Misato - pink colored daikon, agricultural technology


The experience of growing a Japanese daikon with an unusual pulp color and original taste

Seeing pink glitter on a thin daikon slice
I want to drink sake warm, as if alive.
The evening will pass quickly.

For several years, there are seeds of a very unusual daikon variety on sale. Pink glitter misato... The variety is of Japanese origin.

In Japan, with its volcanic soils and temperate, maritime climate, the daikon is grown after harvesting summer crops in the fall and winter. A huge number of varieties of this plant are bred there. I tried to grow varieties and zoned for the middle band. Sasha - early variety, its yield is average, this variety has a mild, moderately pungent taste. Of its shortcomings, I cannot fail to note the very different size of root crops.

The varieties are very similar to each other Cudgel, Dragon and hybrid Ttsukushi Spring Cross... Their root crops are stably large, and Ttsukushi can be planted in spring - the plant does not shoot. But my spring plantings of this daikon were completely eaten by soil pests. In summer, these varieties are sown two to three weeks earlier than the harvest time. Sasha can be sown in place of the harvested garlic. This daikon, with such a late planting, is little affected by pests.

Variety Pink shine misato is a pronounced cold-resistant short-day culture. In the middle lane, it is very difficult to guess the sowing time of this variety. At early sowing dates, the variety easily begins to bloom. If you are a little late with sowing, then it is very easy to stay with small root crops and significantly lose in the size of the crop.

This variety has an interesting feature characteristic only of it - the formation of a full-fledged root crop with a flowering plant. You should try to break the flower arrows as soon as they appear, and if one is broken, then more and more will appear with enviable constancy. The root crop, on the other hand, with sufficient moisture, will grow, while it is picked up with a special pungency, comparable only to the black Russian radish. Its density and sharpness are such that no pest appears even on the very surface of the root crop. At the same time, the pulp is poured in bright pink, with a pearlescent color due to small inclusions of white. Such roots rarely have pronounced rings of white flesh, except for the white ring just under the skin. They grow larger than non-flowering ones due to earlier planting.

If we talk about the seva of this daikon, then, in my opinion, it should be carried out in several terms. I came to this conclusion after several years in a row received either only flowering plants, or very small root crops. About three weeks before harvesting the garlic, I sow a third of the seeds to be sown. With a row spacing of 30 cm in a row, they can be sown denser, taking into account the fact that some of the seeds may still not sprout. In the future, the plants should also be in a row at a distance of about 30 cm from each other. In the middle of autumn, this distance can be further increased by selective harvesting of root crops. Daikon does not tolerate thickening and shading well.

For another two weeks, on weekends, I continue to sit down. At least one of the waves of this sowing will fall on a more or less optimal time. I can't imagine how to accurately calculate this period in case of not very stable summer weather in the middle lane. Indeed, the flowering is influenced not only by the length of the day, but also by the provision of the plant with moisture, the planting site (it is advisable to choose it in the sun). Root crops of those plants that have not turned into color, that have received enough moisture and nutrition, for growth and normal formation of keeping quality are enough for about 70 days. Sufficiently aligned specimens of about 10 cm in diameter are obtained. Their peel is white, but vague distinct red and green spots appear on it. These roots are almost completely submerged in the ground. A small part of them, protruding above the ground, turns into a rich green color. When cross-sectioned, their flesh has alternating circles of bright pink and snow-white color with a ray pattern from the center, while visually obtaining a spotted pattern with a clear mother-of-pearl tint. Each root vegetable has its own combination of pink and white, its own saturation of pink, which on some root crops suddenly thickens to beet-red.

The width of these stripes is also different and unique. Like recorders, the roots of this variety with their color signals let you know about the conditions in which they grew, however, these "signals", of course, also depend on the heredity of the root crop. The variety, however, is stable; under optimal conditions, it produces leveled root crops of the same pink-white, but very varied pattern. You can, of course, plant this variety deliberately late, getting consistently small roots. But such agricultural technology will adversely affect not only the yield, but also the keeping quality of root crops. It is also worth adding that one should not rush to harvest the daikon, because it is possible to harvest it before the onset of stable frosts. Arriving at the site in October, you can sometimes see such an outlandish picture: daikon plants, powdered with the first snow, and green leaves peeping out from under the snow. When the cool, but still warming rays of the October, low sun will melt the first snowball and warm a small frozen "crust" of the earth, you can start harvesting. However, it should be remembered that a daikon already pulled out of the ground tolerates frost much worse, in this form it can easily be spoiled by frost.

Readers, looking at the photo of this daikon, will immediately see the difference in the size of root crops grown from a flowering plant (left) from standard root crops. In the photo of peeled and cut large and standard root crops, their bright colors are clearly visible. It is clear that this product will greatly decorate the table. It is hardly suitable for multi-ingredient salads, which will lose its original color. It is good to decorate the slicing, traditional for radish and radish, with greens. The pink shine misato daikon is also suitable for grated salad. It is known that in Japan there are daikon varieties not only with pink, but also with blue flesh. Let's hope that the range of such original varieties will expand in Russia as well.

Igor Lesnikov, gardener, Moscow


Chinese radish

• in fact, the Chinese radish is not an independent species, but one of the groups of common radish varieties. She, like the daikon, came to Russia from Japan and, like the daikon, is more popular in Russia than the common radish (bitter)
• Lobo roots are rich in vitamins of group B, PP, ascorbic acid, carotene, amino acids. Of great value are the carbohydrates it contains (including sugars), mineral and nitrogenous substances, fiber, essential oil (less than in bitter radish), various biologically active substances, enzymes
• root vegetables are consumed fresh, salted and boiled, young leaves and seedlings in the cotyledon phase are added to salads

5.8-7.2 (slightly acidic or neutral)

• the best are potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions
• cannot be grown after cabbage crops

the soil is prepared for it in the same way as for other root crops. It should be well fertilized, but fresh manure is excluded. Therefore, it is closed up under the previous culture, and the rotted one is brought in in the fall. The soil is dug deep (25-30 cm) and well loosened. On fertile and seasoned areas in the fall, in the spring, you can limit yourself to the use of potassium salt and ammonium sulfate (20-30 g per 1 m2). On poor soils, in addition, humus or compost should be added (respectively 2-3 and 4-5 kg ​​per 1 m2). In low-lying areas, radish is cultivated on ridges and ridges

sowing dates depend on the early maturity of the variety, the growing area and weather conditions. Usually sown in two periods:
- late April - early May
- in the first half of July

1.5-5 cm, taking into account the mandatory mulching of the soil

• on a flat surface, row sowing with row spacing of 50-70 cm
• sowing on ridges with a row spacing of 25-30 cm for early varieties and 45-50 cm for mid-late varieties
• distance between plants in a row 15-20 cm

• for the season, it is enough to carry out 1-2 fertilizing with nitrofos at the rate of 25-30 g per 10 liters of water, or wood ash at the rate of 1 glass per 1 m2 of area
• about 3 weeks before harvesting mid-season varieties, feeding is stopped

• a very hygrophilous culture, it is necessary to water often and abundantly, especially in hot sunny weather, when the plants intensively evaporate moisture
• from lack of water, root crops become coarser, become less juicy, with an uneven flow of water, they crack

• quite cold-resistant culture, seeds begin to germinate at + 2-3 ° С, seedlings can withstand frosts down to -3 ° С, adult plants - up to -5 ° С.
Optimum temperature for growth and development + 18-25 ° С
• at temperatures below +15 and above + 25 ° С, as well as during early spring crops (in conditions of long daylight hours) and depending on the variety, it is strongly exposed to flowering - the formation of a peduncle and seeds, which leads to a decrease in the quality of root crops

there are few domestic varieties and hybrids, mainly foreign varieties and hybrids are grown

60-70 days from full germination to harvest: Severyanka, Raspberry ball, Margelanskaya, Chinese local, Misato Red

70-110 days from full germination to harvest: hybrid Start, varieties Pink Ring, Wang Zhao Hong, Xiang Touqing, Xiao Ying Zi Lobo, Troyandova, China

• Root crops of Chinese radish are denser, juicy and occupy an intermediate position between daikon and European radish varieties, since their flesh has a slightly pungent taste. Lobo is stored better than daikon, but worse than European radish varieties
• Root crops are round and elongated. The color of the lobo is more diverse than other varieties of this genus: there are varieties with light green, dark green, pink-red and lilac-purple colors. But in the upper part of the head, the roots are always painted in an intense green color.
• lobo radish stimulates appetite, stimulates the secretion of gastric juice and bile, activates intestinal peristalsis. In folk medicine, it is recommended to use it for gout, kidney stones and bladder. As it is written in the book "The Gardener", published in 1817, "the radish is useful for cough and scurvy disease."
For the same purpose, radish juice with honey is used today. Radish is used as an antiseptic (for the treatment of purulent wounds and ulcers) and a local sedative (for muscle pain, radiculitis, neuritis). Since lobo radish practically does not contain glycosides and mustard oils, which give the root crop a sharp-bitter taste and stimulate heart activity, especially in the elderly, its use does not adversely affect the liver and heart

Despite its name - Chinese radish, this vegetable is deservedly popular not only in China, but also in many Asian countries, it is widely grown in Japan and Korea. In our country, it can most often be found in the Far East, and in Central Russia, for most gardeners, this culture is still only an overseas guest.

Lobo (or forehead) tastes both juicier and more tender, and tastier than our radish, since it contains less rare oil and practically does not have a spicy aftertaste. Its roots contain many vitamins, micro- and macroelements, enzymes, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber and essential oils. The main nutritional value is mineral salts: 100 g of lobo radish contains up to 17 mg of sodium, 255-1199 mg of potassium, 8 mg of magnesium, 34 mg of calcium, 1.5 mg of iron, 26.4 mg of phosphorus, 8 mg of iodine. It is also rich in vitamins: C-17.2-23.2 mg, Bz-0.18 mg, B1- 0.033 mg, B6-0.06 mg, PP - 0.25 mg, carotene - 0.023 mg. Eating this vegetable helps to improve metabolism and digestion, stimulate appetite, stimulate the secretion of gastric juice and bile in the body. Due to the content of alkaline salts, the forehead helps to flush out those salts from the body that have already been deposited in it, and also removes excess cholesterol and toxins.

Many varieties of loach have larger roots than the usual varieties of European radish, their weight ranges from 300 g to 1 kg. The shape of the root crops, depending on the variety, can be round, oval or cylindrical. The outer color of the root crops can be white, green, purple and various tones of red, but in the upper part of the head, the roots are always colored in an intense green. The pulp also varies in color - white, green, red.

Quite an unpretentious plant, the best predecessors for which are legumes and winter crops, cucumber, early potatoes, tomatoes, onions.

Since this crop is responsive to daylight hours, it is very important to choose the right sowing timing. During spring sowing, flower stalks are often formed, the fruits of such plants, unlike daikon, are not suitable for food. It is better to sow in the second half of summer, when the day is shortened and the plants are not threatened with a transition to flowering. In the North and in the middle lane - this is the first half of July, early ripening varieties can be sown in early August, in the south, sowing is possible until the end of September. Early ripening varieties can be sown from the end of June. If possible, you can adjust the length of daylight hours by covering the garden with Chinese radish with dark covering material for 12 hours every evening.

Quite cold-resistant, the seeds germinate at a temperature of + 4-5 ° C, the most favorable temperature for the growth of root crops is + 18-20 °, withstands light frosts.

Demanding on moisture, especially during the formation and growth of the root crop. Regular watering in dry weather is the main condition for successful growth and obtaining a good harvest. In addition, lack of moisture impairs the taste as the pulp becomes bitter and dry.

A high yield is obtained on fertile soils, well filled with organic matter (compost or humus) and with a neutral reaction. The soil for growing is prepared in the same way as for other root crops. Usually organic fertilizers are applied under the previous crop, but if this has not been done, then humus or compost can be added 1 bucket per 1 square meter on light fertile soils and 2 buckets per 1 square meter on heavy clay soils. Fresh manure is not brought under Chinese radish, because because of it, root crops crack and often get sick, become tasteless. You can grow these root crops without organic matter, only with mineral fertilizers. In this case, 25-30 g of ammonium nitrate and 30-40 g of superphosphate are added for digging, it is even better to use complex fertilizers "Kemira-Lux" or "Kemira-universal-2", containing not only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, but also all the necessary trace elements. The depth of digging the soil should be at least 30 cm. On acidic soils, it is required to add slaked lime.

For sowing, take only well-filled seeds. The yield and size of root crops largely depend on the seed sowing scheme. The most optimal is the scheme of sowing seeds on beds 110 cm wide in 4 rows with a distance of 30–35 cm between them and a groove depth of 1.5–2 cm, into which seeds are sown in nests of 2-3 pieces. The distance between the nests is 15 cm. If the soil is not moist enough, then after sowing the area must be watered. To accelerate seed germination, the bed is covered with a film, which is removed when seedlings appear (after 6-7 days, and when sown with soaked seeds in moist soil - after 5 days). With the emergence of seedlings, the soil is periodically loosened throughout the growing season, preventing damage to the roots. In the phase of 2-3 true leaves, the plants are thinned 15 cm apart, and for large-fruited varieties - up to 18 cm.In the case of rare crops, young seedlings from thickened places can be transplanted with a clod of earth into empty rows.

When the root crop reaches a diameter of 4-5 cm or the leaves acquire a pale color, the plants must be fed with mullein solution or ash. On rich soils for early varieties, 1-2 additional dressings are enough, and for winter varieties - 3-4 dressings with an interval of 10-12 days. Once the leaves are large enough to give more light to the plants, remove any yellowed leaves. And one more feature of the forehead - in the garden it gives a higher yield than on a flat surface.

Further care provides for the prevention of thickening: the leaves of the plant should, as it were, lie on the ground, and not grow vertically. Thickening leads to flowering. It is also necessary to carry out preventive measures to combat pests - cruciferous flea and cabbage fly. For this, pollination is carried out with tobacco dust, ground wormwood or needles. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the beds, removing weeds in time and saving the pouring root crops from slugs, for which the root crops can be tamed, which is only good for them - the pulp will be softer.

Since the root crops of the lobs are quite tender, they must be removed before the onset of frost and the arrival of the rainy season. On light soils, they are pulled out by the leaves, on heavy soils, they are undermined with a shovel so as not to injure. When cuts, bruises and scratches occur, roots rot quickly and are poorly stored. Early varieties are harvested selectively in dry weather as they ripen, and winter varieties are harvested in a row. For root crops intended for storage, it is better not to cut off the tops, but to break off by twisting, leaving a stalk 1.5–2 cm long. It is better to store in boxes, in the sand or in bulk in cellars, cellars, along with potatoes. In open plastic bags in refrigerating chambers with a mode of 0-1 ° C, humidity of 85-90%, some varieties survive well for up to 200 days. Winter varieties are well stored until spring, retaining their taste and juiciness. The tops can be used for pet food.

Among the varieties of this culture are:

  • Glow... The growing season is 75-80 days. The root crop is round-oval in shape. The peel is pink in color, the flesh is white, juicy, with a pleasant spicy-delicate taste.
  • Elephant fang. The variety is mid-season. The root vegetable is white, elongated-cylindrical, smooth, weight 315-540 g. The pulp is white, at the head it is light green, tender, juicy, with a sweet-spicy taste. In summer-autumn cultivation, there is practically no flowering. North of 55 ° N. when sowing in spring, it turns into flowering. Possesses high taste and productivity. Recommended for the North Caucasus region of Russia.
  • Margelanskaya. An early, heat-resistant variety. The growing season is 60-90 days. The root vegetable is dark green with a white tip, wide-cylindrical, 9-16 cm long, 7 cm in diameter, weighing 220-400 g. The pulp is white or light green, juicy, slightly bitter. Keeping quality for summer sowing during winter storage is good
  • Oktyabrskaya-1. The growing season is 70-75 days. The root crop is round-oval in shape. The peel is white, the head is green. The pulp is white, tender, juicy, with a mildly spicy taste.
  • Oktyabrskaya-2... It differs from the previous variety only in the shape of the root crop - it is elongated or cylindrical.
  • Pink ring... Variety for growing outdoors in summer and autumn. Root vegetables are oval with a light green surface and pink flesh with a red ring. Stores well in winter.
  • Severyanka 9809457... Recommended for fresh use in the autumn-winter period. Early ripe. The growing season is 60 days. The root vegetable is obovate, with a sharp base, pink, the head is large, flat. The pulp is tender, juicy, sweet-spicy taste. Root weight 500-890 g. Good taste.
  • Troyandova. The growing season is 80-82 days. Root crop is oval, pink in color, weighing 670-700 g. The pulp is tender, of pleasant taste. Keeping quality of root crops is high.


Misato - daikon with pink color, agricultural technology - garden and vegetable garden


Growing pepper.

Sweet pepper - a plant from the nightshade family. His homeland is Mexico and Guatemala. In the middle of the 15th century, it was brought to Spain, in the 16th century. spread to European countries, ended up in India, then through the south-west of Asia it penetrated to the south of Russia, and through Bulgaria - to Moldova and Ukraine.

In its homeland, this plant grows as a perennial, but in the conditions of European countries and Russia it is cultivated as an annual, self-pollinating, in the form of bushes from 0.5 to 1.5 m high. Its stem is herbaceous, lignified in the lower part. The leaves are soft, rounded with a pointed tip, from light to dark green, and the flowers are pale yellow, light purple, single in large-fruited varieties or connected by 2-3 on one pedicel - short or elongated, bending when the fruit grows.

The fruits are round in shape, attached to the peduncle with a wide end. The length and diameter of the fruit are different in varieties. The fruit is polyspermous, 2- or 4-celled. Inside the fruit are round yellowish seeds. The color of the fruit with pulp (in biological ripeness) depends on the variety and can be from light pink, yellow to red-violet. Fruits grow either upside down, or like candles - upside down.

It is believed that pepper two phases of ripeness: technical, when the fruit is green, but with complete growth, and biological, with a bright varietal color and ripe seeds.

In terms of the content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in fruits, pepper surpasses all vegetables and some fruits. Thus, with the technical ripeness of vitamin C, it contains 39.6-271 mg / 100 g of raw material, and with the biological ripeness, 125-306.3 mg / 100 g of raw material. Provitamin A (carotene) contains (at technical ripeness) 0.34-0.46 mg / 100 g of raw material, and with further ripening of the fruit, its amount increases. With the biological ripeness of pepper, the content of vitamin P (rutin) —300 - 450 mg / 100 g, vitamin B | - 60 mg / 100 g, In — 30 mg / 100 g of raw material.

In the pulp pepper biological ripeness there are: proteins, sugars, fructose, mineral salts and other useful substances.

According to VIR, 21 varieties have been zoned in Russia sweet pepper and 11 spicy. This culture grows and develops better with 12-hour daylight hours. Shelter is required during the white nights

Based on the results of the work carried out on one of the garden plots in the Leningrad Region, the following can be recommended pepper varieties.

Tenderness, VIR selection, average ripening period. The growing season is 115 - 120 days. Blooms and forms ovaries until autumn frosts. The height of the bush is 150 - 180 cm. The shape of the fruit is truncated-conical, with a blunt top. It grows up like a candle. Its diameter is from 4 to 8 cm, height is up to 15 cm, weight is 80-90 g, flesh is fleshy, juicy, taste is good. The color of the fruit is bright red, shiny. Productivity - 6-7 kg / m 2.

Swallow, VIR selection, medium ripening. The growing season is 115 - 125 days. The height of the bush is 90-100 cm. The shape of the fruit is oval-conical, weight is 50-75 g, the taste is good. The color of the ripe fruit is bright red. Productivity - 6-7 kg / m 2.

Winnie the Pooh, VIR selection (early maturing). Ripening period is early. The growing season is 90-100 days. The bush is not high, 25-30 cm. The shape of the fruit is conical, the height is 5-7 cm. The weight of the fruit is 40-50 g, the taste is good. The color of the fruit of biological ripeness is red. Productivity -3-3.5 kg / m 2.

Moscow, VIR selection, early maturing. The growing season is 95-110 days. Sprawling bush, 70-85 cm high. Fruits are conical (elongated) 10-12 cm long, with a sharp top. Fruit weight -45-55 g. The taste is good. The color of the ripe fruit is dark red, shiny. Productivity - 5-6 kg / m 2.

Pepper it is very demanding on heat and light, therefore in the Leningrad region it can be grown only in seedlings, and then only in greenhouses and hotbeds. Moreover, it must be borne in mind that with a decrease in temperature to 13 ° C, the growth of pepper stops, and at 0 ° C it dies. If the illumination is poor, the stem stretches, flowers and ovary fall off.

Before sowing, the seeds are calibrated - the largest are selected and immersed in a solution of table salt (a teaspoon in a glass of water), mixed well and wait for the seeds to separate - some will settle to the bottom, others will float. The floating ones must be thrown away, and the settled ones taken out, thoroughly rinsed with water, then they must be wrapped in gauze and immersed in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per half a glass of water) and kept in it for 15-20 minutes in order to disinfect them. Then remove the seeds (in gauze) and rinse in running water. After that, it is necessary to scatter the seeds in one layer on a wet cloth and cover it with it, and then put it in a warm place for two days to swell, preventing it from drying out.

It is even better if, after rinsing in running water, immerse the seeds in gauze for 24 hours in a solution of aloe juice (a tablespoon of juice in 1/2 glass of water). After that, when growing seedlings in peat pots, they should be filled with earth from microsteo pots or prepared according to the following recipe: add 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of urea, a glass of ash to a bucket of a mixture of equal parts of peat and humus, and mix everything thoroughly.

You can also grow seedlings in boxes with cells of 7X7 or 8X8 cm. Before sowing seeds, the soil must be well moistened. Then, in each pot (or cell of the box), you need to spread out 3 seeds (to a depth of 0.5 cm) and lightly pour water again, and then, covered with foil, put in a warm place with a temperature of 25-30 ° C. Do not let the earth dry out, you need to water it or spray it with warm water all the time.

After the first shoots appear, they need to be given more light. That is why drawers are placed on the window. The temperature in the room must now be maintained at 20 ° C.

Pepper seedlings are fed every 12-15 days with one of the solutions: for 10 liters of water 20 g of urea and 40 g of potassium sulfate for 10 liters of warm water 1 glass of ash and manure in relation to water.

In the phase of cotyledonous leaves, the seedlings should be cut open, that is, one strong plant should be left in each pot (or cell of the box), and the rest should be planted in pre-prepared boxes with the ground, watered abundantly and covered with a plastic cap until they take root.

After two months, the seedlings should have a height of 20-30 cm. It should be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse in the last decade of May. When growing pepper in the greenhouse, the soil is prepared in it in the fall, it should be light in structure, with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction and consist of a mixture of turf soil with humus and peat.

In the fall, for digging, it is necessary to add 60 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate per 1 m 2. If manure or compost was not introduced under the previous crop, then one or the other should be added at 5-6 kg per 1m 2.

In early spring, it is required to loosen the soil with a rake, scatter 40-50 g of ammonium nitrate or 30 g of urea (and 100 g of ash per 1 m 2) over the surface, embedding them in the upper soil layer. Potassium chloride is impractical to add.

Pepper seedlings planted in cold weather or in the evening. They make holes 30 by 40 or 25 by 35 cm, so that 6 - 8 plants are planted on 1 m 2, preferably in a checkerboard pattern. The wells must first be sprinkled with a solution of potassium permanganate, and then with warm water, add 2 tablespoons of ash to each, mix it with the ground and put the pots with seedlings in the holes to the level of the beds, without deepening. Plants immediately need to be watered a little with water.

After planting for two weeks, the pepper grows poorly. 12-15 days after planting, the plants should be fed with a solution - for 10 liters of water, 300 g of bird droppings and a matchbox of urea - 0.5 liters for each plant. You can also feed the mullein solution (1:10).

We must not forget about the possibility of spring frosts. To protect against them, the seedlings should be additionally covered with a film on the trellis or arcs. The second liquid top dressing should be done at the end of June by dissolving 2 glasses of ash in a bucket of water. Apply the third top dressing during the fruiting period. Here you need: a solution of foskamide (30 g per bucket of water) or a solution of 15 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate and 1 g of boric acid per bucket of water.

After each top dressing, the soil under the plants is watered and mulched with peat or earth. Watering should also be carried out as the soil dries out on the garden bed, and then slightly loosen the surface so that a crust does not form.

Subject to the specified agrotechnics, the harvest ripens at the end of July. A month after the formation of the ovary, fruits are obtained in the phase of technical ripeness, which are quite suitable for human consumption. Earlier than all, the fruits of the Winnie-the-Pooh pepper are ripening.

Seeds suitable for cultivation must be obtained from soft fruits in the phase of biological ripeness, having kept them for some time in a ripening room.

The final harvest takes place in the first decade of September. Bushes of low-growing varieties can be transplanted into pots with soil, and indoors they will bear fruit even in winter, of course, with appropriate care. Or, by cutting off a bush with unripe fruits, hang it upside down in the room and leave it for ripening.

Agrotechnics of pepper is less complicated than tomato, since it does not need to be pinned. Only aphids do harm to pepper. When it appears, the plants are sprayed with this solution: 40 g of soda ash and 40 g of laundry soap per 10 liters of water. Do this early in the morning or in cloudy weather.

Pepper fruits are used in salads, for preparing first and second courses, as well as for salting and pickling.

Here are some recipes for preparing peppers for the winter.

Salting. Remove seeds from fruits, immerse in boiling water and boil for 5-10 minutes. Take out, cool, put in liter jars and fill with hot brine. To prepare the brine, you need: 70 g of salt, a little dill, garlic, 3 grains of allspice, bay leaf, and boil everything in 1 liter of water.

Pickling. Cut the fruits in half (lengthwise), peel off the seeds, blanch in boiling water (2-3 minutes), remove, cool, put tightly in a liter jar, shifting each row with cloves of garlic and coarsely chopped celery and parsley, pour boiling marinade. To prepare the marinade, per liter jar you need: 0.5 liters of water, 1 tablespoon of salt, 2 tablespoons of sugar, a few grains of allspice and 2 bay leaves. Boil for 5-8 minutes in an enamel bowl, then add 3/4 cup 9% vinegar.

Snack. Take 2.5 kg of pepper fruits, peel from seeds, rinse and dry. Separately prepare 150 g of finely chopped garlic and a bunch of parsley. Prepare the marinade like this: for 1 liter of water 2 tablespoons of sugar, salt to taste, 8 bay leaves, 8 grains of black pepper. Boil everything for 5-8 minutes, then pour in a glass of vinegar and immerse the peppers in a boiling marinade for 3 minutes. Remove, dry slightly and (in an enamel cup) pour over 250 g of sunflower oil on the pepper. Then put the pepper in sterilized jars, sprinkle with garlic and parsley, pour boiling marinade and roll up the jars with lids.

Ripe peppers contain sugars, proteins, carotene, mineral salts, vitamins B1 and B2. And in terms of vitamin C content, it dominates among vegetables. But it should not be carried away by a patient with a disturbed heart rhythm, high blood pressure, an unstable, highly excitable nervous system.

Growing pepper not much different from growing tomatoes. Some peculiarities are that pepper is more thermophilic. Given the variety of varieties and our relatively cool climate and short summer compared to the southern regions, it is more expedient to sow varieties and hybrids that are early ripening, disease-resistant, thick-walled.

Pepper has a long growing season. Therefore, the seeds are sown in February and grown for 80 days.When growing seedlings, you should pay attention to the illumination, with a lack of which the plants stretch. Seedlings in the phase of the first true leaves should be fed with ammonium nitrate (1-2 g per liter of water). Pepper does not tolerate diving (transplanting), the growth of the plant after that is delayed for one to two weeks. It is more expedient to carry out this work by the transshipment method, that is, to plant the seeds in small cups, then, together with the ground, without disturbing the root system, transfer them into a large container. And it is better to immediately sow seeds in half-liter pots in order to exclude intermediate transshipment. True, in this case, the supply of air to the root system of the seedlings is somewhat deteriorated. But this method compensates for the loss of time in the development of peppers due to the poor formation of new roots.

Seedlings are planted, as a rule, under shelters (in film or glass greenhouses) with the onset of stable warm weather and in warm soil no earlier than mid-May. Pepper loves fertile, humus-rich soil. Plants are planted in a hole fertilized with one or two handfuls of humus, a handful of ash and 10-15 g of superphosphate, two plants each according to the scheme 30 x 40-50 cm in the phase of six to seven true leaves. Pepper does not like deep planting - they plant it at the same depth that it occupied in seedling pots. Pepper requires high humidity. It should be watered by irrigation, often, but in small doses, with warm water (not lower than 18 ° C), especially during the period of fruit formation. Spraying the plants regularly with water stimulates fruit setting and protects against spider mites.

When the plants reach a height of 15 cm, it is recommended to remove the top bud, which promotes branching and increases yields. Stepsons do not remove, except for those that appear before the bush branches. They, like the flowers located at the bottom of the plants, should be pinched. After the appearance of the ovary, the tops of the shoots are also pinched. In this case, the plant directs its nutrients to the growth of the set fruits, and not to the formation of new ones that do not have time to biologically mature. To speed up the ripening of the fruits when they start to turn brown, you need to cut off the lower leaves.

Pepper does not tolerate even minor damage to the root system.

Pepper is very sensitive to temperature conditions. At temperatures below 15 ° C and above 30 ° C, flowers fall off, fruit ovaries are not formed. It reacts painfully even to short-term drying out of the soil and high temperature. At the same time, plant growth slows down, and the stem becomes woody, which reduces productivity.

An important point, especially during the flowering period, is the airing of the greenhouse. During the same period, the plants need feeding. For it, use 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 - superphosphate and 20 g of potassium per 10 liters of water. Spray the plantings with novosil or other growth stimulant as buds form. Feeding and extraction of ash is effective (insist 250 g of ash in 10 liters of water for a week), which is carried out during the period of mass flowering. And for the third time, the bushes are fed during the period of formation of rather large green fruits (1 liter of solution per bush) with superphosphate (20 g per bucket of water) and potassium sulfate (15 g).

The poured peppers are cut still green every three to five days, removing them from the stalk. It is not necessary to wait until the fruit turns red or yellow. From this, its taste and nutritional quality does not deteriorate. First of all, deformed and damaged fruits are removed. Two or four fruits must be left on the bush, then new ones will appear in the place of the removed ones and the harvest will be greater.


Radish belongs to the cruciferous family and is listed as the closest relative of another sharp root vegetable - radish... In Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean, the vegetable has been cultivated for several millennia.

For the first time, radishes were brought to Russia only in the 18th century from France, so the curiosity was called "French radish".

White radish belongs to the same type of plant as the usual red one, namely, the Sowing radish.

White radish varieties

The white-fruited radish cannot yet boast the same variety of varieties as the red one.

However, even among the white-colored root crops, there are samples that are different from each other in shape, ripening time and taste nuances.

White Fang

The miniature fruit of an elongated conical shape reaches only 4 cm in length. The taste of such a radish is spicy, with a characteristic bitterness. It is cultivated only outdoors.

Glowworm

Mid-season variety. Root crops are small, up to 10 cm in length, shaped like an icicle. There is a sweet note in the taste. Suitable for cultivation in greenhouses and open field.

Alba

Belarusian mid-season, fruitful variety. The fruit has a conical shape, covered with a snow-white and thin skin. Differs in good keeping quality and resistance to shooting.

Ice icicle

A late-ripening variety, named for the characteristic shape of the root crop, reaching 15 cm in length. The crop is harvested 35-40 days after planting. It has a juicy and crunchy pulp. Suitable for growing both outdoors and in a greenhouse.

Virovsky white

Differs in the classic round shape of the root crop about 4 cm in diameter. The pulp is practically devoid of pungency, it will not flab for a long time during storage.

Designed for open ground, the crop is harvested 26-33 days after germination (mid-season variety).

Daikon

It is often called Japanese or Chinese radish, as it is widely used in Asian cuisine, especially when pickled. Strictly speaking, daikon has a distant relationship to radish, but everything belongs to the same type of plant - Sowing Radish.

Depending on the specific variety, the daikon can take on a conical, cylindrical, more square or rounded shape. The vegetable differs from ordinary white radish in its large size - some representatives grow up to 40 cm in length and weigh about 5 kg. In addition, daikon leaves are excised in shape, and the pulp, due to the small amount of mustard oil, does not taste bitter.

Chemical composition, trace elements, vitamins and beneficial properties

White radish is rich in fiber and contains only 15 kcal per 100 g of product, which makes the vegetable an irreplaceable aid in losing weight. The same portion of the plant supplies the body with:

  • 32% of the Daily Value for Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
  • 11% potassium
  • 10% copper.

Other beneficial substances include:

  • vitamins E, PP, group B
  • macronutrients (sodium, magnesium, calcium)
  • iron salts
  • nitrogenous compounds and ash substances
  • natural sugars.

Thanks to this composition, radishes:

  • improves immunity and helps with vitamin deficiency
  • improves metabolic processes, intestinal motility and normalizes cholesterol
  • has a slight choleretic and diuretic effect, is used to relieve edema
  • useful for anemia.

The vegetable is contraindicated in diseases of the digestive tract (ulcer, gastritis, colitis, pancreatitis) and problems with the thyroid gland. Do not abuse the product for people who have had a heart attack, children under 3 years old, pregnant and lactating women.

Reference. They eat not only root vegetables, but also young greens. The plant is used fresh, pickled or after heat treatment as a side dish for meat or a component of hot dishes.

For which regions it is best suited and what is the exacting climate

Due to its frost resistance, white radish shows high yields in areas with close to extreme agro-climatic conditions: in the North and in Siberia.

In the middle lane and the Central Black Earth region, it is possible to collect several vegetable crops per season, but prolonged heat has a negative effect on the indicators. It is easiest to regulate the level of humidity, illumination and temperature in greenhouses and hotbeds.


Another useful quality

The imperial hazel grouses have another useful quality, though not yet confirmed by scientific research.

Due to the specific smell of the bulbs, hazel grouse can be used as a means of scaring away moles and bears from our site.

And although there is no scientific substantiation for these statements yet (or simply did not find it), the personal experience of summer residents shows that the mole leaves the summer cottage after several bulbs of the imperial hazel grouses are planted directly into the mole exits.

At the same time, the bulbs of lilies, tulips and other flowers growing nearby are also preserved without damage.

I have imperial hazel grouses growing for the second year and if this statement is confirmed, then I will plant them throughout the summer cottage, since I have a lot of problems with moles and a bear.

Such a solution to the problem would suit me very much, firstly - the magnificently blooming hazel grouse decorating the garden plot, and secondly - the absence of pests))))

Dear readers, I am often asked why the imperial hazel grouses sometimes do not bloom. The comments have answers to these questions, but I want to invite you to watch a video on this topic.


An old friend in a new outfit - multi-colored potatoes

Potatoes are one of the most ancient cultures known to man, the cultivation history of which began at the dawn of human civilization. The popularity of this vegetable all over the world is easily explained: the potato has excellent gastronomic and nutritional characteristics, high yield, relative undemandingness and ease of cultivation.

Most of us simply cannot imagine our diet without potatoes. Potatoes alone or together with other products are present in a huge number of dishes - soups, side dishes, salads, snacks and even desserts. It is boiled, fried, baked, made into chips and made into drinks. In recent years, everyone's familiar vegetable has acquired an unusual color - tubers with red, pink, orange, blue and even purple flesh began to appear on sale.

In many countries of Europe and Asia, the fashion for tubers with colored pulp threatens to turn into a real boom. Prices for colored potatoes go up to 500 euros per kilogram. And the point here is not at all in the bright "uniform" of the usual vegetable, but in its properties beneficial to health.

Research by scientists has shown that there are almost as many anthocyanins in colored potatoes as in beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach or bell peppers. Carotenoids are found in tubers familiar to us with white pulp from 50 to 100 mg per 100 g of raw vegetable, and, for example, with bright yellow pulp - already up to 200 mg, in orange and red ones - 500-795 mg and can reach up to 2000 mg ... There are 2-2.5 times more flavonoids in red, blue or purple tubers than in white or yellow ones. It has been proven that the richer the color of the pulp of the tubers, the higher their antioxidant activity. In addition, many varieties of colored potatoes have another advantage - they can be eaten raw!

Colored potatoes are not an artificially created miracle, but a creation of nature itself. Home to the colorful potatoes are the mountains and rainforests of South America. In nature, there are more than 200 types of potatoes, breeders in their work use only a fifth of them so far. Active work on crossing wild South American potato species with cultivated varieties and hybrids is carried out, in particular, by breeders of South Korea. The search is aimed at breeding varieties of colored potatoes with good taste and high medicinal properties.

In the world today, several varieties of potatoes with blue or purple pulp are grown, including Linzer Blau, French Truffle, Congo, Bora Veli, Rose Veli, etc. The collection of South Korean breeders already contains more than 15 varieties that differ not only in the color of the skin of the tubers, but also the color of the pulp: from white and yellow to purple and melange. Gogu Valley has reddish-pink rind and white flesh, Juice Valley has raspberry peel and white flesh, Purple with purple skin and melange flesh - these varieties can be eaten raw and have antibacterial properties. They can also be used as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for certain diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Golden Valley with light brown skin and light yellow flesh, Dasom Valley with light brown skin and white flesh and Bora Valley with full dark purple tubers are recommended for people with digestive problems and obesity.

But even on this, the advantages of colored potatoes are not exhausted! Varieties of multi-colored potatoes also have decorative properties, their spectacular flowers make these plants welcome guests not only in vegetable beds, but also in flower beds.

When cooked, colored potatoes behave in the same way as ordinary ones, and you can cook almost all our usual dishes from them. In South Korea, it is also used to produce a rejuvenating face mask and cosmetic soap. In the United States, the production of colored chips from colored potato tubers has already been established.

In Russia, perhaps, for the first time, you could see the wonderful tubers of bright colors at the First International Congress “Potatoes. Russia 2007 "in Moscow. It was brought there by breeders from the South Korean National University of Kangwon. And now, it seems, the time is approaching when a wider circle of Russians will be able to get acquainted with amazing potatoes.

In the Tomsk region, at the Kolpashevo variety testing site, breeders expect to start selling colored potato seeds with increased antioxidant activity as early as 2012. Experimental plantings of bright orange, blue, purple, with red and purple streaks of potatoes on this variety testing plot have been underway for the second year. About 10 varieties are involved in the research. Russian experts have confirmed that colored potatoes are rich in antioxidants, have an average starch content and a high insulin content, which is especially important for people with diabetes. In terms of taste, colored potatoes are in no way inferior to ordinary white or yellow ones. The technology of its cultivation is also no different from the usual one.

Apparently, those times are not far off when it will be possible to dig up and enjoy raw multi-colored potatoes in the Russian vegetable garden.


Charming balls of armeria. Reproduction, care.

Adorable babies with balls of inflorescences attract attention in the garden most of the summer. Looking at them, there is a desire to settle these wonderful pets in the flower beds near the house. How to propagate your favorite plants? Take care of proper care of the army?

Breeding types

For armeria, two main methods of reproduction are used:
• vegetative (cuttings, division of rhizomes)
• seed.
Cross-pollinated culture in the second variant splits traits into parental forms. Close planting of plants with different colors results in a mixture of colors. Therefore, the stores offer seeds of several shades of pink in one pack.
Let's take a closer look at each of the methods.

Cuttings

The procedure is carried out throughout the summer. Carefully with a knife, separate the daughter basal rosettes with a piece of the base without digging the uterine bush. Cuttings are planted in the prepared ridges for further rooting in rows 10 cm apart.
The plantings are well moistened, covered with a film or non-woven material on top. The humid climate inside the cuttings allows plants to grow roots faster and requires less watering. After 1-1.5 months, the young are planted in a permanent place.

Dividing the bush

With prolonged cultivation in one place, Armeria bushes gradually grow. It is recommended to carry out anti-aging plant division after 3 years. In early spring, adult specimens are completely dug up.Remove rotten roots. Cut into several parts with a sharp knife. The sections are sprinkled with ash. They are planted in a permanent place 20-25 cm apart, spilling the soil well.

Seed method

Armeria seeds require stratification. Planting material is sown in three ways:
• directly in the ridges (early spring or late autumn)
• at home (mid-February)
• greenhouses (late February - early March).
Ridges are prepared in the fall. They dig shovels onto the bayonet, fill them with humus. Rows are cut every 15 cm. Before frost, seeds are distributed over the surface, lightly sprinkling with soil, with a layer of no more than 4 mm. Install arcs.
Early-spring sowing is carried out in early April in nurseries previously dug out, spilled with warm water.
Cover with foil on top. Watering is rare as the soil dries up. In the phase of 2-4 true leaves, they are fed with Kemir's complex fertilizer. If possible, they dive at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other in nurseries.
Seeds sown in common bowls are kept at home for 2-3 weeks at low temperatures (in the refrigerator). Then they are transferred to sunny windowsills, covered with a film.
The emergence of seedlings is extended over time. Gradually remove the shelter. Water with a moderately weak solution of potassium permanganate to prevent blackleg. In the phase of 2-4 true leaves, they are seated in separate cups, slightly deepening the base of the leaves.
They are fed with a complex fertilizer for flowers 1-2 times a month with a weak concentration. Before planting on flower beds, they are accustomed to open ground conditions, leaving the seedlings in the shade of trees for the day.

Landing

Prepare a place for landing in advance. Alkaline soils are deoxidized by adding ammonium nitrate. The rotted organic matter is scattered over the surface. Dig up, picking out the malicious roots of the weeds. They are waiting for the subsidence of the substrate, the end of the period of returnable spring frosts.
Holes are cut every 20-25 cm, spilled with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. The young are planted, directing the taproots straight down. Sprinkle with loose soil, gently compacting the soil around the plants.
Sprinkle water over the top. Mulch with peat, sawdust, straw cutting, reducing evaporation, preventing the emergence of annual weeds.

In early spring, a complex mineral fertilizer is applied between the rows. Water as the topsoil dries up during dry periods. They loosen the soil around the plants, removing "competitors".
To preserve strength and decorativeness, the faded "balls" are removed by cutting off the stem at the level of the leaves. This technique leads to re-flowering at the end of summer. The bolls left until the moment of full ripening give a single self-seeding for the next year.

Seed collection

Collecting your own seeds for propagation is easy. The brownish dry balls are cut off together with the peduncle. Tied in bunches, hung upside down over a newspaper in a shady place under a canopy.
Thresh, dry the seeds on paper. Placed in bags indicating the name, date of collection. Store no more than 2 years in a dry place.

Beautiful armeria bushes, originally grown from seeds, will later provide a sufficient amount of planting material for breeding. The surplus can be shared with relatives. Saplings will be a wonderful gift for the holiday, they will decorate any corner of the sunny garden.


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