Orchids (Orchidaceae), types and basics of agricultural technology


Features of an amazing orchid flower, how to grow indoor orchids

Today, 25,000 species of orchids are known, 90% of them are common in tropical and subtropical regions, the rest are found in various climatic zones, with the exception of deserts and the Arctic. The myth about this wonderful flower sends us far back in time, to the New Zealand Majori tribe.

According to legend, the first inhabitants of our planet were immortal spirits. The ancients believed that during this period only snow-capped mountain peaks could be seen on Earth. The sun warmed them up and melted the ice. Thus, waterfalls of unimaginable beauty and grace flowed from the peaks. They directed their run into the oceans, evaporating on the way and turning into lace clouds. Over time, so many clouds gathered that the sun's rays barely made their way through them. The clouds grew heavy and eventually burst into unprecedented rain. Such a beautiful rainbow formed in the sky that all spirits wanted to take their place on it. The number of spirits increased and increased, they danced and sang on a multi-colored arc, until it cracked and fell to the ground, scattering into a myriad of shiny fragments. Now the spirits silently watched the colored rain falling from the sky. They caught his drops and had fun, and those fragments of the rainbow that hit the trees turned into orchids. With the advent of man, orchids quickly conquered his heart. Since then, no one doubts which flower rightfully belongs to the winner's laurels.

Cultural history

Orchids have always been surrounded by mystery. For centuries, scientists have been struggling to unravel the secrets of these magnificent creatures of nature. In the Middle Ages, pundits seriously believed that orchids do not have seeds, and that young plants arise from the semen of birds and animals, which falls on the ground during their mating games. In the era of the great geographical discoveries, travelers and missionaries who visited the tropical jungle were convinced that orchids were parasitic plants, and, moreover, that they were predators that eat animals that they paralyze with their intoxicating scent.

Only in the 19th century, Europeans were able to see the tropical beauties more closely. Then a stream of orchids poured into Europe from the tropical regions of South and Central America, India, and Southeast Asia. The scale of this flower export is impressive, with orchids being exported in whole ships. When a ship loaded with a precious cargo sank off the coast of Colombia in 1878, there were 20,000 plants on board! "Orchid fever" swept, first of all, England, which possessed the most extensive colonial empire in the world. Whole floriculture companies appeared here, specializing in the supply of orchids for the European aristocracy. The most expensive copies were sold at an auction in London and cost 2000-2500 dollars, and sometimes even more expensive. But in the 19th century, the dollar, like the ruble, was much more significant.

Beautiful plants could also be bought in flower shops. Here they could be relatively inexpensive, since only those plants that were in the most deplorable condition got to the cheap sales. After traveling in the dark hold of the ship, which lasted more than one month, the tropical beauties were a pitiful sight - with crumpled leaves, with rotten roots…. Such plants were doomed to perish. However, those orchids that were "lucky" to fall into the hands of experienced gardeners also died pretty quickly. The fact is that among the orchids brought to Europe, epiphytes prevailed - plants growing not on the ground, but on the branches and trunks of trees. They needed a special substrate of bark and moss and a fairly moderate moisture, while European gardeners planted them in greasy soil and kept them constantly at high temperatures, while not forgetting to water abundantly. And the orchids died, but more and more new shipments of plants were brought to replace them. Due to the predatory export, entire populations of tropical orchids with an unusual shape and color of flowers have irrevocably died. Such was the price for a person's desire to become the owner of a luxurious flower treasure. Orchids as decorative flowering plants were identified by scientists in a special group. These are perennial herbaceous plants native to tropical countries with hot and temperate climates. They are valued not only for the originality and beauty of flowers of various shades and colors, but also for the fact that many of them bloom mainly in the winter months. By the way of their life, these masterpieces are divided into three groups: saprophytes (live on substrates that are decomposition products of other plants), epiphytes (growing mainly on other plants in the humid tropics, where they often coexist with bromeliads and ferns), as well as terrestrial orchids - living on the soil.

An indisputable advantage over all other flowering plants is the duration of flowering - orchid flowers last about one month, in some species - about two to three months on the plant and about a month if they are cut. The flowers are solitary, in racemose, paniculate and spike-shaped inflorescences, with a brightly colored perianth of two tri-membered circles. The back petal of the inner circle is called the lip and differs from the rest both in shape and color. Three stamens in a flower are attached to the column, only one or two of them are developed. The fruit is a capsule, and the seeds are very small, dusty. Indoor orchid is a huge selection of flowers, with the right selection of which there will always be living, flowering plants in your home. In addition, it is a plant that is unusually beautiful and healthy. Indoor orchid affects the emotional state of a person. Orchids, whose flowers are painted in white, pink, yellow, red, undoubtedly affect you and me. After all, it has long been known that each color affects the psyche and human health in its own way. Even if the indoor orchid is not blooming at this time, the potential energy of its sunny flowers surrounds the plant, we feel it, and our state changes. Being themselves very delicate plants, indoor orchids affect our mood and desires unobtrusively, almost imperceptibly.

The Sun, which rules the colors, is associated by astrological correspondences with creativity, the desire for creation, joy, and the color of the flowers tells what kind of creation the plant inspires. Indoor orchid with white flowers stimulates a person to honest, pure creativity. Such plants give rise to thoughts about the benefits and harms of creativity, any person often asks himself the question: "Will I harm others and myself with my deeds?" It is clear that when such thoughts arise, the creative process slows down, but a person is more active in doing what, according to his conviction and feeling, will not harm anyone. An orchid with white flowers is a good gift for an artist, musician, poet or needlewoman, creative products that do not glow with warmth and light, but are filled with sadness. Indoor orchids with yellow and orange flowers inspire creativity, as yellow encourages creativity. Plants with dark red flowers make people act faster, so these orchids can be beneficial for slow people. An orchid blooming with pink flowers knows how to please everyone.

Orchid species

Everyone is free to act according to their own taste, and therefore chooses a tropical beauty for their home individually. Phalaenopsis orchid is most interesting for those who are just starting to collect a collection of these wonderful plants. It is also interesting because the flowering period of each flower lasts up to 6 months, this plant does not demand either light or humidity and loves warmth, which is very easy to provide in apartment conditions. For growing in indoor conditions, plants with not very high requirements are best suited: cattleya, cellogin, cymbidium, papiopedilum ("lady's shoe"), oncidium. If these orchids grow well in your room, then try moving on to rarer, more complex, and more delicate species and varieties.

Cattleya is one of the most popular and well-known orchid genera in floriculture. There are about 65 species and a large number of natural varieties and forms of Cattleya, common in Mexico, Central and South America and the Antilles. The genus Cattleya has long been the standard of orchids and their culture, and the flower of this orchid in the buttonhole is the highest chic and a sign of aristocracy. Most orchids are epiphytes, but, regardless of their affiliation, they all grow in nature on trees and rocks and usually have elongated, spindle-shaped pseudobulbs, at the end of which there are from one to three dense leaves. The apical inflorescence, bearing from one to several dozen flowers, emerges from the bosom of the "sheath" covering the buds. Flowering of one inflorescence lasts 2-3 weeks (sometimes up to 1.5 months). As I mentioned, we can use these flowers in a cut.

Of course, indoor orchids are chosen not only for color and beauty. The size of the plant (sometimes an orchid can reach more than two meters in height in an inflorescence), the ability to create the required temperature and humidity - all this must be taken into account when buying an orchid. But all the work, chores will pay off with interest when your indoor orchid blooms! Orchids are considered to be very demanding plants in cultivation? First of all, this is due to the fact that they need a sufficiently high air humidity. Orchids cannot tolerate dry and dusty air. Even 2-3 times spraying of plants only temporarily increases humidity. It is best to grow orchids in indoor greenhouses.

All types of these amazing plants, despite the general requirements for care, can differ in the degree of difficulty in growing. There are very capricious orchids, but, what is very pleasing, there are many species that can be kept quite easily at home and made to bloom. In addition, it is very important for them to observe the rest period.

How is it necessary to keep these beauties?

Orchid substrate can be prepared by yourself. It is important that it is loose; often growers use soil with the addition of moss, crushed fern roots, pieces of pine bark and charcoal. You can buy ready-made flower mix in the store.

The general temperature range for orchids should be from + 18 ° C to + 24 ° C in summer. In winter, during the dormant period, we keep them at a temperature of + 12 ° C ... + 15 ° C, but not lower than + 10 ° C. For growth, and especially for flowering, the difference between day and night temperatures should be at least 8 ° C. Let's not forget that all orchids are photophilous and can grow in the open sun, but in the summer at noon they need to be slightly shaded. But the duration of daylight hours more than 14-16 hours a day prevents their flowering. Water the orchids in the summer months at least once a week, in hot weather - 2-3 times. In autumn, watering is gradually reduced, bringing in October to once every 2-3 weeks, but more often we spray the surface of the substrate. The ideal water temperature for irrigation is + 18 ° C, and the pH is 5.5-6.0. In summer, orchids require high humidity (60-80%), the lower limit in the daytime is 50%, with an increase in temperature, the air humidity should also increase. In winter, it is moderate - 40-50%. With the appearance of flower buds and during the growth period, we feed the orchids with each watering, but with a weak solution of a complex mineral fertilizer. In the spring and early summer, and with the appearance of young shoots, we intensify nitrogen nutrition. We transplant orchids only at the end of the dormant period - before the beginning of the growth period. Depending on the species, they need a transplant every 2-5 years or if the old pot has become too small. The new pot should only be slightly larger. When transplanting, you must be very careful not to damage the air and earth roots.

Orchid propagation is usually left to professionals. Orchids with pseudobulbs can be propagated by division. A pseudobulb - a thickened stem - is found in almost all indoor orchids. It is the organ that stores water and nutrients; it can be ovoid, cylindrical, or spherical. The plant is propagated by division at the end of the dormant period. Some orchids also develop "babies". This usually happens due to some mistakes made when caring for the plant.

As for diseases and pests, orchids are rarely affected by them. Much more often, the cause of damage to a plant is not diseases, but mistakes in caring for them. However, the appearance of scale insects, aphids, thrips and spider mites is sometimes possible. Magical, extraordinary, beautiful and mysterious creatures from the distant tropics - orchids. Until recently, it was impossible even to think about growing them indoors. But it turned out that many orchids feel very good in the house, you just have to give yourself the trouble to get to know their needs. And they will not disappoint you!

Svetlana Seregina


Growing lettuce on the windowsill

If you have the opportunity, a little time and desire, then in winter you can arrange a garden on the balcony and grow greens even when there are severe frosts outside. In fact, growing lettuce at home on a windowsill is quite simple and a novice gardener, and even someone who is far from gardening work, can handle it. So, let's take a closer look at how to grow lettuce at home:

Video about growing lettuce on the windowsill

The salad loves high humidity, so experienced gardeners recommend spraying the plants daily

By creating a green garden on your windowsill, you will provide yourself and your loved ones with natural vitamins all year round.


Clematis - E. Donyushkina

Book: Clematis
Author: Donyushkina E.A., Zubkova N.V.
Year: 2011
Genre: Floriculture
Publisher: Well
ISBN: 978-5-93395-091-2, 978-5-93395-235-0
Pages: 96
Language: Russian

Description: The book tells how to choose and grow clematis.

  • Basic information about clematis
  • Features of clematis
  • Garden classification of clematis
  • Types and varieties of clematis
  • Fundamentals of agricultural technology
  • Pest and disease control
  • Using clematis


On our site you can download the book "Clematis" by E. Donyushkina, N. Zubkova for free and without registration, or buy a book in the online store.


Types of flowers

Orchids also differ in the types of root systems. Still, these are plants that grow in special conditions that are significantly different from those that create ordinary indoor or garden flowers.

Epiphytic

This type of orchid grows in nature high above the ground, using trees and shrubs as supports and bases. They get food from the air, a small amount of soil, which accumulates in the hollows of trees, folds of bark, on the branches.

The roots of epiphytic plants are strong, elastic, and have a greenish or silvery hue. Such species of the orchid family are successfully grown at home.

Lithophytic

Somewhat different growing conditions in lithophytic species, forced to adapt to life among limestones, hard rocks, rocks, stones.

In general, their root system differs little from the epiphytic representatives of orchids, but most often this species prefers moist conditions. Such orchids bloom well if there is a sharp drop in daily temperatures, high humidity is observed.

In order to achieve flowering, they are often cultivated in special display cases. Some genera of orchids include both lithophytic and epiphytic species, as well as terrestrial ones. For example, cymbidiums are lithophytic and terrestrial.

Terrestrial

These types of orchids are similar in terms of growing conditions to other traditional flowers. They grow in the ground, the root system is represented by bulbs, cones or roots. In nature, such plants are common in the USA, European countries, in Russia, the height usually does not exceed 40-50 cm. Terrestrial orchids growing in the tropics are distinguished by the larger sizes of both the bush and the flowers.


Fayus: rules for growing orchids in rooms

Article author: Pravorskaya Yulia Albinovna, 69 years old
Agronomist, over 45 years of experience in gardening

Characteristics of fayus, recommendations for care for home cultivation, breeding rules, difficulties encountered during cultivation and ways to overcome them, facts for the curious, types.

The content of the article:

  • Care rules for growing at home
  • Self-breeding rules
  • Pests and diseases when cultivated in room conditions
  • Facts for the curious
  • Views

Fayus is a plant belonging to the Orchidaceae family and is sometimes referred to as Fayus. It includes mainly terrestrial orchids, and there are up to 43 species of them in the genus. The native growing areas are in the tropical parts of the Old World, where the lands are attributed: Africa (including Gabon, Congo, Uganda, Tanzania and others), Asia (India, China, Indonesia, the Philippine Islands, and so on), as well as New Guinea, the Australian continent and various islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans. One species has been naturalized in Hawaii, Florida and the Caribbean. These orchids can grow comfortably even at 1300 meters above sea level.

Often such a plant is called among flower growers "Nun's Orchid" or "Hidden Orchid".

Fayus, is a terrestrial or epiphytic orchid, rather large in size and with a highly decorative appearance. The plant has pseudobulbs or so-called false bulbs (aerial tuber, aerial root or tuberidium), which are created from the thickened near-earth part of the stem. Basically, epiphytic orchids that grow on the branches or trunks of trees are characterized by such pseudobulbs, but orchids growing on the surface of the soil (such as fayus) are not devoid of such family insignia. The size of a pseudobulb in a plant reaches a diameter of 2.5 to 7 cm, their shape is ovoid.

Orchid leaf plates in length can reach 30–100 cm, their outlines are elongated-elliptical or lanceolate, the surface is folded, all in longitudinal stripes from them. There is a slight sharpening at the top. Their color is from light to grassy green, but after a year or two, the leaves fall off. During flowering, an erect flowering stem is formed, the height of which varies from 60 to 90 cm. Such a peduncle takes its origin from the side of the pseudobulb. Each peduncle can crown from 8 to 20 buds.

Fayus flowers are highly decorative. Their diameter is 12.5 cm, the general contour is star-shaped, there is a pleasant aroma, they stay on the plant for a long time. The shape of the sepals and petals is elongated-lanceolate, with a sharpening at the tips. The color outside is white, like a discolored flower, but inside there is a mixture of red, purple, red-brown, beige-brown or yellow. The lip is elongated, large and in its outlines it is similar to a rolled paper bag or tube. Inside, the color is bright yellow, in front its color is purple, outside there is a whitish or yellow tone. The flowering process takes place from November to March. The flowers have a slight downward slope, their opening is slow, each bud opens after the other, and therefore there is a feeling of a very long flowering duration.

Fayus is the most hardy of all orchids and the easiest to grow.


Peanut features

The cultivated peanut is an annual, which reaches a height of 0.7 m. Its shoots are strongly branched. The taproot is also branched. The bare or pubescent erect shoots are slightly faceted, the lateral branches are directed upward or recumbent. There is pubescence on the surface of alternate paired-pinnate leaf plates, they reach 3–11 centimeters in length, their petiole is grooved and there are two pairs of pointed elliptical leaflets. Short axillary inflorescences consist of 4-7 flowers of red-yellow or whitish color. The life of each individual flower is only about 24 hours, but the peanut bloom is long, its beginning occurs in the last days of June or the first days of July, and it ends in late autumn. The fruits are swollen oval-shaped two to four-seeded beans, they reach 15-60 mm in length, and have a spider-web pattern on their surface. During ripening, the fruits tilt to the surface of the soil, after which they are immersed in it. It is in the ground that they ripen. The seeds of this plant are the size of a bean, they have an oblong shape, and are covered with a pinkish, dark red, yellow-gray or cream-colored skin on top. Fruit ripening is observed in September or October.


Types of fajus

    Large-leaved fajus (Phaius grandifolius Ldl.). This variety is most common in tropical Asia, Indonesia and the Australian continent. The arrangement of pseudobulbs is quite dense, they are painted in a grayish-green color with an approximate diameter of 5-7 cm, the height is the same. There are several sheet plates, on their surface there are longitudinally located folds. The length of the leaf is measured in the range of 60–80 cm. The flowering stem originates at the base of the pseudobulb. Its maximum height can reach 1 meter. The peduncle is crowned with 20 buds, with a pleasant aroma. The color of the sepals and petals (petals and sepals) of this orchid is reddish brown, but the color of the back is whitish. The size of the lip is large, it has a yellow-pink tint with a pattern of wine-red veins, the edge is wavy. The flowering process occurs in spring and summer.

Phaius Tankervilliae. The name was given to the variety in honor of the lady in whose greenhouse this flower first bloomed - Countess Emma de Tankerville. Often a synonym is such a name - Phaius tankervilleae, which was recognized by the International Commission on Representatives of the Orchid family, however, the following references can often be found in literary sources: tancervilleae, tankervillae or tankervillia, tankervilliae or tankervillieae. This representative of the flora is a native of the tropical or subtropical regions of Asia and the Pacific Islands, it can be found on the Australian and African continents. Places of natural growth can be at rather impressive heights, and the orchid prefers to settle in open areas, hiding in moist open woodlands of deciduous plants, it can feel comfortable in swampy areas of evergreen forests. In height, the plant often varies within the range of 60-200 cm. The pseudobulbs are ovoid in shape, they are thick with a green color, reaching 3-8 cm in length, often clustered together. There can be from a couple to two pairs of leaf plates at each increment. Their outlines are oval-lanceolate, evergreen, the surface looks corrugated due to folds. The length of the leaf can vary from 30 to 102 cm. When flowering, a peduncle appears from the base of the pseudobulb, which stretches 61–122 cm in height. Such a flowering stem can have 10–20 flowers with a scent. Several buds bloom at the same time. In diameter, the flower reaches 10-13 cm. The color of the petals and sepals in the flower is quite variable: there may be blackish, purple or yellowish-brown shades on the inside, while the outside takes on a fawn, greenish or pink color. Varieties of generally snow-white color are known in culture. The lip is distinguished by a tubular contour, its edge is curved, wavy, and it is covered with a spot of golden color. The inside of the lip is colored burgundy or purple, and the outside is whitish. Usually flowers live 17-18 days, but if the variety comes from the island of Java, then it is self-pollinated and its flowers stay on the peduncle for a shorter period. Flowering time is from late winter to mid-spring.

  • Fayus yellow (Phaius flavus). This variety is most common in Thailand, the Philippines and Malaysia, it can be found in China, the Japanese islands and Taiwan. If we talk about Indian lands, then there this flower can feel comfortable in a swampy area at an altitude of more than 1219 m above sea level, and in the western regions of Java "climbs" to an absolute height of about 1768 m. It is a terrestrial orchid with a sympodial type of growth ... In height, the plant can vary in the range of 60–90 cm, but occasionally its parameters reach up to one and a half meters. The size of the pseudobulbs is large, they are located closely, they take a cylindrical or conical shape. Their length is 10-15 cm. Each new growth contains 2-3 pairs of leaf blades, distinguished by oblong or lanceolate outlines. The length of the leaf is 30–50 cm. The surface of the leaf is corrugated, painted in a dark green color, often with spots of yellow or orange hue. From the lateral part of the pseudobulb or the base of the shoot, a flowering stem begins to stretch out during flowering, which can reach 46–60 cm in height. 10–15 buds are formed on the peduncle, from which a dense racemose inflorescence is collected. The flowers are distinguished by their spectacular appearance and pleasant aroma, their diameter is 8 cm. Each flower can last up to 14 days. The shape of the sepals and petals is oblong, they are painted in colors ranging from light yellow to bright yellow, or there is a greenish-white tint. The edge of the lip is wavy, its shape is tubular, there is a coating of hairs. Its color can be either yellow or pink with a pattern of brown, reddish-brown or orange spots along the edge. The flowering period is almost all year round, with the exception of June and November.

  • For more on Fayus Tankerville and flower transplant, see below:


    Watch the video: Orchids Flowers. Wow!Amazing Agriculture Technology Kumquat


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