight decrease, although it will not lead to the death of the plant, can significantly slow down growth.
Drafts are very dangerous, therefore only one-sided ventilation is recommended, for example, only one of the greenhouse doors opens. At the moment when the peppers are planted in the greenhouse, the soil temperature should be from 15 to 20 ° C, the air temperature should be 20-25 ° C.
Despite the fact that pepper is a rather warm and moisture-loving plant, its cultivation is possible even in harsh climatic conditions, for example, in Siberia, of course, if it is grown in a greenhouse. At the same time, you can get fairly high yields, which are influenced by a lot of factors, for example, the scheme of their planting in a greenhouse, the right choice of variety for growing, etc.
If something remains unclear, watch the video in this article (also find out what a mini greenhouse with 36 peat tablets is).
Sources: http://kakteplica.ru/rasteniya-v-teplice/ovoshhi/perec/instrukciya-po-vysadke-rassady-perca-v-teplicu.html, http://propolikarbonat.ru/vyrashivat-perec-v- teplice, http://oteplicah.com/rasteniya/285-sxema-posadki-percev-v-teplice